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3 2003 Forum for Social Studies and the Authors. b Ús:- Š ér É J melå \îsv MzlY ŒNvr C}r~ \îsv C r Mëë ÐmYi œ ³r:- ˆ`pý ý lde r m~ ECrLr œ ³r:- NCTr ªN\ å lšêc CrLr å^¼ dtlår A]ov ÒAåÙ iwlé tý ˆ ±ë MzlW ì ¼~r L TŒ N M V oy«è ^p]\n LåEå llåeå M ÐmYe EéD}å vfeå:

4 L lé MzlW ì ¼~r L TŒ lšêc Lr l AåEr U Më Bñ ~ Š Lr lf Mëj å r L TŒ ÝZ WN N[G:: Š}šêCN ªƒ å RY p-ïq ÞEé\é å r \éd (MErN X å ÝZ WN \éd )& AåEpƒ å nšåy Y³sv~ mlé ÞEé\é å r L TŒ } å:: l X å Er Më Bñª å RY p-ïq ÞEé\é å r L TŒ AåEpƒ å~ #RY p-ïq ˆ~ C}r# F p T å r D~G:: X AåEr Y lp Bñª å å r F FGpµƒvAå p]qö v šêc RY p-ïq ÞEé\é å r L TŒ ÝZ WN ~ ~ FM v ºi`ð FGÙ ˆ «EAå:: šêc RY p-ïq ÞEé\é }ƒ å~ L\Tq ì FM pe Fr Ù B]n EM\m\n& CnTp\lå lî EM]ª ˆ «éaån E ªÖpý EnšåB Y³sv~ EîEøv Cœm ì å sv MëD}å pe RY p-ïq }Œ µå«v LE r Më ^vg ºgF D} RY p-ïq ÞEé\é \} EL ªÙ } å:: CN FM Eé] MëvE å ˆ ««è å pý p]qö ^p Î \é ªY ^ED} lšêc»më ér É F p T ˆ~ pn D~vAå Y³qvAå N Nq er \ å š r~ ŠšêC FM Y p D} ¼~q ì ^W E nrºelå EÝZ WLå ^ŠîqM}r l»n MëT«LD}å GµGÎ ˆ «EAå:: lpfšfvaå ¼V Tdr F ˆ ªpµEË å X å å r L TŒ Më pšåt å #RY p-ïq ˆ~ C}r# F } å:: C L TŒ ŠEîF å E r Më ªYµ å& lplwmv v ¼~r F nu p T ] D Š A å CnTp\n ŒÙG p 建å p]qö v ^E RY p-ïq ˆ~ C}r ŠC r GN«t å ÍY Ft å ^p]\ov ˆ ªšêAåN Š C}r ELFdi ªT¹t å ¼Tsv ^EMëµGÌG } å:: lp¾mvn l¼~r F pl\tp ^p rn ˆ~«N»E :: ˆ}šêC å r L}a iwlé v Më ltœpýg A]n L ªYªV \éd å pý ~ G Šˆ~ p Šp]qÖ v MëL}¾æ ¼ h v~ p¾mv ^p sv ^ED}å lšêc»më l gr ˆ r]põ ˆ n EAå:: C å r \ FE Cœn ˆ «é«t^ lg G CrLsv~ ˆ ªšêAåN lmclw ì ¼~r L TŒ l îù. în #ª G X«é # ÝZ WN pfe G:: ˆ ªMëq \ å AåEå meô å Lr pšåg µêšî å^¼ L ^r nhîw ì C}r i}] ^Gr \} lmë š ³lr ir G G CnTp\n ŒÙEøv ˆ «éc }r AµY- dù \} ll ^r nu LdTÎ ^EEîElr G G CnTp\n ŒÙEøv ^p Î Eé T å µmg lmëg pe L T v lmš r NÍt å EM\Mr OŒT G:: lšêcn Bìªr å^¼ MClW ì ¼~r L TŒ my-dªn Më~ pá åpõg:: Aå ˆ ±ë l ºgF \éq L ^r }ªÔ å ^rwpò±ën D} EîF å CnTp\n ŒÙG mªtµ å å r F ^E C}r~ RY p-ïq µå«lf ršåtr Gp\º ån }ly:: l poœz F lll^tr& C lšêc Lr p LT å RY p-ïq ÞEé\é å r l X å å r ] \ lry p-ïq ˆ~ l C}r L ŠG E å šyô-nšå æ}sv l¼gdr Mëp}r ~ E å RY p-ïq G }r EM^p~µ pš ly q šyù Eår dwtn F pl\tp ˆ~ RY p-óq µ~šl C}r i}] LYA- ny MëºeN ˆ ªMëD p^ ˆ~ªY E :: š}l Yi qª\ ^pmmv i

5 bor t-ò  bdhnt šå à ytdrg WYYT& _R 30 qn 1995.M xè tmsgn xbj PéP YD btælw xgr bql mngs êe ÃLçn DRJT t«ý X bwrä xmst WS_ bdrjtü btììmw yl T t½ sbúbþ ÂcW xè tmsgn bmglåcw XNÄú T yxúcw wrä y ÃQfW bxäþs xbæ WS_ ydçc D yçnwn yþbrtsb KFL kzþhm WS_ D s èc kft¾wn DRš XNd Yzù nw SlDHnT Qnú ST t½ þ ysñ mçnùn gl W ngr GN mngst DUF sþs_ à mçnùnâ DHnT ymqns tnú>nt µl tgæ êentü mjmr ÃlbT kxrúcw wrä mçn XNd gæw tâgrêl XNdXRúcWM bxµæbþãcw DHnTN lmqns y NqúqS DRJT bþñr PéP YD BÒ mçnùn gl êl xè tmsgn kdhnt UR ytããzù BlW µqræ*cw CGéC WS_ S x_nt xnç nw bwräcw WS_ ÃlùT wnìc _NµÊW yms T gþz W à cw mçnùn «QsW ngr GN ys :DL b È cw MKNÃT gþz ÃcWN bkntü XNd ÃÝ_lù xwstêl bt= M b HbrsÆcW WS_ l ¾W CGR ytmhrt :DL ÈT mçnùn gl{êl PéP YD bwräw ÃlùTN ytwsnù HÉÂT bwräw b gßù qbl ãc WS_ ytmhrt XDL XNÄþÃgßù ÆÃdRG hùn W kzþh ykí YçN nbr BlêL mngstâ mngs êe ÃLçnù DRJèC DHnTN lmqns b ÃdRgùT XNQSÝs y Ãú T _rt MN mçn XNÄlbT sþ«qsù hùltüm wgñc bxwnt¾ mnfs bmtæbr b ÃdRÙcW _rèc bkft¾ dr HBrtsbùN hùlù tµíy DrG gnbþ lw_ l MÈT y ÃSClù tgæ êe mngìcn XNÄþqYsù xúsbêl xè tmsgn ypép YDN _rèc xinåt s_tw L drjtü l Hbrsbù xæ T yxnst¾ NGD SL«Â bms«t Y mçnùn «QsêL XNdúcW xææl k70 b Y D GlsïC ysl«âw t«ý çnêl bt= M DRJtÜ ybdr xglglöt XNd s_ «QsW bzþhù _rtm bwräcw WS_ y gßw nê y sùnâ yb tsbùn yxlt gùrs XNÄþÃgŸÂ ytšl HYwT XNÄþm rdal BlêL bt= M DRJtÜ yhkmâ XNKBµb xglglöt l Hbrsbù xruêeãn ms«tün gl{êl XúcW XSk ÃWqÜT DrS bzþh _rt 9 y çnù xruwãn t«ý çnêl hùlt¾ê tâu w/é {Äl LÆsù ytælc wèt yxnõõ wrä xµæbþ nê  yßéß YD t«ý nc kdrjtü ÆgßCW XRÄ bxµæbþê yx C xy vþ x DS KbB xælm nc mglåê Ãt rw bor t Û Â bdhnt mµkl S lw GNßùnT L nt Y nbr s èc ymjm ÃW ydhnt gft q > mçâcwn «Qú Sl DHnT SwgD bmnnugrbt wqt s èc wd gön lþtw XNd YClù xsm b lc xk M bb T WS_ o s èc kft¾wn º ðnt y ¹kÑ yb tsæcw ÞLW XNÄþq_L qn kl lþt y _ mçâcwn glú YH çñ úl GN ytmhrt XDL X ymúslùt _QäC sþnsù ls èc y s«w XDL XJG xâú nw B lc xq bþê bwnìcâ bs èc mµkl ÃlWN yo KFFL l úytm y ú*n yþywt LMD xµf lc w/é {Úl yxndn b tsb gbþ l SgßT 1

