Science april to june 2013.qxd

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30 Water Crop Production Strategies with Poor Quality Waters Krishan Kumar, S K Sharma, Ram Prakash, Satyawan and Rajpaul Water scarcity forces water managers and users to balance the need for water with the available supplies worldwide. Dam-based canal irrigation has been playing the dominant role till now. In view of the reduced availability of fresh water resource and its increasing demand, it is essential that stress is laid upon development of poor quality ground water in areas with prolific aquifers and low stage of development; conservation of ground water resources through development of ground water in water logged areas and promoting use of saline/ brackish ground water. The irrigation induced water logging and salinity are the two major factors leading to crop yield decline in most of the irrigation commands. Further, the impact of continuous irrigation over the years cause the rise of ground water table into root zones also leads to reduction in crop yields. Alkali soils come into existence due to irrigation with poor quality waters, which are loaded with residual sodium carbonate. Continuous and unabated use of saline ground water affect the soil structure, salt balance and result in the disappearance of useful bacteria and plants essential for the stability of the soil system, further aggravating drinking water problems. Harmful Effects of saline Water Salinity is the word used to describe the salt content of soil or water. When 30 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

31 Water this salt content is excessive it degrades water quality and land productivity. Soluble salts are often found in water and soil but usually not in sufficient concentrations to affect plant and animal survival. Increases in salinity is usually caused by a rise in the level of underground water table bringing naturally occurring salt to the surface. This concentrates salt and affects the environment dependent on that soil and water. Lack of drainage or inadequacy of it is rapidly becoming a major constraint to limit agricultural production. Productivity of agricultural lands can only be sustained if drainage improvements are undertaken on cropland currently affected by submergence or high water tables. Harmful Effects of Alkali/Sodic Water Sodic water adversely affects soil physical properties. The increased exchangeable sodium percentages (ESP) resulting from long term use leads to breakdown of soil structure due to swelling and dispersion of clay particles. Fine textured soils remain dispersed and puddle when wet and hard when dry. A thin crust is often formed at the soil surface, which acts as a barrier to water penetration and seedling emergence. Increase in soil ph reduces the availability of a number of plant nutrients like nitrogen, zinc, iron etc. Irrigation with sodic water also results in decreased availability of calcium and magnesium and toxicity of sodium. Among the soluble constituents in irrigation water, sodium is considered as the most hazardous. Sodium affects the permeability of the soil by causing swelling and dispersion of clay particles and clogging of soil pores and it may cause injury to crops. The presence of high concentration of carbonates and bicarbonates results generally in an increase in the proportion of sodium because of precipitation of calcium and magnesium carbonate in contact with the soil. The classification of water according to the sodium content is based on the ratio of Na+ to (Ca+ and Mg ++). Drip irrigation system Yields of many crops, vegetables and fruit plants e.g. barley, dates and pomegranate, when irrigated with saline or brackish water by drip irrigation are not significantly affected. Saline/ brackish water can be successfully used to irrigate such plants and fresh or good quality water can be saved for use by other sensitive crops or for other uses. Tolerance of different crops to use of saline water irrigation through sprinkler lines: In case the ground water is of extremely poor quality and cannot be recommended even for blending, to check the rise in ground water table the irrigation doses applied should be just sufficient to reach the bottom of the root of the crop. The crops selected for growing in such area should be less water intensive. Such areas could beneficially be ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 31

32 Water developed for oil seeds like mustard and pulses like gram or orchards. For developing of area through sprinkler/drip irrigation the canal system need be designed in manner making the drip system operatable. Integrated use of surface and ground water-conjunctiveuse: The isolated use of surface water ignoring optimal ground water use has resulted into various environmental problems. In view of the large demands on the fresh waters, it has become necessary to utilize the groundwater supplies available to the extent possible. conjunctive use of saline drain water-good quality water. Control of groundwater salinity through sub-surface drainage systems: The installation of subsurface drainage system helps in lowering of water table and leaching of soluble salts beyond the root zone proved beneficial for successful crop production in the irrigation commands. Management practices to overcome the adverse effects of sodic irrigation waters. Water with RSC less than 2.5 meq/l is safe for irrigation Water with RSC between 2.5 to 4.0 meq/l needs occasional gypsum application to improve crop yields. Gypsum Application The best time for gypsum application is after summer showers followed by ploughing to a shallow depth. Gypsum should be properly powdered before application. If powdered gypsum is purchased, additional grinding is not required. Apply a heavy irrigation, broadcast the gypsum uniformly and mix in shallow depth. The purity of gypsum should be equal to or more than 80 per cent. Apply a heavy irrigation and keep the land flooded with water for at least 8-10 days. Gypsum Application in field Management practices to overcome the adverse effects of saline irrigation waters. Land levelling Adequate maintenance of existing drainage system. Vertical drainage If the recharge to the groundwater is more than the discharge and natural drainage is unable to take care of this recharge, such a situation calls for implementing some kind of subsurface drainage. Subsurface drainage may be accomplished either through the construction of open trenches or through buried clay or concrete tiles or perforated pipes. Appropriately designed and implemented surface drainage could help to increase yield at farmers field. 32 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

