NGHIEN CQU NHO VE HOAT DONG VIET SANG TAO VA MOT VAI UNG DUNG CUA HOAT DONG VIET SANG TAG TRONG DAY VA HOC NGOAI NGQ DO! vol NAM THQ NHAT KHOA ANH, TR

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1 NGHIEN CQU NHO VE HOAT DONG VIET SANG TAO VA MOT VAI UNG DUNG CUA HOAT DONG VIET SANG TAG TRONG DAY VA HOC NGOAI NGQ DO! vol NAM THQ NHAT KHOA ANH, TRUONG OAl HOC NGOAI NGU - DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI NGUYfiN THI THOM PHAM THI THANH THUY (A) KhoaNNvdVHAnhMy DHNN, DHQGHN 1.DATVANDE Trong gilng day ngoai ngfl ndi chung, tieng Anb ndi rieng, vice day cic ky nang thuc hanh tieng (THT) la rat quan trgng, dac biet la ddi vdi sinh vidn nam diu dai bgc. Sau mot thdi gian bgc tieng d phd thdng, dc em mdi nim dugc mot kbdi lugng tfl vung, ngfl phip, ngfl am CO ban cua ngdn ngfl dich, mot chflt It ky nang THT ndi, nghe, dgc, vie't. Len dai bgc II luc dc em cd dieu kien cung cd lai kien tbfle da bgc, thuc hanh dc ky nang tieng. Ddi vdi sinh vidn nam tbfl nhat, mdn vie't la mot mdn tuong ddi khd vi dc em chua dugc thuc hanh nhieu. CIc bai viet d phd thdng hlu he't chi dflng lai d cap do cau va ehu yen dudi hinh tbfle viet cd hudng din (controlled and/or guided writing) nhu: viet lai cau gifl nguyen ngbia, bay viet dung cau tfl nhflng tfl va cum tfl cho sin. Muc dich cua nhflng bai tap viet nay chu yeu la de luyen ngfl phip va cau true ngdn ngfl, de luyen ky nang lam dc bai thi hay kiem tra. Gid day d bac dai bgc, dc em dugc hgc deb vie't tu do (free writing), viet vi muc dich giao tie'p. Nhflng bai viet nay kbdng chi dflng lai d mfle do dung cau hay ghep nghia ma nd edn mang ndi dung, y tudng cung nhu phong deb ridng cua tflng d nhan 354

2 dc em. Cac em dung kinh nghiem, tri tudng tugng, su sang tao cua rieng minb de tao nen nhflng bai viet hay, dgc dio. Ndi mot deb khac, dc em da va dang thuc hanh vie't sang tao (creative writing). Bai vie't nay chung tdi se trinh bay mot ngbien cflu nbd cua chung tdi ve boat ddng viet sang tao va mot vai flng dung cua boat ddng viet sang tao trong day va bgc ngoai ngfl ddi vdi nam tbfl nhat khoa Anb, trudng DHNN - DHQGHN. Nhflng ndi dung chinh chung tdi se de cap tdi la: - The' nao la viet sing tao - Y nghia cua vie't sing tao - Viet sang tao khi nao - CIc budc tie'n hanh mot bai viet sing tao - Mot vai flng dung cua boat ddng viet sing tao trong day va hgc dc mdn THT cho sinh vien nam tbfl nhat khoa Anh trudng ta. II. PHAN NOI DUNG 1. Viet sang tao la gi? Viet sing tao, hieu mot deb don gian nhat la boat ddng sing tao ra mot bai viet, mot doan van, hay mot van bin bat ky, mang dlu an el nhan trong dd. Cd the ke den de sin pham cua viet sing tao nhu nhflng cau tho, nhflng mau chuyen nho nbd, hoae d mfle do cao ban la nhflng tic pham van hgc. Tuy nhien trong viec day va hgc ngoai ngfl, vie't sing tao thudng dugc biet den dudi cli ten chung chung la boat ddng vie't nbim ren luyen va bd trg cho de ky nang kbic nhu ndi, dgc. Vay thuc chat vie't sing tao II gi? Joyce(2000)ly luan: Vie't sang tao khdng chi la cich duy nhat de thdi hdn cudc song vao Idp hgc-ngoai ngfl ma edn tao cho ngudi hgc ngoai ngfl nhflng co bdi thuc hanh tbfl vi, song ddng. Vie't sang tao khdng phai la nhflng ddng viet khdng chu y vl vd thflc ma ddi bdi su chinh xlc, chuan tie trong deb dung tfl ngfl va hanh van. Vie't sang tao khdng cd nghia la viet ve bl't cfl di gi hoac ta't ca 355