6 bêânt º ðntü bs èc Y XNd wdq «Qú bxrú* b tsb WS_ Ãlù s èc XNj UGrW bm¹_ b tsæcwn XNd mgbùm tâg lc bßéß YD btzujw yor t-û SL«Â Y tú ð lmçn w/é {Äl b tsï yfqç T XNj m¹è*nâ b tsæ*n mmgb mq«*n SlÒlC BÒ XNdçnM =M «QúlC w/é {Äl bt= M SL«ÂWN bmµf * ÃgßCWN _QM «QúlC SL«ÂW ú*nâ b tsæ*n bmlw_ rgd yor t-û N yon-têlì GN²b ÃcWN XNÄsÍ glúlc bxhùnù wqt bb a xµæbþ _qet gnbþ lwõc mñ cwn «QúlC yb tsæ* xælöc bor t Û Y ytzu ysl«â AhùæCN µnbbù bº xmlµk cw XNdtqyr glúlc xæa qdm sþl b«êt y nsù\ ð cwn _bw\ qürs bltw Yw«ù ynb T xhùn bmqyr bþãns kb T kmwè cw bðt xlucwn xn_fw mwèt mjm cwn glúlc xq bþê bmq«l yx C.xY.vþ./x DS gùäynm xns lc bxµæbþê bxnst¾ yx DS KbB mútð s èc kwnìc YLQ lwrr>ßù bkft¾ dr ytul«ù mçnùn lmgnzb XNÄSÒ T xúwýlc xk M s èc bæþl taxñ MKNÃT Sl ontêlì «Â XWqT y GßT XDL XNdtnfUcW bzþhm MKNÃT lgä yx C xyvþ ŠYrS mulècwn «QúlC w/é {Äl bxµæbþãê Bzù s èc bhyl XNd df  YHM bšyrsù ym«ýt XD cwn kf XNd ÃdRgW glúlc YhùN XN þ _Ít cü tgbþw QÈT Sl YwsDÆcW wnjlùn btduu YfA lù B lc y mlk cw xµ T bnzþh wnjl C Y «bq Ãl XRM XNÄþwSÇM _ xqrælc bm=ršm ytšl GN²b S=bÈT ßéß YD à TN klb ymn= MSU xqrælc ƒst¾ê tâu yx RD xþt eã t«ý yçnc å w/t x Lúb _ S M ytælc wèt STçN ymècwm kxýqe bsý nw DHnTN xsmlkèm xur B à s_ lc w/t x Lúb _ NGG N yjmrcw DHnTN btmlkt ygl LMÄ*N bmnt S nbr bèm dh kçn b tsb ymèc mçnùn glú b tsæ*n lmrät bljna TMHRaN l Ìr_ XNdtgddC «QúlC bx RD xþt eã x µÿnt ybdr xglglöt b Gßa xnst¾ NGD mjm N glúlc w/t x Lúb _ bmq«l úcwnâ b tsæcwn mrät y ClùbT mngd yl cwâ btn> XRÄ ytšl ÞYwT mm T y Clù kxú* bæs hùn Y y gßù sãc XNÄlù «QúlC bm=ršm DHnT QnúN xsmlkè bx RD xþt eã k drgw _rt bqr bxµæbþê bmngst MNM xynt _rt sþdrg xl yan glúlc _Ãq½ãC xstãyèc yxq bþãcü ZGJT kt«âqq bº ysbsæw tú ðãc bsbsæw ubõc Y bmmsrt xstãyèòcwnâ _Ãq½ãÒcWN xqrbêl xq bþãcü b² Ãlù _Ãq½ãC qrbw cw nbr ymjm ÃW _Ãq½ yqrbw lxè tmsgn nbr _Ãq½WM bbdr xglglöt bkùl kdrjtü ytbd TN gnzb mkfl y ÃQ cw sãc bþñ PéP YD MN XRM YwSÄL 2

7 y L sþçn mlúcwm PéP YD gnzbùn kms«tü xsqdä Sl xnst¾ NGD SL«ÂãC Sl s_ tbä ãc NGÄcWN lmm T y ÃSCL bqe XWqT b S=b_ xt ð XNÄþçnù Sl ÃSCL ymksr xuè /xdun/ ÃSwGÄL BlêL çñm GN tbä ãcü gnzb mkfl bþãq cw DRJtÜ MN XRM lþwsd XNd CL DRJtÜ bþ«yq XNd šl gl êl w/é {ÄlM PéP YD Sl s«w SL«Â à TN ¼úB xµf lc bxµæbþãê k gßùt 13 qbl ãc z«ßù bdrjtü XQìC t«ý mçâcwn glú Xú*N =Mé b² Ãlù sãc xnst¾ yngd DRJTN XNÁT mm T xt ð mçn XNd Clù ol«â Gß cwn «QúlC xb² cü tbä ãcm úcwn lmòl y ÃdRgùT _rt W«mçnùN «Qú ytbd TN BDRM mkf cwnâ ytšl ÞYwT bmm T Y mçâcwn glúlc xè tmsgn q_lö yqrb cw _Ãq½ bl T t½ WS_ ÃlùT ÆLdrïÒcW X XúcW bxµæbþãcw y gßù ÆlhBèC DHnTN lmqns yxrä X cwn XNÄþzrgù «YqW XNd nbr y «YQ nw bmlúcwm XnzþHN sãc l nugr Ñk ãc XNÄdrgù ngr GN t=æu XRÄ XNÄ gßù xúwqêl bt= M XúcW ÆLdrïÒcW XnzþHN sãc wdðtm nug cwn XNd q_lù gl êl xè tmsgn bwräcw WS_ S lw ydhnt dr XNÄþÃB \ byb tü MN ÃHL sãc XNd ñ \ bwräcw WS_ ÃlùT sãc bqn MN ÃHL gþz XNd mgbùâ SNèÒcW br B MKNÃT búmnt wym bwr XNd ätü FNu XNÄþs«ù _Ãq½ qrï cêl XúcWM ltú ðãcü XNÄB T bqbl ÃcW WS_ 324 y çnù xruêeãn XNd gßùâ xb²¾ãcü bmgb X_rT bkft¾ dr yt«qü mçâcwâ bzþhù úmntm görb cw yçnù xnd xruêe br B MKNÃT mä cwn gl{êl w/é x Lúb _M bzþhù gùäy Y à TN LMD bt= nt S qrb DHnT bxµæbþãê bkft¾ dr XNd N{ÆrQ X bqn MNM y Ymgbù sãc mñ cwn glúlc lzþhm b Sr nt bgörb a y gÿ xnd HÚN b tsïcü Wº Xë«ù ÃúdgùT XNÄlM glúlc bxãnänç b T nê yçnù GlsïCN qü_r xsmlkè xè tmsgn sþmlsù bxnd b T WS_ y ñ GlsïC qü_r ZQt¾W 5 kft¾w dgä k13-15 XNd drs gl êl bxnänìcü mñ à b èc bï X_rT MKNÃT ÞÚÂT xlu or XNd tßù «QsêL l tú ð NGG cwn yjm T YHNN ywyyt mdrk zujw xµl MSUÂcWN b SqdM nw bmq«lm XNÄþH xynt ywyyt mdr C bkllöcm mzujt XNÄlÆcW gl W YHM y ÃSfLgW WYYtÜ hgr xqf gùä CN msrt Ãdrg bmçnù nw BlêL tú ðw bon-þzb Ñà Y yts mçâcwn «QsW ys ècn ÞYwT bq_ b mlktü gùä C úyqr btlã mdr C ys èc tútæ bèm WSN mçnùn «QsêL xãyzwm XNdgl ùt XSk ²Ê DrS ktk t *cw mdr C Y mdrk s èc bb²t ytútõbt mçnùnâ mdrkù brµ s èc tútðcw Xy=mr mmètün XNÄúÃcW «qümêl XŸH tú ð DRJ cw nú ytmhrt XDL sþs_ X s èc 40% yxdlù t«ý XNÄþçnù XDL sþs_ xmlµóc wnìc mçâcwnâ bèm _qet s èc nu 3