33 plants Why medicinal plants are important Amit Kumar Goswami Rakesh Kumar, Kumar Bharat Bhushan Herbal drugs are staging a comeback and herbal 'renaissance' is happening all over the globe. A vast diversity of herbal ingredients, major proportion of which is derived from the wild, provide the resource base for the herbal industry. The herbal drug market continues to grow at the rate of 15% annually. Out of some 2,50,000 higher plant species on Earth, more than 80,000 are of medicinal value. The traditional systems of medicine continue to cater in to the medicinal needs of about 80% of the world population. However, modern system of medicine cater to only about 20% of population. Medicinal plants from a numerically large group of economically important plants which provide basic raw materials for medicines. They are used in the form of crude drugs in the form of dried parts of the plants (root, stem, wood, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits seeds, and also whole plants) or their extracts. These plants and their products not only serve as a valuable source of income for farmers with small land holdings and entrepreneurs but also earn valuable foreign exchange by way of exports. Some of the important medicinal plants are described here with their therapeutic uses. The fruit is one of the ingredients of Triphala formula of Ayurveda, which is commonly prescribed in treating asthma, biliousness. It has been traditionally used for curing eye and skin diseases, boost immunity and resistance against infectious diseases. It can be used to expel or destroy parasitic worms, and also as an antiseptic, astringent, laxative, and tonic. The seed oil is used for treating skin disease and premature graying of Brahmi It is also known as thyme or Neer brahmi, botanically known as Bacopa monnieri, it belongs to family Scrophulariacae. It is distributed in moist habitats and water edges throughout tropical and subtropical India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. Chemical constituents of brahmi include alkaloids Bahera This is botanically known as Terminalia bellerica. It belongs to family Combretaceae. This tree is found in India, Sri-Lanka, Malaysia and many other Asian countries. Some of the major chemical constituents of Terminalia bellerica are triterpenoids, polyphenols and fixed oil. Parts used are bark and fruits. hair. Chewing baked pieces of the fruit is beneficial in treating respiratory ailments, cough, cold, hoarseness of voice and asthma. The fruit powder is beneficial in wound dressing to arrest bleeding. such d-mannitol and hersaponin, and monnierin; and flavonoids such as brahmine and herpestine; saponins as luteolin and apigenin. Brahmi is also effective in controlling cough, fever, and dia- ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 33

34 plants betes. In Siddha system of medicine, the plant has been prescribed against painful joints, peripheral neuritis, constipation, and burning feeling during urination. Sweet Basil Commonly known as tulsi, it is botanically known as Ocimum basilicum and belongs to family Lamiaceae. It is also known by name of sweet basil. It is a tender low-growing herb. Depending on the species and cultivar, the leaves may taste somewhat like anise, with a strong, pungent, often sweet smell. Basil oil has various chemical compounds that include pinene, camphene, pinene, myrcene, limonene, cis-ocimene, linalool, methyl chavicol, terpineol, citronellor, geraniol, methyl cinnamate, and eugenol. The plant is used for cough, asthma, bronchitis, severe conjunctivitis, giddiness, catarrh, earache, headache, and dyspepsia. Turmeric Commonly known as haldi, it is scientifically known as Curcuma longa and belongs to family Zingiberaceae. Rhizomes of the plant are used. Major constituents are ar-turmerone, turmerone, turmerone, and ocimene. It is used as a remedy for wounds, bruises and sprain, and skin problem, It is also effective as a digestive aid and in liver protection. Wild turmeric is recognized as a medical herb with strong antibiotic properties. It possesses anti-inflammatory, blood-vitalising and anti-tumor properties. Ginger contains aromatic volatile oils that help to remove excessive lipids from the blood, reduce aggregation of platelets, and reduce inflammation. Asparagus Known as Satavar, Satavari, and Satamuli in Hindi, it is botanically known as Asparagus racemosus belongings to family Liliaceae. It is a creeper growing about 1 to 2 meters tall, and is found in all types of forests and plains. It is known as the 'Queen of herbs' in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant part used is the tuber. Important chemical constituents include a polycyclic alkaloid called asparagamine A; steroidal saponins, shatavarsoide A, shatavarosid B, and filiasparoside C; and isoflavones. Asparagus is used to relieve pain, to induce milk secretion, and as an aphrodisiac. The roots are useful in nervous disorders, syspepsia, tumours, throat infections, bronchitis, and general debility. The herb is useful for treating anorexia (a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite), insomnia, and also hyperactive children and people who are under-weight. Aspargus is considered a rejuvenating female tonic for overall health and vitality. It is used for treating sexual debility, infertility in both the sexes, and menopausal symptoms and to increase milk secretion during lactation. Ginger Commonly known as adrak, the botanical 34 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

