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1 * Long-term Foraging Expedition and Subsistence of the Baka in Northwestern Congo Basin: An Example of Pure Foraging Life in Tropical Rain Forests Yasuoka Hirokazu* While Pygmy hunter-gatherers were generally assumed to be the original inhabitants of the central African rain forest, recent studies have proposed the hypothesis that it is impossible to subsist by hunting and gathering alone in the tropical rain forests without some degree of dependence on agricultural products. This hypothesis has been debated among researchers of hunter-gatherer societies in different parts of the world. There have been, however, few studies on this issue that were based on sound data on the actual hunting and gathering life of the forest peoples. This paper examines the possibility of hunting and gathering life in the tropical rain forest, based on the data obtained from participant observation on molongo, a long-term hunting and gathering expedition, among the Baka in southeastern Cameroon. During the two and a half months of the expedition, the Baka subsisted solely on wild food resources, wild yams in particular, although it was during the dry season when food resources are generally thought to be scarce. The sustainability of such a forest life is examined in relation to the abundance and distribution patterns of wild food resources, hunting and gathering technologies, residential patterns and nomadic life style. *, Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

2 1 1.1 Turnbull 1965 Turnbull 1965; 1982; Bahuchet 1993a; (revisionists) Headland 1987 Bailey km 37

3 4-1 (molongo) ,000 Joiris Joiris 1998 Kitanishi 2003; Harako 1976; ; Kitanishi 1995 Takeda ; ; 2000; Leclerc 2001; Kitanishi 2003; km

4 2 (Cephalophus spp.) 1.3 Headland 1987 Bailey ) Headland 39

5 4-1 Headland 1987 Wild Yam Question Headland 1987; Bailey et al ) Headland ,000 mm 4,000 mm 1992 Bailey ,000 mm mm 2 (tropical moist forest) Sommer 1976 Bailey Bailey Sommer 40

6 Human Ecology Bahuchet et al. 1991; Brosius 1991; Dwyer and Minnegal 1991; Endicott and Bellwood 1991; Stearman 1991 (ecological) (evolutionary) Headland 1987 Bailey

7 4-1 Headland 1997 Bailey and Headland 1991 Bailey and Headland Endicott and Bellwood ,067 kg Bahuchet et al ha 1 ha 2 kg Hladik et al km 2 2 Kitanishi 1995; Sato 2001 Mercader et al Headland km 2 42

8 (Zoulabot Ancien) m km 1,400 1,600 mm 12 2 yaka 1 (soko ma) soko pekie (Irvingia gabonensis) I. excelsa, Bailonella toxisperma, Anonidium mannii (semi-deciduous forest) Letouzey 1985 Scorodophloeus zenkeri Anonidium mannii, Polyalthia suaveolens Gilbertiodendron dewevrei Hart et al CFA (Boumba-Bek) (Nki) 1 43

9 Sato 1992; Tsuru 1998 (Dja) 5 km (Lebe) Cameroon km (Boumba) bac 2) ) 2001 (Bek)

10 Ichikawa 1983 Kitanishi 1995 Kingdon 1997 (Herbier National) Dounias 1993 Garmin e-treck GPS Centre Geographique National Leung

11 km Leclerc 2001 (sendo) (ngbasa) (maka) Leclerc 1 1 (bala a waiya) (gba) km km

12

13 (waiya) 1 48

14 10 20 km n natte ; ebo m ngendi; Cephalophus callipygus ngbomu; C. dorsalis mongala/mie; C. leucogaster monjumbe; C. nigrifrons (pame; Potamochoerus porcus) (bemba; C. silvicultor) (dengbe; C. monticola) (mboke; Atherurus africanus) (mboko; Syncerus 49

15 4-1 caffer) (mbongo; Tragelaphus euryceros) ,000 Fcfa Fcfa 1 euro, (kelepa; Smutsia gigantea) 1 10 kg Ichikawa (ngali) (karabin) (loli) 1 12,000 Fcfa (ya; Loxodonta africana cyclotis) 2 1 (sala) grande chasse big hunting (tuma) 10 50

16 bai 1 2 Tsuru 1998 (mokopolo) 2 3 petite chasse small hunting Leclerc 2001 kalu; Colobus guereza tamba; Cercocebus agilis gada; Lophocebus albigena koi; Cercopithecus nictitans 500 Fcfa (benga) 51