8 XNd ÃmlKtÜ gl êl b SktLM s èc XÃlù lmn yxndzþh msl XDlÖC t«ý mçn XNÄLÒlù XNÄþB cw «YqêL lzþh _Ãq½ w/é {Äl bs«cw M > ytmhrt XõT kæþ êe taxñ UR tdmé s èc bþzæêe mdr C DMÚcWN XNÄÃsÑ XNÄgÄcW glúlc xãy²m k ú* LMD bmnút B²T ÆlW tú ð ðt NGGR S drg Y ymjm Ãê XNdçnM «QúlC bmjm à wd mdrkù STqRB ymdng_ S»T XNÄdrÆT qs bqs GN FRhtÜ XNdlqÝT glúlc tmúúy yfrht S»èC bl löc s èc Y lþkst XNd CL «Qú lmúl ÃHL XHa½ bzþh xynt SBSB mhl XNDTÂgR BT«yQ bfr T MKNÃT fýd¾ TçN wym l lt ÃsbCWN btkkl lmâgr XNd TCL «QúlC bm=ršm PéP YD bzþh m L SBSB ðt ö lmâgr S SÒ T klb yçn MSU xqrælc btmúúym SBsÆãC Y Bzù s ècn tú ð l DrG xmlµk cwn lmlw_ ls èc SL«Â yms«t xsf gþntn úb xqrælc bxdææy y Âg s èc GßT kæd lþçn yòlw bæh êe taxñâ btmhrt XõT mçnùn «qü ytšl XDL ktsècw GN wdðt Bzù s ècn btlã mdr C Y yt XNd ÒL glúlc knú TMHRT XDL UR btããz xnd tú ð yêenék xþntrâ>âl xþt eãn LMD xµflêl XNdtÂU ê êenék xþntrâ>âl xþt eã Ñlù bñlù y ÃtkùrW bs èc Y bmçnù ls èc ynú TMHRT XDL bms«t túkèl L BlêL xklwm XDlù b40% ktwsn ynú TMHRT XDlù s T XŒãCN GßT xscu lþçn XNd CL WDD M XNd kbd gl êl SlçnM XDlùN ls èc ms«t ktflg 100% ls èc BÒ ms«t xlbt BlêL bl bkùl xnd tú ð byt¾wm dr ys ècn tútæ y gdbw yû L nt wys DHnT nw y lwn _Ãq½ xqrbêl w/é _ wrq lzþh M > sþs«ù yû L nt y jmrw kb tsb mçnùn «QsW XÃNÄNÇ sw b tsïcü sþãúdgùt w ícü y Âg TN XÃdm«XNd ÃdG bxþt ÃêEÃN ÆÞL w íc wnìc LíÒcW göbzâ b úcw ymt mn ClÖ cw yäbr XNÄþçN xdrgw sþãúdgù bl bkùl dgä s èc xyâír X ²i XNÄþçnù xdrgw XNd ÃúDgù gl êl bzþh hùn WS_ NM sw ys ècn NqÜ tútæ lþ«bq xyclm bt= M xnänd ÆÞ êe LMìC bs èc on Lï Y xlù êe taxñ XNÄ cw YHM xb²¾wn gþz s èc gllt¾ XNÄþçnù XNd ÃSgDÇM xb RtêL l tú ð XNdgl ùt btlã gö þ LMìC\ ytmhrt XõT DHnT MKNÃT s èc kwnìc UR bxkùl dr Y xlmgß cwn gl êl bbzù hùn ãc s èc bljn cw TÄR XNd Yzù lb T WS_ o ãc Ñlù º ðnt XNd ¹kÑ gl êl l W qrè y úcw o à cw s èc XNµ*N ko bº t½l vþ EN lmmlkt\ ÊÄþ l Äm_ Uz õc l NbB XDL y cwm\ Ñlù bñlù bb T WS_ o sþw«ælöòcw GN kùd ÒcW UR ymåwt wym t½l vþ EN ymmlkt XDL x cw b lt gl êl 4

9 xklwm kd b tsb ytgßù L grìc lo FlU b ÃdRgùT _rt lxsgdì mdfr XNd Ul«ù «QsW XNÄþH xynt CGéC ÞÚÂtÜN wd s t¾ xä nt YgÍÍL BlêL bt= M bbþéãc xµæbþm ks T t C YLQ ysl«â XDLN =Mé l löc _Q _QäcN y GßT XDL QD à lwnìc YsÈL xnänám s T t C lsl«â Sl ÃSfLgW mmz¾ X N XDlùN XNÄgß MNM GN²b yl cw ÂcW\ xlöc BzùWN gþz YÿNN XDL l úcw Ùd C wym lþ«qñt l flgùt sw XNd s«ùm =MrW xb RtêL xnd tú ð ytmhrtn «q» b gù T lw/é {Äl ÃqrbùT _Ãq½ ymdfr wnjl yf{ñ wnjl CN b St R ÆH ÃcWN mqyr wys kæd QÈT mwsn YmrÈL y L nbr bxßþhù tú ð yqrbw hùlt¾w _Ãq½ yxsgdì mdfr wnjl ±RT sþdrúcw KbÆcW y s«wn yxglglöt xynt B à XNÄþs_bT y «YQ nbr w/é {Äl yqrbwn _Ãq½ mmls yjmrcw yxsgdì mdfr wnjln lmqns yt¾w x u tqæynt xlw b lw nw ywnjl CN ÆH lmqyr St R qä W tgær mçnùn bmqbl# lþlw«ù µlòlù GN ldrgþ cw kæd QÈT lþwsnæcw XNd gæ glélc lmúl qü_ cw b² Ãl wnìc XD»ÃcW k7-8 xmt yçnù LíC mdf cwn glé YHN y fiñ wnjl C k15 xmt b Y yçnù L grìcn kdf T wnjl C ybl«kæd QÈT lþèlæcw XNd gæ glúlc bl bkùl ktú ðãc mµkl wnjl CN btmhrt mqyr YmrÈL y lù tk µ ãcm nb w/é {Äl yx C xy vþ KbÆcW y s«wn xglglöt btmlkt yqrbwn _Ãq½ STmLS yxsgdì mdfr gùä C sþãu_ñ t«qeãcün wd çspe L wd ±lþs XNd Lkù glélc l tú ðm bò uöâ zù à à cwn LMD xµflêl wèt L grìc ²ÊM bþçn XD»ÃcW úydrs lubò XNd gdç X XúcW úcw y7 xmt LJ S gæ bgbï SnSRxtÜ Y mgß cwn «QsêL bl bkùl bxnänd w C YHNN msl ò êe _ÝTN l SwgD _rèc Xytdrgù mçnùn gl{êl kzþh bt= M tú ðê ksrg UR ytããzù wuãc kft¾ mçâcwnâ YHM yb tsbn DHnT b ÆÆS rgd kft¾ DRš XNÄlW gl{w YHNN l SwgD ytdrgn yhbrtsb DUF tâgrêl bs»nù yxþt eã KFL bubò SnSRxT wqt HZbù ky sù b T MGB m«_ b MÈT YsbsÆL tú ðê XNÄrUg«ùT LMÇ ymq«l hùn XWnT kçn ldgs y wèwn wu Sl ÃSqR btubþãcâ bb tsæcw Y ÃlWN wà y qns YçÂL b lt YH xynt DRgþT lþbr XNd gæ tâgrêl bm=ršm XÃNÄNÇ xq bþ «Ýlà XNÄþs_ gþz ts_è L ymjm Ãê tâu w/é _ wrq DHnTN lmêut ytmhrtn xsf gþnt xsmrwb L btùäÿ w íc lwnìcm çn ls èc XkùL ytmhrt XDL ms«t XNÄlÆcW yò L ntn l SwgD kb tsb mjmr XNÄlÆcW gl{êl bt= M k ÂcWM Ñà s ècn y Ãglù þ ÆH êe L ìc Ñlù bñlù mwgd xlæcw# bzþhm DHnTN khg tü SwgD bxb²¾w bs èc Y sfé ynbrwn DHnT mqns YÒ L BlêL 5