35 plants huge, standing as much as 3.7m tall. The fruits are thin-walled, smooth-skinned, oblong, greenish capsules. Each contains aromatic reddish brown seeds. It is found up to the height of 750 to 1,500 metres above mean sea level. In India, it is found in Western Ghats and the coastal areas, especially of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka. Fruits and seeds of cardamom are used. Chemical constituents of cardamom include pinene, pinene, sabinene, myrcene, phellandrene, limonene, 1,8- cineole, terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4- ol, terpineol, terpineol acetate, citronellol, nerol, geraniol, methyl eugenol and trans-nerolidol. Seeds of cardamom are carminative (prevents the formation of gas in the alimentary tract) and digestive. It is used to treat asthma, bronchitis, cardiac disorders, anorexia, thirst, nausea, painful or difficult urination, dyspepsia, and burning sensation. name of the plant is Zingiber officinale and belongs to family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial with upright stems and narrow medium green leaves arranged in two ranks on each stem. The plant part used is the rhizome. Chemical constituents of ginger are phenols, alkaloids, and mucilage. Ginger has digestive properties. Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Ginger has been claimed to decrease the pain from arthritis. It may also have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties. Cardamom In Hindi, it is known as elaichi. It is botanically known as Elettaria cardamomum and belongs to family Zingiveraceae. Cardamom is a rather typical looking ginger plant except that it is Periwinkle Commonly known as sadabahar, it is botanically known as Catharanthus roseus. It belongs to family Apocynaceae. It is also known as Madagascar periwinkle. The plant is a native of Madagascar and from there it has spread to India, Indonesia, Indo-China the Philippines, South Africa, Israel, USA and other parts of the world. Leaves and roots of the plant are used in the pharmaceutical industry and in Ayurvedic medicines to treat different diseases like diabetes, hypertension and cancer. It has medicinal importance owing to the presence of alkaloids like ajamalicine, serpentine and reserpine, which are well known for their blood-pressure lowering and antispasmodic properties. Vinablastine and vincristine are alkaloids found in periwinkle. The alkaloid vincristine sulphate is being marketed under the trade name Oncovin for use against acute leukemia, while vinblastine sulphate is used as Velbe to cure Hodgkin's disease and other lymphomas and choriocarcinomas (can- ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 35

36 plants cer of the placenta). Root bark of the periwinkle plant contains the alkaloid alstonine, which has been used traditionally for its calming effect and its ability to reduce blood pressure. The anti-cancer drugs, namely Vincristine and Vinblastine are produced from periwinkle, which is helpful in the treatment of leukaemia in children and also lymphoma. Liquorice It is also known as mulethi or jasthimadhu, Botanically, it is known as Glycyrrhiza glabra. It belongs to family Papilionaceae. It is widely distributed in Spain, Italy, Greece, Syria, Iraq, India, Afghanistan, Turkey, parts of USSR and China. Plant parts used are roots and bark. The dried rhizome and root of the plant is used as flavouring agent and the taste ingredient in pharmaceutical and confectionery industries, Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene glucoside, is the principal constituent of G.glabra which is 50 times sweeter than sugar. The root contains flavours, iso-flavanoes and cumarins including a 4-methyl coumarin, liqcoumarin, glabridin and glabrene. The dried peeled or unpeeled underground stems and roots of the plant constitute the drug which is an important constituent of all cough syrups, throat lozenges, and pastilles. It has been used in Arab system of medicine for more than 600 years from where it has been adopted to modern medicine. Ashwagandha Also known as asgandh and Winter cherry, the plant is botanically known as Withania somnifera. It belongs to family Solanaceae. It is found wild in Bastar District of Madhya Pradesh, all over the foot hills of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and Western Uttar Pradesh in the Himlalayas. The main chemical constituent of ashwagandha is the alkaloid withanine. The other alkloids are somniferine, somnine, somniferinine, withananine, pseudo-withanine, tropine, pseudo-tropine, cuscohygrine, anferine and anhydrine. The leaves contain steroidal lactones, which are commonly called withanolides. Ashwagandha increases the count of white blood cells and prepares the body to produce antigens against various infections and allergies. It is also considered as a tonic for the heart and lungs, as its regular intake controls the blood pressure and regulates the heartbeat. It has a strong nourishing and protective effect on the nervous system. The berries can be used as a substitute for rennet to coagulate milk in cheese making. The berries and leaves are traditionally used a topical treatment for tumours and tunercular glands, carbuncles and ulcers. 36 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

37 plants Bhringaraj It is botanically known as Eclipta alba and belongs to family Asteraceae. It is found in India, Bangaladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Sri Lanka. Leaves and roots of the plant are used. Chemical constituents include the alkaloids ecliptine and nicotine. Bhringaraj is used in Ayurvedic treatment for the prevention of repeated miscarriage and abortion. It is also used to relieve post delivery uterine pain. The decoction prepared from the leaves of this herb is used to reduce uterine bleeding. The extract obtained from the leaves of this plant is mixed with honey and given to infants for expulsion of worm. This herb is also considered to have anti-aging properties. It is used as a general tonic in case of debility. The juice of the leaves of Bhringraj is given to children for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. It is useful in curing night blindness, eye disease and headache. Stevia It is scientifically known as Stevia rebaudiana and it belongs to family Asteraceae. It is found in North-Eastern Paraguay USA, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and South East Asia. A substance called rebiana, which is a trade name for zerocalories sweetener containing mainly steviol glycoside, is extracted from stevia. Stevia is also rich in flavonoids and terpenes. Other constituents include stevioside, which is considered sweetest natural sweetener. It imparts 250 times more sweetness than table sugar and 300 times more than sucrose. Leaves of the plant are used. Stevia inhibits tooth decay and slows the formation of plaque-a sweetener that is potential to increase mental alertness, decrease fatigue, improve digestion, and regulate blood pressure. Considerable quantities of stevia are used in the manufacture of herbal preparations for flavour and to make them more palatable. Aloe vera Known as ghee kunwar in Hindi, it belongs to family Lilliacae. Aloe is grown largely in South Texas, USA, Mexico, India, South America, Central America, Australia and Africa. Three main constituents are barbaloin, isobarbaloin and -barbaloin. Freshly collected leaves and pulp of the plant is Aloe juice helps in digestive disorders. Constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome, etc., are cured by the flushing action. The deposits of toxins and unwanted substances in our diet which keep accumulating in the intestines prevent the absorption of essential nutrients causing nutritional deficiency, lethargy, constipation, lower back ache. ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 37

38 plants Aloe juice helps flush our these residues, boosting the digestion and giving a greater feeling of well-being. It repairs arthritis damaged tissue and lowers glucose and tri-glyceride levels in diabetic patients. Mint Also known as Pudina and mentha. It is botanically known as Mentha arvensis. It belongs to family Lamiaceae. Other species are Mentha piperita (pepper mint), M. spicata (spear mint), and M.citrata (Bergamot mint). Mint is believed to have originated in the Mediterranean basin and spread to the rest of the world. Leaves of the plant are used. The main constituents of the oil are menthol (65-75%), menthone (7-10%) and methyl acetate (12-15%) and terpenes (pipene, limonene and comphene). Menthol is used in the flaovouring of large number of pharamaceutical and oral preparations like tooth pastes, dental creams, confectionery, beverages and other items like tobacco, cigarettes, pan masala, etc. Menthol itself finds extensive use in medicine in the treatment of nasal and bronchial catarrh. It is also occasionally employed as a carminative. Conclusion Medicinal plants and their various products are important due to absence of sideeffects on health. To meet the ever increasing domestic and international demands, it has now become imperative to produce the quality raw materials in significant quantities. This can only be achieved by developing suitable agrotechniques for different medicinal plants in various climatic zones of the country. There is need of organised marketing and trade of medicinal plants and their various products. There is a need to conserve the important plant species which are now neglected and under extinction due to deforestation. Some species are on the verge of extinction due to heavy exploitation by pharmaceutical industries. Excessive deforestation resulted in losing important treasure of unique medicinal plants. So there is urgent need to protect such wild species and, simultaneously, to develop suitable agro-techniques for their large scale multiplication so that their field cultivation is made possible, to fulfil rising demand of raw material for pharmaceutical industries. 1.Scientist, Division of Fruits and Horticultural Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 2. Post Doc Fellow, Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi 3. Scientist C, Vigyan Prasar, Noida Source : Dream 2047, May 2012, Vol 14 No ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

39 Intresting Top 10 science stories of 2012 Biman Basu Higgs boson discovered Discovery of the long sought-after subatomic particle called the Higgs boson on 4th July 2012 in experiments conducted at Large Hardon Collider at CERN was the culmination of more than five decades of search for the elusive particle. After analyzing trillions of high-energy proton-proton collisions, signals corresponding to a boson in the mass region GeV, as predicted for the Higgs boson, were recorded by both ATLAS and interactions with them. The field and the particle-named after Peter Higgs of the University of Edinburgh, one of the physicists who first proposed this mechanism-provide a testable hypothesis for the origin of mass in elementary particles. The historic discovery of the Higgs particle has significant India connection. As many as 17 Indian scientific institutions including Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in Indore, vital parts including magnets and detectors for the LHC as well as developed software for analysis of the data. CMS detectors of the LHC. Higgs boson was postulated as the carrier particle, or boson, of the Higgs field, a theoretical field that permeates space and endows all elementary subatomic particles with mass through its Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, Panjab University, Universities of Guwahati and Rajasthan, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, and Bose Institute in Kolkata, and IIT, Mumbai have supplied Most massive black hole Hundreds of black holes have been discovered till date, but the most recent discovery beats them all in mass. The discovery of a gargantuan black hole- with a mass 17 billion times that of the Sunwas announced in November by a group of astronomers led by Remco van den Bosch from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany. The team used archival data from the Hubble Space Telescope and observations from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in Fort Davis, Texas, which focused on the most massive galaxies in the nearby Universe. The black hole was found in a galaxy identified as NGC 1277, some 250 million light years away in the constellation of Perseus. According to the astronomers, the discovery could upset the accepted relationship between black hole mass and galaxy mass, which plays a key role in all current theories of galaxy evolution. The most surprising fact about the newly discovered black hole is that its mass is too large compared to the mass of the whole galaxy, contradicting a widely ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 39

