mk gyw³hy f wgkv 1971 mv ji 25 gv P cvk nvbv`vi evwnbxi AvKw K XvKv wek we` vj qi wewfbœ nj, mbv BDwbU jv Z wbi xkiy I wbab, eyw Rxex, BwcAvi, cywjk G

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1 mk gyw³hy f wgkv 1971 mv ji 25 gv P cvk nvbv`vi evwnbxi AvKw K XvKv wek we` vj qi wewfbœ nj, mbv BDwbU jv Z wbi xkiy I wbab, eyw Rxex, BwcAvi, cywjk Ges wbi RbMY K Aev a nz vi Zvr wyk cöwzwµqv NU Z mgq jv Mwb QvÎ, kªwgk, K lk, ivr bwzk Kg x, I nvrvi nvrvi ZiyY hvi hv wkqy wqj ZvB wb q cöwz iva M o Zv j Z e ` ki me Î mk BDwbU hgb B e½j iwr g U, BwcAvi, cywjk, Avbmvi evwnbxi iy L `uvovq hme v b Gme mk BDwbU Ae vb KiwQj m v b e vck I cöej cöwz iva hy i m~pbv nq ciez xkv j Zv werq AR b iyz c~y c~e kz wn m e KvR K i mvgwik, AvavmvgwiK evwnbxi m`m, AemicÖvß m`m I Avcvgi RbZv ivr bwzk bz Z i cq b GKZve nq, M o Zv jb gyw³evwnbx cöv_wgkfv e GB cöwz iva wqj AmsMwVZ, Dcw Z vbxq bz Z wbf i, AvaywbK mgiv mw¾z cöej kîy evwnbxi weiy Amg jovb ZvB wbqwgz I AwbqwgZ evwnbxi mg ^ q hy K cwikwíz iƒc `qvi Rb MwVZ nq m±i I weª MW Uªycm G Qvov vbxq wfwë Z M o I V wewfbœ AvÂwjK evwnbx Gme mk evwnbx wewfbœ iyv½ b cvk nvbv`vi `i civwrz K i 16 ww m ^i AvZ mgc Y K i cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx e `yk kw³i civrq Ges RbZvi werq nq Gfv e cvkevwnbxi weiy cwipvwjz emvgwik RbZv I mvgwik evwnbxi m`m `i cöwz iva hy mdjzv jvf K i evsjv `k ^vaxb mve fšg ` ki gh v`v cvq G BDwbU cvv K i Avcwb mk gyw³hy i cöwz iva _ K iyv½ b Ges P~ovšÍfv e evovwji werq m ú K Av jvpbv Ki Z cvi eb G BDwb Ui cvv jv n Q t cvv-1. mk MYcÖwZ iva cvv-2. mwbk I cywj ki cöwz iva cvv-3. evsjv `k K 11 m±i wefw³kiy cvv-4. wbqwgz, AwbqwgZ wewfbœ mk evwnbx cvv-5. D jøl hvm iyv½b cvv-6. exi kªô cvv-7. gyw³hy eyw Rxex nz vkvû cvv-8. cvwk Ívwb mbvevwnbxi AvZ mgc b I evovwji P~ovšÍ werq

2 Gm Gm GBP Gj cvv-1 mk MYcÖwZ iva D Ïk GB cvv c o Avcwb- gyw³hy mk MYcÖwZ iv ai cwi cöw Z I cö ÍzwZ m ú K Rvb Z cvi eb; gyw³hy Kvjxb 4wU cökvmwbk wefv Mi MYcÖwZ iv ai cö ÍzwZ I we Ívi Av jvpbv Ki Z cvi eb evsjv ` ki gyw³hy c w_exi BwZnv m Av jvob m wókvix NUbv c w_exi Lye ewk `k gyw³hy i fzi w` q Rb jv fi MŠie AR b Ki Z m g nqwb wkšíz evsjv ` ki K lk, kªwgk, ga weë, QvÎ I ZiyYmn Avcvgi RbM Yi AskMÖ Yi gva g G hy mvdj jvf K i hw`i cöv_wgkfv e c~e cö ÍzwZ I mvsmvwbk ZrciZv QvovB cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx K wewfbœ ch v qi gvbyl cöwz iva K i cöv_wgk GB BZ ÍZ wew ß Ges z`ª LÛ cöwz ivab µgvb q GKwU RvZxq gyw³hy i AvKvi I iƒc bq Kv_vI G cöwz iva n q Q QvÎ, ZiyY, ivr bwzk bz e `, K lk I kªwg Ki gva g we `ªvnx mk evwnbxi m`m iv G Z hvm w` q cöwz iva K kw³kvjx K ib Avevi Kv_vI mk evwnbxi cöwz iv a RbZv Ask bq Z e mvgwik I emvgwik cöwz iva ciez xkv j cwikwíz hy i wfz ipbv K i K. MYcÖwZ iv ai cwi cöw Z ev cö ÍzwZ 1. ^vqëkvmb `vwe GK`dv `vwe ^vaxbzvi `vwe Z iƒcvšíi: cvwk Ívwb kvmk Mvôxi mvs wzk, A_ bwzk, ivr bwzk kvl Yi d j ewâz evovwj RvwZi cö Z K kªyxi jvkb Zv `i cöwz we z wqj 1954 I 1970 mv ji mvaviy wbe vp bi gva g evsjv ` ki gvbyl cwðgv kvlk `i weiy MY ivq w` qwqj 1954 mv j gvî 56 w` bi gv_vq evovwji ivq K bm vr Kiv nq Ab w` K 1970 mv ji wbe vp b AvIqvgx jxm wbi¼zk msl vmwiôzv jvf Kiv m Ë I Zv K mikvi MVb Ki Z `qv nqwb lv Ui `k K we kl K i 1966 mv j 6 `dv NvlYvi ci _ K h ^vqëkvmb Av `vj bi m~pbv nq Zv 1971 mv j G m µgvb q ^vaxbzv Av `vj b cwiywz jvf K i AvIqvgx jxm I ivrbxwzkiv wbqgzvwš K Dcv q Av `vjb Pvwj q M ji RbM Yi eo Ask we kl K i QvÎ I ZiyY mgvr wqj R½x Ges mk cöwµqvq ^vaxbzvi c cvwz g~jz QvÎjx Mi bz Z BDwbU--- c ôv 230

3 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq M o IVv wbdwk qvm lv Ui `k Ki Av `vj b e vck MwZ mâvi K i GivB ÔRqevsjv k- vmvb', 1970 mv j RvZxq czvkv ˆZwi K i evovwj `i GKwU ^vaxb RvwZi gh v`v cö`v bi cö ÍzwZ bq e ÍzZ ^vqëkvmb Av `vjb K mywbw` ó avivq cöevwnz Kivi cö qvr b wbdwk qvm Rb µgvb q GwU wekwkz nq Ges P~ovšÍc e gyw³hy Kv j Ôwe Gj Gd' bvg wb q mivmwi hy Ask bq 2. cöwm W U Bqvwnqvi Awa ekb wmz NvlYv, Amn hvm Av `vj bi m~pbv: ivrbxwzwe`iv Avkvwb Z wq jb wbe vp bi ivq g b wb q cöwm W U Bqvwnqv gzv n ÍvšÍi Ki eb Ges Zv `i g Z, Kvbiƒc wek sljv m wó kvmk Mvôx K gzv n ÍvšÍi bv Kivi GKwU ARynvZ m wó Ki e 1971 mv ji 1 gvp RvZxq cwil` Awa ek b gzv n ÍvšÍ ii cöwµqv ïiy n e e j Zv `i Ges RbM Yi AvKv v wqj evovwj GB cö_g ^kvmb cöwzôvq m g n e Ggwb ^ cœ RvwZ D ØwjZ _vk ji 1 gvp AvKw K cöwm W Ui NvlYvq cwil `i Awa ekb wmz