10 xè tmsgn kdh b tsb ytgßù HÉÂTN l St R PéP YD ÃdrgWN _rt btmlkt bs«ùt xstãyt bmjm à bxµæbþw T/b T l ÌÌM ÃdrgW _rtâ ÃU«mWN XNQÍT «QsW XNÄþÃWM kxnänd tì T ypép YDN x«ý Y XNQSÝs ytýwñ XNdnb M gl{êl kdhnt UR ytããzù CGéC y qrût ÑS ktwgd mçnùnm xklw gl{êl bm=ršm yhywt LMÄcWN l µfl XDL ysè*cwn ymdrkùn xzuíc xmsgnêl w/t x Lúb _M x RD drg T DUF MSUÂêN bmgli l löc DRJèCM tmúúy Ñk ãcn DrG XNd gæcw glélc w/é {ÄlM kdh b tsb ytgßù LíC /Xú*N =Mé/ kb T w_tw S FlU XNd s  YHM kdhnt ymn= mçnùn\ bqe gbþ bþñ cw ñé wd TMHRT b T lmÿd bòlù XNdnbR glúlc btý nþw khb M b tsb ytgßù LíC ls FlU XNd Y=nqÜ MKNÃtÜM b tsïòcw hùlùnm F cwn Sl Ãàlù cw nw B lc bm=ršm xhùn ldrscbt dr XNDTdRS být lpép YD _LQ MSUÂêN xqrælc btmúúy ymdrkùn xzuíc LMÄ*N l µfl lsè*t XDL MSUÂêN xqrælc bm=ršm w/é znbwrq xnd tú ð mdrkù bxäþs xbæ BÒ úywsn bl löc KLlÖCM tmúúy WYYT mµÿd xlbt lùt y Hb êe _ÂT mdrk bor t ò zù à y drgw WYYT bxäþs xbæâ bl löc hùlt KLlÖC l µÿd XQD XNÄlW «QsêL y Hb êe _ÂT mdrk y²êwn xynt mdrk sþãzuj MNGz M borxt ò  bl T gùä C Y y s mngs êeâ mngs êe ÃLçnù DRJèCN XNÄþhùM ys xuécünâ tææ ãcün lmubz /l útf/ y ÒlWN _rt hùlù XNd ÃdRGM «QsêL bt= M w/é znbwrq bwyytü Y lmútf F T à cw GlsïCM çn DRJèC mdr cü hùlgþz M KFT mçâcwn xsgnzbêl 6

11 C}r~ RY p-óq ¼U Yi «µ šn~ é Më GMr Më/Y \îsv µå«lnv L lé C}r l é Më d å^ ^q EîEøv MClW ì~ ÞEpí ì Aå}ïq v ˆ «é~ Më ªY Œ^pr } å:: é Më å d å^ ª O Š åá ì Á~~ Š å^» ì v Y Y lp š LGŠå l µy~ lcœn F neøn l E\n C r F } å¼ ~ d å^ ^ŠrFG:: ˆ. î.. Š1980 tý «éc ªµår µzv é Më ˆ i^g\î E å¼ p}] q«µê µzv lþeé\é ut å~ i ut å F åã Á~ in ˆ ]»t å ˆ ªD} ¼~sv LEŒqEå:: l70 tý Lqr pš\p å }«³ ÃMV nšå v µzv EÃMV å }«³ À L`Ôƒ «å^¼ ˆ «éµlå Y¹t G:: ŠšêCN p}] nšå q«µê µzv Š G l«v v~ Š EN dù µ šn Y³r ˆ plªu «å ŠÙE å ] ¾Y\å E Á~ ˆ l mt å~ Š åà Më ^µlår g ŠÙpƒ \éº i ª åà MëG ót å g v }^pƒ lld}å L r imt å p«œo Š ipý pòœ Eø±ë µr Y LWL ^E gqt å Cœmt å l C}r ª å^¼ ˆ «é i ^p Î Y¹G:: C EL FŠG \émg L iy M^p Š LYA nzv pdtë å ˆ ppµlu E \éd & åºîpý Ïq v lˆšåg}r GMr F ˆ «]põ Á~ M]ªU ˆ q L¼põG:: lpe N l\îsv F d¼pƒ~ pš V µå«sv ˆ «T\ µƒg:: EN]Eî N n `d½v Š åà EMë ^µlå µzv \é¾ny N n Elîp\n MiTn yfö}r \îsv D ~ p¾mv å EM ^ \îsv µ šn ^EM Wt å ^ r å^¼ Šqt G:: C ª O llîp\n å^¼ N n ˆ¼Tr ˆ «é Y~ ¼lé ˆ~sv& }Ù\ºåZv~ CÑ~r ElEº µå«r ˆ «é Eºå Më~ Á qg:: L iy M^p Š å ŠL ^r EL V lîr& ErW ^ÞYr& ECÑ~r ˆ Œn lî& Eºî~~ ErNCYr MëªTµ å M ^EMë ^dy lšêaå L iy M^p Š ]lé rƒ ån L ^r l r i}] Á~ Më YÔ å l\îsv Á g F ˆ ªD} ¼~sv T»Eå:: C ª O RY p-óq ˆŠåG}r ª L»^~ neøn \n ì Lnr ªL r L»G:: RY p-óq MEr l v~ l\îsv L ŠG E æ}r ŠmCG~ ŠCnTp\n C r ó ^W ŒÙÙG N LN\G ˆ «Elr Më ] Î \ A]n \éd Šµêšî ª µêšî~ ŠmCG mcg MëE ¼ } å:: RY p- Óq µå«v lgmr Bìªr å^¼ Gp ppý µy µr N N CG µr Eé ] vgn:: lpen N RY r-óq µå«\îsv Ya nu pªy ^EMë \ µå«gmr ¼ h LD}å dys LÚ ŠV D} L^FG:: L\Tq ì B]lå \éº~ AåEåN šî ^ED} AåEåN l W v U EL qr L d]d^ C}r ^ µy µr EM º T«G:: \îsv lgmr F ^p Î ˆ «é Wt å~ GMr åºîr pºgmë ˆ «éd}å ŠpÔEµ llîp\n& lcntp\n ˆ~ l µy ªT± å]}ï \À}r Më~ ˆ «é M T ntƒ~ L LV ˆYN± EéD µmg:: 7

12 C}r N } å? C}r Š µy é Më ó ^ LEŠp å «ér AµY Š µy å^¼ NYr ˆ i^g\î~ Š åà n r Nqµ å µlé À L`Ô ] vg dys l µêšî å GMr ˆ i^g\î ln Y~ lvzq ªNrªµÙlr ªT± ^rªy^~ Š «}Ñ LD ]rvg ^rdy& šî tõ Anpõ ˆŠåG EL Wr ] veå \édu~ Fr N \ å y G lpµlé å GMr šyù M\MWr ]rvg dyq plî v~ ª M& plv~ pµÿí ª LD ^qlw } å:: LEŠé ån l µy ªT± EMClW ì GMr Nq åe å l r Lº & Lq ì }Ù^ ŠÙ µlé& ˆ~sv~ CÑ~r ºî~& CnTp\n ˆ Mð»W µlé~ À Më & «Á~ šp D~G:: \ å C}r ª O lµ šn N à ˆ½r& MClW ì D} æ}r ˆ¼Tr& W^ EMaaG l in å^ LD & µêšî ˆ¼Tr& kmë ntr mlîr ELD & Lå ~ ådr ˆ¼Tr& MClW ì pkmr ˆ½r& lw^ F D} l ntr F Mšœ~ Lj»ºY ^G» M»r& W^ ELuG& µåglr ŠM»r p}] ¼µƒ LD & L Ô^ ¼ X M»r l ºgF E é Më ì& EÞEépí ì~ EMClW ì v Zv p Eºlr ªT± lm^fr M r ufg:: C ª O µy Anr EL Wr pmôgp å Lµ r Emt å MClW ì& mcf ì& ÞEpí ì& é Më ì Aå}ïq v ŠL¹ªFt å p}] EéÔºY MëvG Œ^Tr \éd åºîpý šî lˆšåg}r EM r l¼g~ lœyœy \FN M»r& «è leîf å Llœlœ llqv}r ^Mðr L Y Gs ˆ «é» ªY G:: C}r ryµån «è ŠEîF å Y ˆY^ lˆy\å psw ŠLD}å p}] MClW ì µå«c}r LEŠé Š é Më ì å C}r LEŠé Y ELE r lmë ^t Y Aå}ïq p š \éd ˆ ª µu~ ˆ ª mlé å CnTp\lå ~ô~ôy ªT± pt MG/ E G:: EN]Eî l EN ªT± n LEŠr l åzü å }å µy C}r LEŠé å Š MðV tý& Ui N^Wi µzv Š Totý& Fpí MðV tý Š ÙV å l }pý~ lªt± å E Eå:: ÙV µzv ˆ ó n~ \Mð ÙV µzv Šªlån ÙV & N^We ŠN Wlå ˆ «éaå E G:: «U l µzv L ŠG EAåEåN M D} C}r LEŠé Lº pl³seqg:: ª µwv N ^ L» ˆ ª ŒGEå Cœn ~ô~ôy~ ˆ ªµlX å µfeî C}r LEŠé }r~ šr E G:: lªlån ŒGG A MëmE å µlx ¼M lx& AåEr BñŒqY LXr pr FN šp E å léd NˆWm ì ér É ì µlx v C}r LEŠé t å EîF EéD vfg:: AµY Cnœ n r~ NYr µpý pl»» ] D \édy~ lgmr ˆ i^g\î å^¼ ŠMë]pÔ å Gi ¼µ~ å \él & ª L ^r œ~ ŠMëµm å µlé À MëªTµ å \él & Š in lf D} i ½r~ Nwr ÙF r EMMôFr ¼Tr \é Y MëLTp å NYr Cœn ÙF r ^EM MôF GMr åqzv M}j l mt G:: C MEr L ^r µlé N à Ep¾MV å Cœn n r ºî~ pkmr & r/lîsv & ÌC åb iyor ~ ŠpM ˆ~ µºy Cœn }åz ªT± EMdWTn EpºgMë å CnTp\n L µ ~ LnWr EM«T^ ŠÙF r M^ L^ r ó iyor N à å^ D ~ ^W ¼~ plî v šî lœs l µy ªT± ºî }r& L µn& MClW ì æ}r& rncyr šp LEŠé ªT± LD ŠMëµm å lqv ˆ bjeje ˆ «ébñ ªY G:: µvpý N B MëG ^ Mð ˆ qµ ^p Î T G:: 8