40 Intresting accepted view about the growth of galaxies. Most large galaxies harbour giant black holes at their centres. The Milky Way's central black hole, for example, weighs 4 million times as much as the Sun. But such black holes usually obey a standard correlation: typically, the black hole mass is a tiny fraction of the galaxy's central bulge. The recent finding is contrary to previous estimates based on observations of some 70 other galaxies with central black holes, which indicate that supermassive black hole typically has about 0.1% the mass of its home galaxy's stellar bulge. In comparison, the black hole in NGC, 1277 is about 59% as massive as the galaxy's central bulge of stars. The Curiosity Mars mission The US space programme crossed a significant milestone on 6 August 2012 with the perfect landing of the Mars rover Curiosity on Mars. The landing of the 900-kg rover, the heaviest yet to be landed on Mars, was different from all previous Mars missions in many ways. For the first time, rockets were used and a huge parachute was deployed to slow down the landing craft as it entered the Martian atmosphere. Finally, NASA used a unique 'sky crane' to soft land the rover gently on the floor of the Gale Crater on Mars. Apart from being much larger and heavier than any previous Mars lander, Curiosity uses the heat of decaying radioactive plutonium rather than solar cells as the source of power, which is expected to provide high power levels, day and night, for much longer than Curiosity's mission life. Known as Mars Science Laboratory, the mission was launched in November last year. The basic objective of the mission is to seek evidence whether Mars ever hosted ingredients for life. Curiosity look for organic molecule in the Martian soil and rocks, by scooping up soil and drill through Martian rocks using laser, to determine the Martian environment over geological time scales-going back to 4 billion years-and elements essential to life. Since its dramatic landing in inside Gale Crater in July, Curiosity has returned more than 23,000 raw images; driven 517 matters, and begun helping researchers better understand the area's environmental history. In December mission scientists announced that Curiosity has found evidence of chlorine, sulphur and water as well as "hints of organic compounds which could aid primitive life". During a two-year prime mission, researchers will be using Curiosity's ten science instruments to assess whether the study area in Gale Crater ever has offered environmental conditions favourable for microbial life. Mercury has ice in craters Mercury, the first planet from the Sun, is the second hottest planet, with a daytime surface temperature of a blistering C. But NASA's orbiting MESSENGER probe has recently found evidence of water ice on the planet. According to scientists working on the MESSENGER mission, as mush as 1.1 trillion tonnes of iceenough to fill 20 billion Olympic skating rinks - could be trapped inside Mercury's polar craters that never see sunlight. According to the scientists, much of the ice may be protected by a dark layer of carbon-rich organic material several centimeters thick, and the water and organic material probably are not native to Mercury; it could have been delivered by icy comments as they smashed into the surface. The discovery was announced in November in the journal Science. Planetary scientists had strong hints of presence of ice on Mercury a couple of decades ago when telescopes bounced radio waves off Mercury and the reflections were surprisingly bright. But some researchers suggested the craters could be lined with silicate compounds or sulphur, which might also be highly reflective. MESSENGER has now cleared the doubt. Now it is known that although at noon at the equator on Mercury, the temperature can rise to C, near Mercury's poles, deep within craters where the Sunlight never reaches, temperatures dip to as low as minus C. The MESSENGER spacecraft, which has been orbit around Mercury since March 2011 and has completed its primary mission, took a closer look by counting neutrons ejected by rocks on the planet. High-energy cosmic rays hitting 40 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ ÁÙßÚUè- æ ü w vx