3 mgi tbfl ma nd cho phep chflng ta tap trung vao dc y tudng, deb thflc va dang van bin van hgc cu the. Vie't sing tao khdng hoan toan nim ngoai kha nang viet cua ban bet mgi ngudi ma nd mang lai cho sinh vien co bdi de khim phi ngdn ngfl va tri tudng tugng cua chinh bin than minb. Viet sang tao kbdng phai la boat ddng dir bi hay thay the' cho hanh vi giao tie'p khau ngfl ml la mot deb eudn hut ngudi bgc tim ra y nghia mdi cua dc ky nang ngdn ngfl it dugc sfl dung hon. Tie'p theo mot loat dinh nghia In tugng tren day, Joyce, H. cung dua ra mot bang so sinh viec viet, tao dung mot van ban vdi viec xay nhl. Cd the thay rd net nhflng diem nhan chu yeu trong su ddi chieu cua Joyce nhu sau: Neu xay nhl ngudi ta chi cin bin ve kie'n trfle vl thie't ke thi cau trfle va dc giai doan (stages) cua qui trinh viet la bin thie't ke' tdng the cua mot van bin. Vat lieu va edng cu de viet la ngfl phip, tfl vung cung vdi but, giay, miy tinh, v.v... ddng vai trd nhu dl, gach, gd vl cua, bua... khi ta chuan bi xay nhl. De dung len dugc mot ngdi nhl, ngudi thg xay can phli len ke hoach, tie'n hanh do dac, dung khung nhl, hoan thanh pbin thd, dgn dep va hoan thien. Tuong tu, ngudi vie't cung phli lap ke hoach, vie't nhip cau, doan den d bai rdi bien tap rdi chinh sfla neu cin thie't. Trong qui trinh xay nhl, ngudi thg cd the tao dung theo thiet kd rieng cua minb: Ip dung nhflng y tudng tbfl nghiem, sing tao trong bin thie't ke, nhung vln phli gifl muc dich nguyen tbuy cua mot ngdi nhl II mot chd cu tru, che ning che mua. Ddi vdi ngudi viet, hg cung tao da'u an rieng cua minb bing nhflng y tudng el nhan mang tinh tien phong, sing tao nhung tat d phai dim bio ring tic phim cua hg phai cd nghia va dip flng muc dich sing tie. CI hai boat ddng nay deu giup nhflng ngudi thuc hien phit trien dc ky nang, ky xlo quy gil: Ngudi vie't trau ddi vl hoan thien ky nang vie't sing tao trong khi ngudi thg xay cung cd ky nang xay dung cua minb. Ndi tdm lai, viet sang tao la mot hinh thflc vie't ddi hoi kha nang sing tao cua mdi el nhan va nd bd trg cho dc ky nang ngdn ngfl khac nhu dgc, ndi. 356