13 µwv E C}r Š«Tµå v Zv ~ tý:- åã ˆ«Á~& pª Më Yi~ pª Më ½Y}r (E^ªr~ E ntr L åªn «Tµ)& ŠAnqv ~ E LºdN in Y GpL»º} Cœn n r ~t å:: C}r NŒ r lšpm å^¼:- lîr ˆ½r& µlé N à M»r& m Œ n Y EM r ne ELD & ŠM `ð ^ À& G³ n r EL½Y ELELƒ}r šp... C}r NŒ r lµºy:- LXr melîr ELD & ˆYa L]V M»r (lx& OÔY~ d ly& M«lV & šy)& pr Šnr EL Y (Ù G~ FN)& ŠˆYa LXr lf NYr EM r (Š F dy ^pwt^ š p}])& NYr åºîr ª µ šn ELE ¼ Më ^vg pªw µl & L µ ~ rw ^ÞYr EL Y (Š lleº \îr `ŒN p`œm T³N L µ ˆ r¹œ ªY qg)& rncyr lîr~ ºî~ pkmr EL Y& ÐåC åb EM r& šp... RY p-óq~ GMr æ}r:- RY p-óq~ GMr MEr rncyr& ºî~& MClW ì µg Eør& L\Tp GMr& å]}ï \À}r ^G» p\më}r µå«šp E\îr~ E lpµlé å~ Eˆ ««è EéªY\ å ˆ ªMëµm ˆ «é]põ~ åºîpý N Më ~ ì ld} LGŠå ˆ «é U M T Bìªr } å:: \îsv~ v lrncyr ˆŠåG Gp]pÕ lcntp\lå å^¼ pmt \ å y G ˆ¼Tr L»G CN µvpý NYr ˆ µr UÁ ˆ «é š N ªY G:: lp¾mvn \îr G³ ELMY ågªr n r ¾NWG& Cœn n r Eµªn ˆ «éd T«G& lîp\n }åz å ELNWr ELuEå p}] CÑ~r µåglr ªL`¼~ Llœlœ lpe N \îsv CÍ~r µft å ª L`¼ ˆ «é LU ^p Î ªY G:: Cœn Ln r Šlîp\n µlé N à µr Y Gp»LT E\îr G³ ~ô~ôy Ltì D N MErN lîp\n D} CnTp\n v Y d ly l\îpõ F à œn ^EMëG µy ˆ µr µå«¼ h å^¼ gg:: EîF å Lq r Elr µå«\îsv~ v EGMr ŠÙpƒ ^p Î Eé ªYµå MëvEålr \îœpy å^¼ ˆ ªMëµm å L\mºWt å MT µ¼~ ªÖr µy W lšêc i»á M^p ŠG ^ÔG G:: NŒ pýn ˆ «}å \îœpy µr Š ~ Š\îr pe ^W µêšî ~ Ya ˆ ªMëÔG llµ šn l FM Md ^ÔFµê D~G:: llåeå 9

14 µåglr p my F EL]pÙ M µêšî ˆ¼Tr ˆ ªMëµ¼L å q åj Aå}ïq EMaaG Md ÔG G:: lïq v L ŠG ˆŠåG rncyr~ ^Gº~ G EM r lpe \îpõ ELMY ECœn n r& Eœipƒ L E p my& \Eº} \ å y G ˆ¼Tr \é L» ˆ}šêC AåEå µvpý GMr ˆ µr ˆ «éd ^ ^p Î Ft å:: \îr G³ rncyr lšpm D} lµºy \éq Šµlé ˆ½r nu ] D MClW ì~ mcf ì ^p]\n Á~ ÃNY } å:: \îr G³ LMY Šºî~ Y ^~ š å nu Mð ŠÙ E D ~ G³ n r ˆ «Y ŠFŠFG:: l L µn lf µlé ^EMë Wt å pl»º} N n LµmEå:: C \éd ª O ¾iF~ CÑ~r Or d ]G ˆ~sv l Eé LOr d ]G Cœn n r Š µvpý M^p«ªY in Y L»º~G E é Më å GMr µr lmclw ì šyù ˆ i^g\î ŠÙ E Më~ Á qg:: µlé N à ˆ½r& p\më}r G M»r& Šlîp\n ˆ^Š L Rr L iy l å]}ï \À}r EL]pÙ& šp l\îsv F y G ¼gr ˆ ªMëÔËNmt å ªY ~ lºî~t å F d å^ L»G:: C ª O CnTp\lå ºî~ LLšƒ lœipƒ ªT± F ˆ «éd ªY G:: EN]Eî pµ ª å ªÔU~ E î ^~ ¼ gh E ªE å åy± p«yµ å OqEå& lmeøut å pªn l å E Eø~ ˆ «éaån C qt å ˆ^ŠM»r ªY]Eå l Y r N N }r µå«r M L» å Ft å pjy½ i~ l Eé µêšî EM µm ªN LÙ\^~ Or «T Eå:: l µwv \îsv e¼y Š v Y \ép E100 v 101 \îsv ˆ ªMëD l¼~r pªy_lqg:: C ª O \îpý e¼y Š «è Gi ˆ l ˆ ªD} LEŒp~G:: EšêCN ŠMëºd\å NŒ sv ¼fstý ½Y}r Lª µn& v ^W ÙE ª ltam mlé llbñ E m~ EEîEøv µ«lbq v L E¼~»r \îsv l Mð EMëlG»ót å ll«y meøut å Y³p å \éopý \îstý lc r Lj r~ leîeøvn NŒ sv EéD}å ˆ ªMëvG µlqg:: \îsv lmclw ì GMr D} é Më ì å GMr ] Më~ MëÁ pý D} å ]E ŠmCG pî p}] l^w ^NVr l å]}ï \À}r~ ^p««v}r ªT± e¼wt å ~] D ~ l «~ p««v v& lpwlå& lqllår& l G ^ ŠåEøv& l ilª Ov& l NÎ Ecv& llxr Ecv& lem v& l^ªp v~ l µy E µy p ŠWqwv LAG e¼wt å ngá ˆ «E å Š Eq ì ˆ i^g\î ˆ q ˆ å}pƒ å ^ G M r ufg:: C ª O ŠAµY GMr µå«y š plešr} å ˆ ªD} E \ å y G l mlå ELºdMv p}] N CG l C}r mcy å^r ˆ ª ªi l GÎ ] ~G:: ŠF lpnwur µå«v C}r GMr ˆ i^g\î v Œ^Tr ˆ ªMë LEŒr LT«r ve~g:: lgmr ˆi å^¼ ^Y p-ïq µå«v šyœz ll r lpªµô LGŠå L^Wr~ lïq v L ŠG E å ŒÙpr EM^dTr LqµG GMr Më ~ ì}r llºli šdº å CnTp\n ŒÙG ˆ ºdL å~ ryù NWv ˆ D T«~G:: lšêc šåv G º}iiEr Mëµm \îsv \n ì Lnsv ldfeå Më»\ålr~ l Eb}r Mëq lr Aå}ïq v l^ r Eå \îr ŠGMr ˆ i^g\î pµgf ˆŠåG}r Më }å Eé m ˆ ªMëvG } å:: #GMr N µr MEr NYr~ NYqM}r M]ª nu ] D \ v ˆNZ ì& F ì 10