41 Intresting the surface of Mercury break apart atoms, and the debris includes neutrons, which MESSENGER can detect. But when a speeding neutron hits a hydrogen atom, which is almost the same weight, it comes to almost a complete stop. Water molecules contain two hydrogen atoms, and so stop more neutrons. Thus when MESSENGER passed over ice-rich areas, the number of neutrons dropped. The same technique was used to detect frozen water below the surface on Mars and within similar craters on the Moon. Pluto's fifth moon discovered A fifth moon of Pluto, once considered the outermost planet of the solar system that was degraded to a "dwarf planet" status in 2006, was discovered in July. The new moon, dubbed P5 until it gets a proper name; is estimated to be irregular in shape and 10 to 25 kilometres across. Even in the Hubble's best images, the new moon P4 was discovered in P5 is incredibly faint-half as bright as P4, and roughly one-hundred-thousandth as bright as Pluto-and orbits relatively close to the dwarf planet. Pluto's new moon was discovered on 7 July 2012 by chance, in the course of checking out the potential collision hazards to NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, which is due for a flyby of Pluto, passing 10,000 km from the planet on 14 July According to NASA, the discovery will help the new Horizons spacecraft navigate its way to the planet safely. Moving past the dwarf planet at a speed of more than 48,000 km per hour, New Horizons could be destroyed in a collision with even a tiny piece of orbital debris. Banana genome sequenced An international consortium of plant scientists announced in July the completion of the first sequencing of the banana genome, which has been found to contain more than 36,000 genes, slightly more than in the human genome. The banana is the first non-grassy plant in its botanical class, the monocotyledons, or monocots, whose entire genome has been sequenced. The genome that has been sequenced ran to 523 million 'base pairs', the chemical units that make up DNA and encode the genetic information. Bananas (Musa spp.) are vital for food security in many tropical and subtropical countries and the most popular fruit in industrialized countries. It provides food and economic security for more than 400 million people in some of the poorest parts of the globe, but they are under constant threat from a range of parasites. Bananas are difficult to breed and are under attack from a host of diseases and other pests. Knowledge of the banana genome is important because bananas that are cultivated, unlike their wild relatives, are seedless and develop without going through a process of pollination, fertilization and seed production. These domesticated forms are mostly multiplied by vegetative propagation, by using a part of the parent plant. As a result, the offspring are genetically similar to the parent and such similarity makes most of the present day cultivated varieties susceptible to fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. The completion of the genome sequence is important for India, Which is the world's largest producer of bananas. From the knowledge of the entire genome of the plant it may be possible to identify the genes responsible for disease resistance as well as ones for other important traits such as fruit quality, which may help in breeding improved varieties of the fruit. New species of legless amphib- moon-some 5.9 billion kilometers from the Sun-is visible only as a speck of light. The orbit of the new moon is still uncertain, though the tiny moon appears to be circling in the same plane as Pluto's other satellites and roughly 42,000 km from the dwarf planet. Pluto's largest moon-the 1,050-km-wide Charon-was discovered in Its two smaller moons, Nix and Hydra, were found in 2005 and a fourth ÁÙßÚUè- æ ü w vx ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 41

42 Intresting ians After a digging through the monsoonsoaked soils at 250 locations of remote northeast India for over five years, a team of researchers led by Sathyabhama Das Biju of Delhi University has come up with an entirely new species of legless amphibians till recently unknown to science. According to the researchers, the new species-called chikilidae-is endemic to the region but has ancient links to Africa, which shows that the species evolved much before Indian subcontinent separated from the African Landmass. Interestingly, these worm-like animals are closer to frogs than worms! The new discovery gives yet more evidence that India is a hotbed of amphibian life with habitats worth protecting. According to the researchers, Chilkilidae is a group of extremely dedicated burrowers. They exhibit an intriguing and highly specialized reproductive behavior. The mother builds underground nests for her eggs and guards her egg-clutch by coiling around them until the embryos hatch after 2-3 months. Ancient microbes found in Antarctic lake In November, a team of scientist from NASA, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Reno, Nevada, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and nine other institutions announced the discovery of a community of bacteria existing in one of Earth's darkest, saltiest and coldest habitats-nearly 20 meters beneath the icy surface of a remote Antarctic lake called Lake Vida that has not seen light or oxygen for 2800 years. The surprising thing is that the lake water contains no oxygen, is mostly frozen, and possesses the highest nitrous oxide levels of any natural water body on Earth. A briny liquid, which is approximately six times saltier than sea water, percolates throughout the icy environment where the average temperature is minus 22 C. Thirty-two species of bacteria were identified. They are believed to live off chemical reactions with hydrogen in the lake water. This discovery of life existing in one of earth's darkest, saltiest and coldest habitats is significant because it helps increase our limited knowledge of how life can sustain itself in these extreme environments on our own planet and beyond. Geochemical analyses suggest that chemical reactions between the brine and the underlying iron-rich sediments generate nitrous oxide and molecular hydrogen. According to the researchers, molecular hydrogen, in part, may provide the energy needed to support the brine's diverse microbial life. Additional research is under way to analyse the abiotic, chemical interactions between the Lake Vida brine and its sediment, in addition to investigating the microbial community by using different genome sequencing approaches. The 42 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