4 2. Y nghla cua viec vie't sang tao Ddi vdi ngudi bgc d dc dp do don gian, boat ddng nay giup hg the hien dugc ban than thdng qua dc y tudng sing tao cua minb. Thdng thudng, dc bai tap, dc nhiem vu (tasks) (se trinh bay d phan sau) rlt tbfl vi, eudn hflt ngudi hgc, tao cho hg nidm hflng kbdi say me kbim phi chinh minb, tang them ddng luc hgc tap. Ddng thdi, dc dang bai tap viet sing tao cung gdp phin khdng nbd trong viec hoan thien dc ky nang thuc hanh tieng, kbi nang llm chu va sfl dung ngdn ngfl. d nhflng cap do cao hon, boat ddng nay giup cho d giao vien va hgc sinh tiep can vdi mot phuong phip hgc ngoai ngfl mdi trong dd sir tham gia cua dc ddi tugng trong sudt qui trinh gilng day va hgc tap mang tinh chu ddng, tich cue, va true tiep hon trong mot chflng muc nao dd. Hon nfla, viet sing tao edn tao dieu kien cho ngudi hgc tiep can va hieu sau ban ve dc dang bli viet, tang eudng dc ky nang tranh luan (debating skills) va tu duy phe phin (critical thinking) rat cin thie't trong dc chien luge (strategies) cung nhu qua trinh (procedure) bgc tap. 3. Viet sang tao khi nao? Nhu chflng ta da biet, sinh vien hgc ngoai ngfl ndi chung, tieng Anh ndi rieng, thudng bit dau bgc dc ky nang thuc hanh tieng nhu ndi, nghe, dgc, viet trudc. CIc ky nang nay cd the dugc hgc trong cung mot quyen gilo trinh theo kieu xen ke (An intergrated-skills coursebook) hay trong mdi quyen gilo trinh cd chu y phat trien tflng ky nang rieng le (vi du: Listening I, Writing 1...) Tuy vay, cd the khang dinh rang ta khdng bao gid chi day mot ky nang THT trong mot gid Idn Idp ma vln ket hgp dc ky nang vdi nhau, chi cd chu trgng phat trien ky nang nao hon ma thdi. Dac biet vdi ky nang viet thi hlu nhu gid hgc nao cung can den nd. Khi nghe giang, sinh vidn cung can ghi chep tdm tit ndi dung bai de nbd va de dn tap. Gid hgc nghe, hgc dgc, sinh vidn ettng phai tra Idi cau bdi nghe hieu, dgc hieu, lam dc bai tap, ghi chep tfl mdi. Gilo vien cung cd the yeu cau sinh vien vie't tdm tat bai vfla dgc hay vfla nghe v.v. Gid hgc viet, hgc dich thi du it du nhieu sinh vien cttng phai vie't tren Idp. Cac bai tap viet cho sinh vien nam tbfl nhat rat phong phu nhu ke chuyen, ke chuyen qua tranh, vie't thu, mieu ta, nhln tin... Tham chi ngay d trong gid hgc ndi tudng 357

5 chflng nhu khdng can den viet, nhung sinh vien vln dn ghi chep nhflng thdng tin ma hg phdng van tfl ngudi ban minb, hoac dien nhflng thdng tin ma minb dn tim qua hinh thflc bai tap information - gap, form - filling v.v. Dac biet, Hon nfla, nhieu bai kiem tra, bai tap d nha, NCKH deu yeu du sinh vien llm bing hinh thflc viet. Cd the ndi theo dinh nghla thi tat d nhflng kieu viet tren deu mang tinh sang tao. Nhu vay ta cd the' thly trong gid day va hgc ngoai ngfl, cd the' khuyen khich sinh vien viet sing tao, vfla de' hgc tap va cung cd ky nang vie't, vfla de phit trien dc ky nang THT khic. 4. Cac budc thuc hanh viet sang tao Morrissey (9) cho ring, gid'ng nhu mgi boat ddng viet thdng thudng, vie't sing tao cung phli trii qua nhflng budc don gian cd ten ggi nhu: kbdi ddng (starting up), vie't (writing), the' hien va phan bdi (presenting and feedback). Cd the coi vie't sing tao la su ket hgp linh boat gifla hai phuong phap vie't sin pham va viet quy trinh (Product writing vl Process writing). Tuy theo tflng yeu du cu the' cua bli tap, cua nhiem vu, hay trinh do cua hgc vien ml gilo vien cd the chu ddng tim phuong phap tie'p can phu hgp. Vi du vdi sinh vidn nam tbfl nhat, cd the' cung dp cho hg dc dang bli mlu, dc vi du don gian de hg tap vie't theo. Tat nhien gilo vien khdng nen qui chu trgng tdi khudn mlu va tinh chinh xlc cua tflng the' loai bai viet. Ddi vdi dc sinh vien d trinh dd cao ban (vi du sinh vien theo hgc mot Idp van hgc - literature courses) cd the hudng din sau hon yeu du cua tflng the loai viet (writing genres), dac diem van phong, ngdn ngfl, dc thanh phan cua mot tic pham hoan chinh. Dudi day chung tdi trinh biy mot sd budc co ban de tie'n hanh mot loai boat ddng viet sing tao: dd la viet truyen ngln. 1/ Yeu du: Ngudi hgc llm theo yeu du cu the cua giao vien: de tai, dd dai, thdi gian cua tflng nhiem vu (task) v.v... 2/ Chon chu de. 358