15 MClW ì ªC }r L^p ŠG~ LMôFr ÃNY } å:: 1 ˆ «é å^ C ˆ å}q N~N ŠD} Lnsv LŠlY EGMr~ ˆ µr Bìªr ^ÔFµê D} i L Aå}ïq LD}å G dlg µmg:: l µwv \îsv Lnsv ˆ «éšlu ll LV dªn ne å ºår LLV v & ÞEé\é v & C v šp... MaaG& «é^ Më ºår N léd \îsv Lnsv MëÍTU mcf ì LE Šsv~ Yµêsv & ª ov ~ C v & ELŠFŠG lmë ^vg LGŠå LiTÎ ˆ~ pôímë}qt å LŠqpG& EMëªY\ ån Œ^Tr/µå«r pº f ˆ «é Y lm T & \îsv ÞEpí p]rú M]ª & å]}ï \À}r Më~ ˆ «éá pý Aå}ïq v MLutr ^ÔFµê D~G:: lˆy ¼ l µwv r/lîsv Š rz å lleº l oq å pšùp G «U \îr G³ ŠºE ~ Š ^µ L ÔY Më ^¼Eå Aå}ïp v ŠEîEå~ r/lîr µêšî MëaLå ^W Á~ v Gpd}\å lœùg ª Më v L ŠG \îsv e¼y Ln r~ ŠLE^pƒ AåEpƒ ªT± l F \îsv e¼y ~] ˆ «éd ªY G:: \îsv~ LXr melîr}r µå«ºiff \îr ŒGG me q n r n r ŠLs n r ŠLs MW 2,583,800 2,139, , Y 28,260 26, ,210 8 ZMë 3,312,930 2,751, , NlîF 23,870 18, , ªlån 1,960,410 1,615, , *l ny~ Më}ë^pòY \îsv µå«pš Ïq~ GMr LLV µî 10 \îsv~ rncyr ll ^r~ L ^r mgd}å ªƒ ªT± (1-8) r/lîsv pmv v n r lïq šl \îr ºiFF \îsv % ,602,282 1,038,784 2,641, % ,346,864 2,927,257 7,274, % L ^r~ L ^r mgd}å AåEpƒ ªT± (9-12) r/lîsv pmv v n r lïq šl \îr ºiFF \îsv % , , , % , , , % l }ëßy^pí v~ l Eî v «é V~ «éýeøm pmv v n r lïq šl \îr ºiFF \îsv % ,290 2,148 15, % ,121 9,691 46, % N Ã: lrncyr Më/Y Lq ì ^qr^píœ^ ÃNi 1986& ny~ Më}ë^pòY l\îsv µå«pš Ïq~ GMr LLV µî 1 11

16 é Më v }ƒ å GMr åqy ny~ \éd l ny~ å L^Œ \îsv Ya ¹Z rœgr MNTr& Šlîp\n ˆ Œn lî GÔ å OÔY d ly š å Š «è Y M] Yª å L G G & MTN& LþY ^n\m& å M ŠMš r ˆ^Š ˆCG MŠMtr Šoq oq Lº}å lée N rgi Më~ Á qeå:: lšnr Ymq ån ˆ «éaå Ya \é Wt å lp¾mv lîp\n µlé N à EM«lY G G p mwr ˆ ªÔrG& ˆ ª^Ør& vyuz Š~ å~eå:: l¼ieå l ér É 35-50% ˆYa ^W Më Š~ å}år \îsv ˆ ªD}å~ l ºgE lˆya& lšnr ˆYmq~ EîEøv ny~ }Œ ^W v Š50-60% l\îsv Š~ ~Eå:: (CERTWID INFORMS Vol. 6, No. 1 Page 16) «U ŠˆYa pµ å åºîr Š Y l W p s ll \ Tµ ~ Ya ŠM r ó lmg å q~ Ôg F p»e \éd ^W Á~ N ELd}^ léd ~ }åz EMaaG ^EL lé µºy L µ v ^E ÙÄ& ^E åb ^Er/lîr ^ELnWr šp ÙF põ MMŠY Më\Ulr mcg G«lTN:: «mlé v F ˆ}ª ÙÄ ˆ ª åb mó mó lšf mlé ª O r/lîr mq šp NŒŒU F mel]p t EpÔFµê å ¼iN G Eålr~ MëlF`ælr Aå}ïq Lœ µƒg:: l «èn šyù n Bñ \îsv Š¼gi ~ L ŠEƒ šyù GÔ å l³nf ^LÀ~ FŠé \é]põ ˆNn N q N NŒ pýn LXr~ lîr melîr}r µå«~ ELMYN n Y µ šn ˆ «µ æ pîˆ ªY G:: C ª O «è EN EM i~ ELEML ^vgn:: l µwv ŠN~ å p¾mã Aå}ïq Š C}r EMFdi M^ÔEµå N} l é Më å& lþepí å& lmclw ì~ lmcf ì ~ô~ôy š lî v \îsv Lnr ¼ h NFb Eé\¼lr Mëµm D imô N M Glr ] D~G:: EšêCN µwv L}vlr ~ ˪dv å 1995 lî±ë ^NN}r ˆ~ EîEøv N l\îsv šåv ÔTLut å åeøv lp my LpY N º d~g:: \îsv~ v laåeå L^Œ ˆŠåG Lnr Eé Wt å GuE E C}r NŒ r EMëD}å }µzv ly ŠÔrEqG:: l½y}r µêšî Š v Gi E ª L E¼& l Yi µêšî lîp\n N n ŠM\~«r ó ŠˆCG µå Epý p}] Lq Œ ELMY~ l ntr F melîr}r Lnr ŠM»r p}] E\îpƒ «V}r& E^W ¼}r& E^ªr L E¼ šp ^ŠrFG:: C Aå}ïq ˆ pš\p E å llîp\n D} lcntp\n ^p«ªy LYD v mceå pîˆ ^ åy ld} LGŠå ˆ pµeë i ^p«ªy ^EMë`TbT å& pîˆ å ELiTÙ µ~ ¾iE v lˆ~sut å ˆiÙ ˆ Eå ln LGŠå Lq}Î ˆ ª Emt å CnTp\lå lpe š v lm^pmy ˆ~ lr/lîr šåv E å ^W MErN Š VŠåEN šµ± r NZ ˆ^Š LNCW NGLF~ ^Gº~ l^y p-ïq L}ÎY Lq r FG:: l ^p«ªu L iy ÔÍËN Ôr ˆ «Y pº f}r LTn l¼ gh LšY r& ÞEé\é~ v pšreø ÔÍËN~ ŒrrG LLV v lm å»r mcg pîˆ ŠCnTp\lå å^¼ ELiTÙ LåEå œ ³r º gg:: l EN~ l µy dù é Më d å^ µêšî G Y³sv li Më Më \~npýr \îsv \éd & ly G ¼gr šåv Šlîp\n ˆ^Š CnTp\n EN N pšf E nªm ˆ~ E ^µ L ÔY& l½y}r ir EÙF põ LªÔY~ ŠCÍ~r Y L\ª ˆ~ C ì Lnr ˆ ó EM^ŠlY lnqªyµ ån r G ÙrC ]qµ Nr µfq \îr LD~ô pt µº } å:: b p Mëµ å Population Reference Bureau l2002 m» å EN dù \îsv Aå}ïq lmëg Y ^ ^Y lštšt å ^E µwv \îsv \éµgî \îsv n r ª 33.2 MëEé & l100 v L ŠG 101 \îsv ˆ}ªMë U& Mð»V E\îr 53 E 51 Eé n r 5.9 ˆ}ªMëD & šl~ ì Eé LŠFŠ Më ^«èr 6%& l Eé NŒ r MëOpý ˆ~sv Š100,000 12