43 Intresting results could help explain the potential for life in other salty, cryogenic environments beyond Earth, such as purported subsurface aquifers on Mars. sounds that are too low pitched for humans to hear. Humans can hear only within a certain range of frequencies-from 20 to 20,000 hertz (Hz). Sound of frequency below 20 Hz, known as infrasound, is inaudible to humans but can be heard by elephants whereas many animals like dogs, mice and bats can hear frequencies above 20,000 Hz, also known as ultrasound. Bird calls are of different frequencies and are used for both communication and courtship. When Freeman played back the recorded sound to the birds, females looked alert and males were likely to come out with the familiar loud call, indicating their response to infrasound frequencies. Elephants have long been known to communicate over long distances using sound of frequency below 20 Hz. This is the first time that a bird has been shown to produce and perceive sounds below human hearing for communication. Cheaper drugs against malaria Quinine obtained from the bark of the cinchona tree was once the most effective antimalarial drug available, but it has become ineffective as the parasite has become resistant to it. The only effective antimalarial available today is artemisinin-a drug obtained from the sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) plant, a herb described in Chinese tradi- New light on peacock communication We are all familiar with the loud, piercing call of the peacock, but a recent study has revealed that during courtship peacocks also use low-frequency sounds that humans cannot hear. The most attractive part of a peacock is its long tail formed of magnificent peacocks communicate visually and through sound. The peacock uses its tail train in an elaborate courtship display, which includes the display of its beautiful plumage, and its familiar loud, piercing call, and a unique courtship dance. During courtship, males are known to spread out their magnificent train feathers into a fan shape and shake it vigorously, which can create a ripple moving down the sides of the array, or else it can send a shudder radiating outward from the base, During both these classic moves, all a human being hears is a leaf-like rustling. But when a research team led by Angela Freeman, a biology graduate student of University of Manitoba in Canada recorded the sounds they discovered very low-pitched sounds, inaudible to humans and produced by vibrations of the spread-out feathers. The team discovered that when male peacocks display their feathers during courtship they also make deep rumbling ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 43

44 Intresting tional medicine. Since 2001, WHO has recommended that so-called artermisininbased combination therapies (ACTs)-in which artemisinin is combined with another drug-replace older, ineffective drug worldwide. These combinations have become a cornerstone of malaria control and are believed to have saved many lives. But artemisinin is an expensive drug and beyond the reach of most patients in the poorer countries. ACTs is still cost between $1 and $2 per treatment course, which the poor patients can hardly afford. Now there is hope for these patients. In January, scientist at the Max planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces in Germany developed a simple method of synthesising the artemisinin molecule, which can drastically reduce the cost of the drug. The synthetic process uses artemisinic acid, a byproduct left over after extraction of artemisinin, from sweet wormwood leaves. During the extraction of 1 kilogram of artemisinic, as much as 10 kilograms of artemisini acid is produced, which is currently thrown away because its conversion into artemisinin is not cost-effective. Two researchers at Max Planck Institute of Colloids, Peter Seeberger and Francois Levesque announced in January that they have developed an inexpensive three-step continuous flow synthesis of artemisinin from artemisinic acid using a combination of oxygen and ultraviolet light. They could convert artemisinic acid into artemisinin in just four-and-a-half minutes in a continuous-flow reactor. According to the scientists, the production could be raised to 2 kg per day and when that happens the entire world's supply of the drug for a year could be produced by just 150 reactors that could cut the cost of the drug to about one-fifth its present cost. Source : Dream 2047, January 2013, Vol. 15 No. 4 The historic discovery of the Higgs particle has significant India connection. As many as 17 Indian scientific institutions including Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in Indore, Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, Panjab University, Universities of Guwahati and Rajasthan, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, and Bose Institute in Kolkata, and IIT, Mumbai have supplied vital parts including magnets and detectors for the LHC as well as developed software for analysis of the data. 44 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

45 Nature How the tiger got its stripes? Dr. T.V. Venkateshwaran Alan Turing, founder of computer science, mathematician, logician, famous for deciphering Nazi secret codes during world war II, turned his mathematical mind to one of the natural world's most enduring riddles: How tigers got their stripes. Sixty years after his suicide, experimental evidence has confirmed his theory. Rudyard Kipling's jungle Book tells a tale of how the tiger got its stripes; as the tiger ran towards the cave, the trees and creepers on his path carved black stripes upon its yellow hide. Indeed it may be enchanting 'just so stories', but how really does tiger's stripes, leopard's spots, cow splotches and the lines of zebra fish emerge? Although many legends spun stories to explain the tiger's stripes, the real reason is adaptation of the animals to its environment camouflage. This adaptation occurred over millions of years of evolution. The tiger's vertical stripes would appear as bands of shadow and light in the tall grass. The stripes break up and hide the outlines of its body as it hunts, making it hardly noticeable. If the stripes help tiger to blend in the grassland, the spots of leopard make help it merge with clumps of plants and with leaves of trees which it climbs. In like manner intricate patterns on variety of ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 45