17 (bambe; Varanus sp.) (mokakele; Osteolaemus sp.) (meke; Python sp.) (boma; Bitis sp.) (bolo) Harako Joiris

18 (kukuma) (mbano) (yo) (ndolo) (libei) 53

19 (noa) (ngbala) (head) Dounias 1993; 2001 (paracultivation) giving environment Bird-David (Dioscorea spp.) 2 (Dioscoreophyllum spp.) Hladik and Dounias 1993; Dumont et al. 1994; Hamon et al Dounias (sapa; Dioscorea praehensilis) (esuma; D. semperflorens) (ba; D. mangenotiana) (keke; D. burkilliana) (kuku; D. minutiflora) (baloko; D. smilacifolia) (njakaka; D. sp.) (ngbi; Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii) Dounias 1993 (sende; D. hirtiflora) (boli; D. sp.) (pange; D. sp.) (bilango; Dioscoreophyllum sp.) Dounias ) p f f 54

20 1 30 kg Dounias 2001 ndondo; Dounias 1993 (head) 1 5 kg 10 kg (head) Dounias 2001; Sato 2001 Hladik 1984 waiting phase 1 1 (ngbi) soko pekie ha 10 cm 215 4, (mabe; Bailonella toxisperma (bambu; Gambeya lacourtiana) (pekie; Irvingia gabonensis) (gangendi/payo; Irvingia excelsa) (kombele/payo; Irvingia robur) (solia; Irvingia grandifolia) (bokoko; Klainedoxa gabonensis) (ngoyo; Trichoscypha abut) (gongu; Antrocryon klaineanum) (gimba; Afrostyrax lepidophyllus) (ngata; Myrianthus 55

21 4-1 arboreus) (gobo; Ricinodendron heudelotii) (kana; Panda oleosa) (mbe; Anonidium manii) (tokomboli; Chytranthus atroviolaceus) (kaso; Tetracarpidium conophorum) (koko; Gnetum spp.) (njii; Aframomum spp.) (tondo) (mbila; Elaeis guineensis) (tulu) 6 8 soko pekie soko mabe (leka) (la) kg (gie) 2 (kingili) (mita mabe)

22 kg 500 Fcfa 1 1,000 Fcfa (tondo) Fcfa (libenji) (pendi) (yenda) (yanji) (yalo) ngili/mobabo/gba (kopa) Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (mokobe) (tongia; Apis adansonii) (poki) (Meliponinae) (dandu, mopapele, molengi, pende, etc.) (dandu) (mbalaka; Pentaclethra macrophylla) (mongamba; Dichostemma glaucescens) (mobay; Pericopsis elata) 2 (gbado; Triplochiton scleroxylon) (boso; Petersianthus macrocarpus) (nguluma; Duboscia macrocarpa) (boyo; Entandrophragma cylindricum) (kaanga; Entandrophragma candolei) (taku; Bridelia grandis) (sengi; 57

23 4-1 Uapaca spp.) (kopo) kopo gbado 3 (peke; Raphia spp.) (pose kpokolo) (bandi) (mbembe) (nguma) kg (gbigbi; Malapterurus electricus) 5 cm 10 cm (si) (kaanji) (njenje) 10 Stearman 1991 keystone resource (mongombo; Millettia sanagana) (mboloa; Diospyros canaliculata) (asama; Turraeanthus africanus) 30 km 40 km

24 1 2 (gbie) (ndo; Musa spp.) (boma; Maniot esculenta) (jabuka) (wono; Arachis hypogaea) (mbombo; Zea mays) (langa; Xanthosoma sagitifolium) (mebuta; Ipomoea batatas) (alamba; Capsicum annuum) timekuma; bala; (manio) 3.6 1,000 2,000 Fcfa (ngongo; Megaphrynium macrostachyum) (bili; Marantochloa sp.) (bungu) 1 1,000 Fcfa

25 km 3 2 (Honji) km (Jalope) 1 (Mongungu)

26 29 4) Sato 1992; Tsuru (mongulu) km 3 km km 4)

27 km 2 6 km 6 km 1 (extensive) (intensive)