17 \îsv å^¼ 1,800 ˆ ªMëD}å& ll åe Mð å^¼ D} å lhiv/aids p šår 10.6% ll åe ˆ Mð Eår ª O 14.9 MëEé ˆ ªD}å~ E å \îr å^¼ 59% l^w p\mu \éd}å Š «è 86% ˆ ªp\MW& l å]}ï \À}r oq lüyfm å^¼ 8% \îsv \éd}å lmë}ë^rzv lé}ï å^¼ 14% \îsv ˆ ªD}å ^T«G:: EîF å l\wpƒ~ MClW ì µå«\îsv µå«lnv ˆ. î iq ì ér É \îsv LT± lštšt LÎBñr F \Wpƒ \îsv ªT± lªl œ \éštœy l\éßëg \Yßë^ L iy å^¼ 1800 ny~ Ššê lf Më µ æ \îsv 2% nu ˆ ªD}å~ ny Më µ æ 13% ˆ ªMëD}å \éµgî& pdur l}šêc LBG ˆ ªD}å ^T«G:: CN n ƒ å \îr lµlé ªT± œipƒ Aå}ïq å^¼ ˆ ªD}å Më ^T«\éD l^w }r \éq ÝZØb~G ] ^ 5% \éd}å ŒEYŒ~ µåglr \Wp v 20% ˆ ªD}å LEŒqG:: laåepýn LT± F EMëq å ŒÙpr NŒ pý N ˆ ªD} œyœy ¼~r m T ån LMY~ ^Gº~ ˆ G EM r ˆ ªMëL» LµLr «rn:: \îsv NWv nu ] D}å lpô¼z \ å MNTu nv ~ M\Gºƒ MˆŠG LD~t å llµ šn lgmr ˆ i^g\î å^¼ pe ršåtr \¼p ŠmCG pîˆ Fid~t å llåeå y G~ µåglr ª GMr i»á ˆ «é LU M T nšå À Mëº i \éd åºîpý l ÃY µêšî å^¼ M r ugn:: C ª O p^ Eé ^jy¼~& X in E N ªN Glr ˆ ~LW Eé ªYµ µmn:: NŒ pýn E åºå œ Më~ AåE p~ ì ^ED} L\Tq ì E å¼ E ~ EL¾Ta EMN»r& EµlX \îr D} EŠpM lîr ˆLlîr µåglr~ µêšî Më¾Y\ å lîr å^¼ ^W MgE pòœ Eø±ë ˆ rºdn lm T ld å^¼ Š13 \ r lf ˆ \Wv lµêšî ˆ¼Tr ˆ «rªœn lf ˆTÙr µêšî [r µåglpõ LåEå llåeå lnyr p my F åf pae NYr ln r~ l¼wr ˆ}«éµ M T l µr i»á ry M}pý Lœ~G:: NŒ pýn lt³n i å^¼ Mëµ å NYr åºîr dªl å À `Ù~G:: ll\tpý l ny~ å šyù \îpõ Ya ¼Ys ELE r ˆ~ N léªt NYr Eé ˆ ªMëvG EM i ª µºu L ªZv µm neø lîp\n ~ô~ôy~ ˆEq ì ^W ˆ i^g\î M¼~r ^ÔGµ G:: E\îr G³ lcntp\lå å^¼ Më\º å oq œipƒ ŠLD}å p}] lnyny~ ¼~r F p\mur \îsvn D}å v E ny~ šyù \îsv Ya ršåtr \¼p ålr LÙrBñ A]n EMÙEi Gp¾}elrN:: ny~ å F \îsv Ft å ºdMðq ó C GMr ŒÙ šl~ ì}r l š LGŠå NYr åºîr ŠÙ EM T \îpõ ] µgg E å¼ Eé Bñ lr µmg:: lpe N Aå ^rwpò±ë pdtëer ny~-ly é «è^rv GMr v ªŠpM ˆ «éôg\å ˆ G ŠÙsFt å \îsv ŠCÍ~sut å Y µºy ˆ «^dwt å ELŠFŠG Më ^vg l¼~r pªµô AåEpý Ïq v lˆšåg}r EM^p~µ lmëvg š i M å»r ^ÔG G:: \îsv Š v Gi Ev Y/E C}r ˆ «é Eºå ^p Ï Më ªYµå µå«v \îr lqv Më ªYµå GM«ì~ mcf ì CnTp\n ^p«ªy C v:- Y r& ºE & E Mð nu& åy^ nu& G åá nu& nu F nu& l nyr E å¼ nu& LXr q melîr}r Më ^Y r& LMY G EM r& 13

18 ŠCnTp\m ì p]rú Lqµ /M r å^¼ L \ /lmg N l Mô lšåg A]mó M^pFEÙ& lc ŠEF ] D l mr l N~ lmg ŠEF ^Y LD & µêšî MëaM Aå}ïq~ Á~ Ln r& lnyr åºîr& lmntu L]V & l^}-p G ºî~ L \ ^G» M»r& MNTu L]V ~ L\Tp-GMr ELMôFr:: LÙrBñ å N } å? ÙrC EMN»r E\îsv ˆ i r D}år ±ë~ GM«ì ^p]\n Më ^ Šlîp\n ˆ^Š ŠÙpƒ ^W LWY Fr Më} ª n M å»r~ pôímë}pý LŠqpG& rncyr EMlTqqr ŠL E CÍ~r ˆ^Š ŠÙpƒ pkmr& \îr lyfö}r LLªn rncyr VŠåEN MaaG lüyfm å^¼ melå ~ jw¼ \îsv ˆ «éµlå ¼Tr M T L LV ˆYN± \éd leîeøvn GMr pkmr ln r jw¼ me^g»~r \îsv LLªlå MWà EîE å LÙrBñ D~G:: NŒ pýn \îsv lcœn ^p«ªy~ ll ^r µlé ^p«ªy Š v Gi paeå LD~t å Më T ¼ ¼~q ì LT± m YN AFÖ}r ŠL`ŠN~ C ŠMŒlY& Šˆ³ L a LdlG~ ŠLå^~ ó E å G }r ºiEG melgšå M r~ CEé~ ÙY ~ L^ºr ufg:: EîF å ª O l rƒ ån ªT±~ ˆYŠ Eår \îsv µlé N Át å Më«nYlr š d _ p mw ì M T ^ÔFµê } å:: \îr µlé ªµ MEr lîp\n L µn& G v lpae LGŠå LMY~ ºî }r Lºli~ l pƒ ån ˆTŠ F l å]}ï \À}r Më~ LÁ r ˆ rvg ˆYN± L \«è LEŒqG:: Cœn n qv MClW ì µg Eør EM«T^ E å imv Y ^EM»»N lµºy~ lšpm å E å CnTp\n Eé e¼¼y ˆ ªMëµm å Y M^pMY lpe N v leº Më~ ˆ}«éÁ pý M T ^ÔFµê}pý ¼Y¼Y E ån:: Cnœ µr ŠGMr Y \él»º lgmr F Mëq å ŒÙpr EM¼ln L d]da l r ˆ «é Y~ Šµêšî ˆ¼Tr p}] lˆi nu p ^} ˆ «dy T«G:: ^ED}N GMr LYB- nzv ˆ ««è ŒÙpr EL`Ô Šl r Y FM L}]r ÔG Eå:: C GD} liyn µêšî å^¼ î ^~ Yi Š Z lpe LGŠå lcœmv F LŠW& \jg~ Gfr ³ ˆ ª Gn G G µmg:: NŒ pýn µwv \îr G³ lmcg pîˆ llqv}r Nrp«ªY ŠLD~ô p}] l µy å^¼ EœLår «V}r p«y mer«yn ŠD}v mfó ÙF r nu ^p~ «l\ å µy l^w ^N EšL~ ì my}r lªff ˆ p`ºv mevlr î ^ ˆ ª\ª ˆ]r liîlq ì Ù¼}r ˆ µªe melr šl C}r ¼ h \îr G³ ¼ h nu ] D Cœlå GMr ¼ h EéD µmg:: C}r Gs Mëq å \îsv Lnr lmëtµ¼mt å~ lïqt å L ŠG \ G }r memt å µzv ^ED} \îsv Lnr ¼ h GMr ¼ h LD}å lml AåEåN šî EéqµGFr µmg:: l ºgF :- \îsv G G pkmr lmelîr}r ˆ «é šå& ˆ «é ^p«u~ ˆ «é d]i\å Aå}ïq v MLutr& ÞEé\é v~ LYB- nzv l\îsv F EéªY\å MëvEå ª v li Më ˆ µlµlå LŠFŠG& 14