46 Nature Although many legends spun stories to explain the tiger's stripes, the real reason is adaptation of the animals to its environment camouflage. This adaptation occurred over millions of years of evolution. The tiger's vertical stripes would appear as bands of shadow and light in the tall grass. The stripes break up and hide the outlines of its body as it hunts, making it hardly noticeable. If the stripes help tiger to blend in the grassland, the spots of leopard make help it merge with clumps of plants and with leaves of trees which it climbs. coral fish make it blend in the background of coral reef making it harder for the predator to spot. But how these patterns emerge in the development of the organism from its embryo was a mystery. Turing's proposition was a simple idea-reaction-diffusion mechanism. In his influential paper "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis," published way back in 1952, he speculated that regular repeating patterns in biological systems are generated by just a pair of morphogens that work together as an 'activator' and 'inhibitor'. The way in which they interact would dictate where cells grow, creating familiar patterns on the fur of animals. The skin colour tone is the result of melanin production - higher the melanin darker we are; lower the production, lighter the skin tone. Just as when we pour milk in the tea, it eventually spreads and creates uniform light brown colour, as the melanin is produced and diffused in normal circumstances it should create a particular shade of skin colour. However, Turing showed that, if you had two chemicals- an activator that produces a colour and an inhibitor that blocks it - then the result of the skin colour is stable but non uniform. His simple mathematical equations, partial differentials, showed that when the activator and inhibitor diffuse at different rates, it can generate exquisite variety of patterns seen in the animal world. These equations can generate the endless variation seen in nature, from polka dotted Dalmatian dogs to chequered giraffe. This elegant model yields simple predictions; while a spotted animal can have a striped tail, a striped animal will never have a spotted tail- precisely what we see in nature. Using these mathematical equations, computer applets and programmes has been made to generate delicate patterns in computer generated animations. How does it work? When he was asked to explain, Turing used and analogy-of human flesh eating cannibals, analogous to activator, and celibate missionaries, corresponding to one. The missionaries, being celibate, can only make more missionaries by recruiting cannibals. In ordinary circumstances, eventually this reaction will result in stable mix of two - a large circle of cannibals in the island surrounded by a thin ring of converted missionaries. But if both cannibals and missionaries are mobile and they could move about the island, the game changes. Now imagine that missionaries have access to bicycles, making them move faster than cannibals. This differential mobility-diffusion-makes a substantial difference in the outcome. As cannibals could mate and beget children, in their immediate surrounding their numbers would increase. Some of them would be converted into missionaries, who would able to cycle off to far away places converting more cannibals into missionaries. Close by, cannibals increase their own numbers. Far away, they actually inhibit themselves by producing missionaries. The rate at which the reaction-conversion to missionaries-occur, and diffusionhow quickly the cannibals and missionaries are moving- determine the eventual pattern. This model also explains very well why the stripe pattern of one tiger is not same as the other; and why the pattern on a tiger changes as it gets older. Unlike the fingerprints the patterns on the skin are not stamped onto it according to a genetically encoded blueprint. They are living patterns produced by the ongoing tango between the activator and inhibitor molecules. Turing had done his equations for one-dimensional space; when the model was tested for two dimensional plane, striped patterns in addition to spotted patterns often emerged. Mathematical biologists considered Turing's model as the basic mechanism explaining many examples of stripe patterns observed among animal coating. Just by tweaking four variables, for each of the two morphogens-the rate of production the rate of degradation, the rate of diffusion and the strength of their activating/inhibiting interactions-we could obtain elaborate patterns on the animal hide. The idea was stunning; but was just a speculation. Until now scientists have only been able to simulate Turing's theory using computer models, but in a fitting tribute to the centenary of this genius, which falls in this year researchers have found the exact chemicals in action. In a paper published in the recent issue of Nature Genetics, researchers from King's College London have described first ever experimental work corroborating Turing's model. In this path-breaking experiment, 46 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ

47 Nature instead of the stripes of the tigers the researchers examined the development of the regularly-spaced ridges found in the roofs of the mouths of laboratory mice. Carrying out experiments in mouse embryos, the team firstly identified the pair of morphogens-fibroblast growth factor and Sonic headgehog-influencing the formation of the ridges in the mouth. By increasing and decreasing the activity of these morphogens, the researchers showed that the patterns of the ridges in the mouth palate are affected in ways predicted by Turing's equations. Alas, the very same year his theory of morphogensis was published, he was criminally prosecuted for being a homosexual; in Britain being gay was considered a criminal act. He was given a choice-to be subjected to hormone therapy or face imprisonment. He opted for hormone therapy, but frustrated, he committed suicide by ingesting cyanide, just two years later. In 2009, the British Prime Minister made a public apology on behalf of the government for the shameful treatment met out to Alan Turing for his sexual orientation. Source : Dream 2047, May 2012, Vol. 14 No. 8 ãuçúuøæ ææ çß ææù ÎÂü æ 47

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