28 1,930 kg km (kg)* (kg) ** Cephalophus callipygus ngendi C. dorsalis ngbomu C. leucogaster mongala/mie C. nigrifrons monjumbe Cephalophus silvicultor bemba Potamochoerus porcus pame Pan troglodytes seko Tragelaphus euryceros mbongo Hyemoschus aquaticus geke/akolo Felis aurata ebie Cephalophus monticola dengbe Syncerus caffer mboko Smutsia gigantea kelepa Panthera pardus sua * ** 10,

29 g g g 369 g (kg) Potamochoerus porcus pame Python sp. meke 1 35 Cephalophus silivicultor bemba 1 28 Varanus sp. bambe 1 5 Bitis sp. boma 1 3 Herpestidae spp. nganda * Atherurus africanus mboke Osteolaemus sp. mokakele 2 10 Tragelaphus euryceros mbongo 1 97 *** Lophocebus albigena gada 1 5 Loxodonta africana cyclotis ya 1 778** **** Kinxys sp. kunda 2 3 Cephalophus dorsalis ngbomu 1 2 Pelusios sp. lende 1 2 Phataginus tricuspis or Uromanis tetradactyla kokolo 1 1 Cephalophus monticola dengbe * Kingdon 1997 ** *** **** 6 64

30 4 [kg] * ** [g] [kcal]*** * ** 66.5 *** 1 (g) g 150 kcal Leung g 150 kcal Leung kcal g Ichikawa g Hart and Hart Hart 1978; Ichikawa 1983; g Kitanishi 1995: Appendix ) 5)

31 km km 6 66

32 kg ,786 kcal 6 Leung 1968 Kitanishi ,339 kcal (kg) (g) (kcal)* Dioscorea praehensilis sapa D. semperflorens esuma D. mangenotiana ba D. burkilliana keke D. minutiflora kuku Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii ngbi Panda oleosa kana Irvingia excelsa gangendi (payo) I. robur kombele (payo) (Apis adansonii) poki 146.1** dandu 62.4** tulu kopo si * 3335 Leung 1968 Kitanishi kcal/100 g Panda oleosa Irvingia excelsa 670 kcal/100 g **

33 * ** * 4 6 ** 68

34 km km (km) Ngato km 5 Ngato 69

35 ,100 km 80 3,400 2 km ,200 km 2 70

36 6 5 km 40 (nea; Strophanthus gratus) 71

37 (yaka) 1 30 soko pekie: km (Lingondo) 30 WWF WWF 1 WWF 1998:

38 Bailey 1989 Hart and Hart 1986 Hart and Hart 5 Ricinodendron heudelotti Bahuchet 1991 Hart Dounias km 10 km 11 73

39 Dounias 1993; 2001 Dounias ,000 3,000 km km km km Hart and 74

40 Hart 1986 Ricinodendron heudelotti Anonidium manii Bailonella toxisperma 100 km 8 9 (manja) 5.8 kg/ha Sato Dounias ,700 ha 17 km kg ) Dounias ) 5.2 ha 1,000 km 2 75

41 Ichikawa 1978; Bahuchet Joiris

42 (pene) (pote) Tanno 1977; 1982; Hart and Hart ; Kitanishi 1995 Kitanishi 1995 Harako Kitanishi kg kg Ichikawa kg 21.2 kg 77

43 4-1 Bahuchet 1993b 1 WWF km Fimbel et al Hart 2000 Noss km km 2 3 km km 2 78

44 9 79 * Harako Tanno Ichikawa Kitanishi Noss Kitanishi Noss * 10 Cephalophus monticola Cephalophus callipygus; C. dorsalis; C. leucogaster; C. nigrifrons Atherurus africanus Hyemoschus aquaticus Cephalophus silivicultor Potamochoerus porcus 10 (No./km 2 ) (kg/km 2 ) (No./km 2 ) (kg/km 2 ) (No./km 2 ) (kg/km 2 ) Hart 2000* Hart Noss 2000** Fimbel et al. 2000*** WWF 1998**** * Hart 2000: km ** Noss 2000: km, km *** Fimbel et al. 2000: km km 30 km **** WWF 1998: Boumba-Bek Corridor forest Nki forest 4.7 kg 18.8 kg Koster and Hart 1988

45 4-1 Sato 1983; Takeda g 363 g ) (r) 0.29 Noss km 2 WWF 1998: km 2 7)

46 8) 40 km /6 1/ Hart and Hart 1986 Headland ,500 mm 8) (r) Robinson and Redford

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