6 - Ngudi hgc ehgn chu de, gidi ban chu de. - Chuan bi nhflng thanh td co ban: bdi dnh, nhan vat, cd't truyen.v..v... 3/ Ban nhap: - Dinh vi trinh tu cd't truyen - Bat dau viet, phat buy tri tudng tugng. 4/ Viet lai: - Dgc lai ban nblp vdi tu duy phe phin - Viet lai nhflng phan chua hgp ly - Kiem tra, chfla Idi tic pham. - Lay y kien cua "dgc gia" / Trao ddi bai viet vdi ngudi khac. 5. Lfng dung mot so hoat ddng viet sang tao cho sinh vien nam thu nhat 5.1. Cung viet chuyen - Md tl: hai hay nhieu ngudi hgc tham gia vao qua trinh sing tic mot cau chuyen hoan chinh. Mdi ngudi dim nhiem mot cau, mot doan hay mot phan cd't truyen. - Y nghla: ren luyen ky nang llm viec theo nhdm, chia se thdng nhat y kien de duy tri tinh lien ket, maeh lac cua mot dang van bin. - Minb boa: Task: Work in group of five. Each member takes turn to contribute to a story beginning. "Last summer, I took a trip to Mexico... " 5.2. SCfdung truyen tranh - Md ta: Tren nen tranh anh cua mot cau chuyen, bdi thoai cd trudc, ngudi vie't sang tao ra cd't truyen Idi thoai mdi theo y cua minb. Cd the xlo trdn vi tri dc tranh ne'u dn thiet. - Y nghla: bd trg ky nang ndi, ren luyen ky nang mieu ta, sir dung tfl ndi, V..V... - Minb boa: 359

7 Task: Look at the follwing set of pictures. Great another version of the dialogue. (Unit 37, Language-to-go) 5.3. Viet mdrgng (expanded writing) - Md tl: Gilo vien cd the yeu du mdi nhdm sinh vien dgc mot doan van mieu tl so luge mot dia diem, hoac mot cau chuyen vln tit do gilo vien cung cap sin hay do nhdm sinh vien khic trong Idp tao,ra. Sau dd gilo vien yeu du sinh vien dua vao doan dd de' phit trien thanh mot bli viet hoan chinh bing deb them tinh tfl, trang tfl, them nhflng chi tie't, tinh tiet cho cau chuyen... - Y nghla: luyen deb dung tinh tfl, trang tfl theo dflng trat tu, deb ket hgp tfl, ky nang pbit trien y, mieu tl, ke' chuyen, v.v. - Minb boa: Task: Add details to the following paragraph. (From Writing to Composing, Unit 2.-10) 5.4. Viet theo dinh hudng - Md tl: Dua tren nhflng yeu td cho trudc nhu chu de, tfl vung, y tudng hay cau true ngfl phap, ngudi viet pbit buy tri tudng tugng cua minb de sing tao mot cau chuyen, mot doan van holn chinb..v..v... - Y nghla: ren luyen ky nang viet theo dinh hudng va kha nang khai thic, sfl dung ngdn ngfl, tri tudng tugng cua ngudi bgc. - Minb boa: Task: Base on the 4 situations below, create a writing (an imaginary story, a future prediction, a letter to your friend, etc). You can start at any situation. 1. A: Ok. You really need some money, quyckly. What would you sell? B: Well, I would certainly sell the television, but I wouldn 't sell the stereo. I like music too much. 2. A: You win a lot of money. Would you buy a really expensive car? B: No, I wouldn't, but I would buy a boat. I love sailing. 3. A: Ok, You can live in any country in the world. Where would you move to? 360