19 lrncyr F llåeå y Ft å~ lpt L Ô^ ˆ «pšåu Më ªYµå Aå}ïq v ^ l ªT± å MErN Š ªƒ ªT± ˆ^Š ŠÙpƒ pkn T^ le¼y Š v ˆŠåG MëD}ålr ~ l] ^~ pòœ Eø±ë rncyr L^Œ~ ^Gº~ v ˆ «é]põ MlTqqr&: Eé e¼¼y lîp\n ºî }r ELºliN D} Cœn n r ELj»ºY Ya ^E E å lpe N v ˆ «é]põ M T & î ^ LŠFŠ ^Gsv Ld ^~ ˆ~sv~ CÍ~r ºî~ ˆ Œn lî pkmr l¼wr~ ln r M«T^& lpe NŒ sv MëªY\år \îsv Lnr L»^ EMjN Më ^veå C v Mº~ŠY& l^w L p å \îsv ˆ mleå ŠµºY ª ŠpM Š µy ª EîF µy Më ^ lgeår LŠqpG& l^ªr~ l½y}r ir \îsv Lnr Më Õ Fr ¼ni i»r ˆ «édleå M T & l rƒ ån \FN Y Y ir \îsv p]rú MlTqqr& ½Y}r À v ELd}^ ¼Tr M T & \îsv ª ^G» ˆYŠ ˆ «élºå pe ^Gsv LºdN& LlªY in ˆ «é Wt å Aå}ïq v MLutr& lïq pp}p} LT± M\m\n~ M\W¾r LuG& llå ~ lïq MClWr MªW r& ±l!s!ãc~ mr -GBéC km{d cw bðt _Ãq& µtt xl µt CýN mmrmrâ kbjt UR m qäcýn rug_& bhg ytdngg# mbèc s!ès# bcl xlmmlkt& ysb êe mbt TMHRT bsít ˆNÄ!s_ DrG& mgâ¾ Bz#hNN \îèc GßT m-qm y Cl#bTN mng mòct& ymgâ¾ Bz#hN DRJèC bh#lntâcw ²ÂêE yçn xq rb XNÄ!ñ tw mrh-gbr XNÄ!qRi# DrG& ys Å lmqns y rçâ yxµæb!n y à lbt$ zmâêe LèCN m-qm& y ÈT sö l SwgD bsl-â½bkhlöt½btmhrt½bwrs kwnd Xk#L y ÃúTû H CN M å»r~ tgæ êen CWNM mk tl qè TWLD bl T Y bxk#lnt XNÄ!útF ŠM TµåN lf åºîpý AµY ˆ rem GÝÝ 15

20 êb! m} FT Ethiopia: Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programe MOFED åksím y R t-û L- mm à KFL 3 R t Û Â lm xqf g#ä CÝ Paper on Gender at the heart of Economic Planning. British council Sep yû  L T mm à GBR ¼R g#äy mm à The End of Welfare? Consequence of Federal Devolution for the Nation. Max V. Sawicky Armonk, New York London, England, Bÿ êe g#äy ±l!s! mskrm 1986 Women of Our World. Population Reference Bureau. Washington DC 2002 y R t ò  L T µêe xmè-# Yzt$ y ns# g#ä C bzwá xbuz GNïT 1994 LDCs: Building Capacities for Mainstreaming Gender in Development Strategies, UNCTAD, UNDP, New York and Geneva CERTWID INFORMS Vol. 6 No 1 September 2000 Gender, Growth and Poverty Reduction. Special Program of Assistance for Africa, 1998 Status Report on Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank Washington D.C 16

21 FSS Publications List FSS Newsletter Medrek (Quarterly since English and Amharic) FSS Discussion Papers No. 1. Water Resource Development in Ethiopia: Issues of Sustainability and Participation. Dessalegn Rahmato. June 1999 No. 2. The City of Addis Ababa: Policy Options for the Governance and Management of a City with Multiple Identity. Meheret Ayenew. December 1999 No. 3. Listening to the Poor: A Study Based on Selected Rural and Urban Sites in Ethiopia. Aklilu Kidanu and Dessalegn Rahmato. May 2000 No. 4. Small-Scale Irrigation and Household Food Security. A Case Study from Central Ethiopia. Fuad Adem. February 2001 No. 5. Land Redistribution and Female-Headed Households. By Yigremew Adal. November 2001 No. 6. Environmental Impact of Development Policies in Peripheral Areas: The Case of Metekel, orthwest Ethiopia. Wolde-Selassie Abbute. Forthcoming, 2001 No. 7. The Environmental Impact of Small-scale Irrigation: A Case Study. Fuad Adem. Forthcoming, 2001 No. 8. Livelihood Insecurity Among Urban Households in Ethiopia. Dessalegn Rahmato and Aklilu Kidanu. October 2002 No. 9. Rural Poverty in Ethiopia: Household Case Studies from orth Shewa. Yared Amare. December 2002 No.10. Rural Lands in Ethiopia: Issues, Evidences and Policy Response. Tesfaye Teklu. Forthcoming 2003 No.11. Poverty and Household Food Security in Ethiopia. Eshetu Bekele. Forthcoming 2003 FSS Monograph Series No. 1. Survey of the Private Press in Ethiopia: Shimelis Bonsa No. 2. Environmental Change and State Policy in Ethiopia: Lessons from Past Experience. Dessalegn Rahmato FSS Conference Proceedings 1. Issues in Rural Development. Proceedings of the Inaugural Workshop of the Forum for Social Studies, 18 September Edited by Zenebework Taddesse. 2000

22 2. Development and Public Access to Information in Ethiopia. Edited by Zenebework Tadesse Environment and Development in Ethiopia. Edited by Zenebework Tadesse Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods in Ethiopia. Edited by Yared Amare atural Resource Management in Ethiopia. Edited by Alula Pankhurst Poverty and Poverty Policy in Ethiopia. Special issue containing the papers of FSS' final conference on poverty held on 8 March 2002 Consultation Papers on Poverty No. 1. The Social Dimensions of Poverty. Papers by Minas Hiruy, Abebe Kebede, and Zenebework Tadesse. Edited by Meheret Ayenew. June 2001 No. 2. GOs and Poverty Reduction. Papers by Fassil W. Mariam, Abowork Haile, Berhanu Geleto, and Jemal Ahmed. Edited by Meheret Ayenew. July 2001 No. 3. Civil Society Groups and Poverty Reduction. Papers by Abonesh H. Mariam, Zena Berhanu, and Zewdie Shitie. Edited by Meheret Ayenew. August 2001 No. 4. Listening to the Poor. Oral Presentation by Gizachew Haile, Senait Zenawi, Sisay Gessesse and Martha Tadesse. In Amharic. Edited by Meheret Ayenew. November 2001 No.5. The Private Sector and Poverty Reduction [Amharic]. Papers by Teshome Kebede, Mullu Solomon and Hailemeskel Abebe. Edited by Meheret Ayenew, November 2001 No.6. Government, Donors and Poverty Reduction. Papers by H.E. Ato Mekonnen Manyazewal, William James Smith and Jeroen Verheul. Edited by Meheret Ayenew, February No.7. Poverty and Poverty Policy in Ethiopia. Edited by Meheret Ayenew, 2002 Books Ethiopia: The Challenge of Democracy from Below. Edited by Bahru Zewde and Siegfried Pausewang. Nordic African Institute, Uppsala and the Forum for Social Studies, Addis Ababa Special Publications Thematic Briefings on atural Resource Management, Enlarged Edition. Edited by Alula Pankhurst. Produced jointly by the Forum for Social Studies and the University of Sussex. January 2001 New Series Gender Policy Dialogue Series No. 1 Gender and Economic Policy. Edited by Zenebework Tadesse. March 2003 Consultation Papers on Environment

23 No. 1 Papers Environment and Environmental Change in Ethiopia. Edited by Gedion Asfaw. Consultation on Environment. March 2003 FSS Studies on Poverty No. 1 Some Aspects of Poverty in Ethiopia: Three Selected Papers. Papers by Dessalegn Rahmato, Meheret Ayenew and Aklilu Kidanu. Edited by Dessalegn Rahmato. March 2003.

24 Forum for Social Studies The Forum for Social Studies (FSS) is an independent, non-profit institution engaged in policyoriented research on the development challenges facing Ethiopia. It provides an open forum for the discussion of public policy and promotes public awareness. FSS believes that encouraging broad participation in policy debates is an important contribution to the democratic process. To achieve its goals, FSS organizes public conferences, and publishes and distributes its research findings to policy makers and other government officials, civil society institutions, professionals, the business community, donor agencies and the public at large. This publication is meant to encourage public discussion of the issues concerned and their policy implications. Gender Policy Dialogue Series These publications are based on papers presented and discussions held at FSS Gender Policy Dialogue Series and are meant to stimulate debate and reflection on gender issues and policy initiatives. Address Forum for Social Studies Tel. (251-1) / / P.O.Box code Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Web Site: www. fssethiopia.org Financial support for the Gender Policy Dialogue Series and

25 this publication was provided by the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom for which we are grateful. We also wish to thank the Royal etherlands Embassy for its generous financial assistance to FSS.