8 B: I would stay right here, with you. 4. A: You 've only know your boyfriend I girlfriend for two months but you are very much in love. Would you marry himlher? B: No, I wouldn't. (Language-to-go, U30, Practice 6) 5.5. Lam thatheo chu de - Md ta: Ngudi hgc dugc cung dp nhflng chu de cho trudc kem bai tho mlu va dugc yeu du sing tic mot bli tho ngln theo the tu do. - Y nghla: Tao hflng tbfl trong qui trinh bgc tap, ren luyen kha nang dm thu va sang tao thi ca (d mfle co bin). - Minb boa: Bai "The world water decade"- Concepts & comments Task: Write a short "water" - poem Hoan thanh cau - Md tl: Hoat ddng nhdm, vdi mot ve cau cho trudc, ngudi hgc dugc yeu cau hoan thanh va ket hgp vdi nhflng cau khac trong nhdm de' tao thinh mot bai tho/ doan viet cd nghla. - Y nghla: ren luyen ngfl phip, each sfl dung tfl vflng. - Task (Jenkins, 2001)) 1/ Work in group of 5 2/ Within 5 minutes, each member of the group completes the phrase 'When I think of summer...' using one sense of perception (sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch) e.g. When I think of summer, I see crowded beach 3/ Share the phrases within your group 4/ Edit and combine them into a possible poem in 2 minutes (Don't care much about the rules of poetry) 5/ Present your final product in front of the class When I think of summer, I see... When I think of summer, I smell... When I think of summer, I hear

9 When I think of summer, I taste... When I think of summer, I touch Diverging poems Task (Maley et al, 1988) - Work in group of 4 or 5 - Choose an abstract noun - Write it vertically on a piece of paper (Each letter will mark the beginning of a line) W H I S P E R - Within 10 minutes, produce a short poem based on the stimulus word, (see example) Why do people in public places Have to lower their voices? /s it because they fear Someone might overhear? Perhaps... But why do they bother? Every word they try to conceal jreaehes us loud and clear Viet mieu ta/viet tudng thuat Hoat ddng nay gid'ng vdi hinh thflc vie't mieu ta, tudng thuat thudng thay d de gilo trinh day viet co ban. Tuy nhien gilo vien cd the khai thic nhieu chu de khac ngoai sach hoac tfl ngudn tranh anh, bio chi

10 PHAN KET LUAN Tren day la mot sd ngbien cflu nhd ve viet sing tao vl vai flng dung cua nd trong viec day va hgc de ky nang THT cho sinh vien nam tbfl nhat khoa Anh. Ngbien cflu cho tha'y tim quan trgng cua viet sing tao trong day vl hgc ngoai ngfl. Nd cung cho thly khi nao va flng dung nhu the nao cua vie't sing tao vao viec day va hgc tie'ng. Hy vgng ring ngbien cflu nly it nhieu giflp ich cho dc gilo vien trong td cung nhu nhflng gilo vien day dc mdn THT cua dc td khic cung nhu dc tieng khac. Do ban che ve thdi gian vl dieu kien ngbien cflu, ngbien cflu nhd nly chic chin con so sai. Hy vgng ring dc tic gil se cd dieu kien ngbien ciru sau ban va dat hieu qua ban trong tuong lai. CIc tic gil cung mong nhan dugc nhflng Idi gdp y chan thanh cua dgc gil vl dc ddng nghiep de ngbien cflu dugc tdt ban. Tai lieu tham khao 1. Harris, J. (1993). Introducing writing. 1st ed., London Penguin Group 2. Joyce, H., & Feez, S. (2000). Creative writing skills. 1st ed., Aus: Phoenix Education PTY Ltd. 3. Maley, A., & Duff, A. (1988). Literature. 4tb ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. 4. Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing.lsi ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5. Tribble, C. (1996). Writing. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Website: skills/writing minisa ga.htm. 6. Avoy, J. M. (n.d.). Controlled narrative writing, retrieved Oct 23, 2004, from 7. Clandfield, L. (2004). Free lesson for speaking class In ELTIESL retrieved Oct 23, 2004, fromwww.onestopenglish.com Website: skills/writing minisa ga.htm. 8. Jenkins, H. (2001). Starting to teach creative writing in the 363

11 English language classroom, retrieved Oct 23, 2004, from Website: teachingenglish.org.uk/download/booksnotes/creativeways.pdf. 9. Morrissey, F. A. (n.d.). Write on! creative writing as language practice, retrieved Oct 23,2004, from Website: teachingenglish.org.uk/download/booksnotes/creativeways.pdf. 10. Muroxa, M. C. (n.d.). Creative writing: writing a story. retrieved Oct 23, 2004, from 364