Kiv nq AvIqvgx jxm Zvr wyk Gi cöwzev` Rvbvq Ges Hw`b _ KB ïiy nq RbM Yi cöwz iv ai cö ÍzwZ XvKvi ivrc_ wgwq j- køvmv b cökw úz n q I V me Í ii mvaviy gvbyl K qk k' LÛ wgwqj mnkv i iv Ívq iv Ívq we vf cö`k b Ki Z _v K ivrc _, Mwj Z wgwqjkvix Gme gvby li nv Z wqj euv ki jvwv, MRvwi Mv Qi Wvj, Kv Vi UzK iv I jvnvi iw Awa ekb wmz Kiv msµvší NvlYvi m ½ mkj mikvwi- emikvwi Awdm, Av`vjZ, KjKviLvbv, `vkvbcvu, wk v cöwzôvb, wm bgv nj I me ai bi hvbevnb PjvPj eü n q hvq MvUv kni ^Z:ù Z wgwq ji bmix Z cwiyz nq Gmgq XvKv wwqv g wewmwmwc I AvšÍR vwzk GKv` ki g a AbyôvbiZ wµ KU g vp fûzj n q hvq `k Kiv wwqvg _ K ei n q wgwq j Ask bq wgwqj jv AvIqvgx jxm cöavb kl gywr ei Kv Q _ K wb ` k jv fi Avkvq gwzwsj nv Uj c~e vyxi w` K AMÖmi nq mlv b AvIqvgx jx Mi cvj v g Uvix cvwu i ˆeVK PjwQj GB ˆeV K c ii w`b XvKv kn i Ges 3iv gvp mviv ` k nizvj I 7 gvp im Kv m Rbmfvi NvlYv `qv nq kl gywre Dcw Z RbZv I `kevmx K h Kvb Z vm ^xkv i cö ÍzZ _vkvi AvnŸvb Rvwb q e jb, Avgiv MYZvwš K `j Ges wbqgzvwš K Av `vjb Pvwj q hv ev cëb gq`v b AvIqvgx jx Mi Rbmfvq ^Ztù Z fv e jvk hvm `q Ges mwu Rbmgy `ª cwiyz nq QvÎjxM c ii w`b Kg m~wp NvlYv `q RbZvi we vf, cöwzev` m Ë I AMYZvwš Kfv e 1 gvp iv ZB j. Rbv ij BqvKze Lvb K c~e cvwk Ív bi emvgwik kvmbkz v wbhy³ Kiv nq c ii w`b 2 gvp AvIqvgx jx Mi AvnŸv b XvKvq nizvj cvwjz nq `j, gz, ckv fz j wm q kl gywr ei Wv K mgmö XvKv GK I Awfbœ n q MYZvwš K I ^vwakv ii `vwe Z DËvj n q I V mikv ii NvwlZ KviwdD f½ K i Mfxi ivz ch ší wgwqj, we vf P j cywj ki wj Z A b K ey ju we nq LÛ LÛ msnl nq wewfbœ RvqMvq kl gywre Amn hvm Av `vj bi WvK `b Ges 6 gvp ch ší cöwzw`b mkvj 8 Uv _ K 2 Uv ch ší nizvj cvj bi AvnŸvb Rvbvb QvÎjxM XvKv wek we` vj qi euzjvq mfv k l GKwU bzzb czvkv D Ëvjb K i Ges mb czvkvi gh v`v i vi kc_ bq XvKv wek we` vj qi QvÎiv GwUB wqj gyw³hy i cöv v j Kvb RvqMvq cö_g evsjv ` ki czvkv D Ëvjb 6 gvp GKUvbv me vz K nizvj QvovI XvKv, PÆMÖvg, Lyjbv, wm ju, iscyi mn wewfbœ v b cöwz iva Av `vjb P j K `ªxq knx` wgbv i evsjvi we z bvix mgvr euv ki jvwv, jvnvi iw I Kv jv czvkv wb q mgv ek I wgwqj ei K i BwZnvm c ôv 231

4 Gm Gm GBP Gj 3. mvz gv P kl gywr ei NvlYv I mk cö ÍzwZi wb ` k: 7 gvp im Kv m gq`v b `k j jv Ki Dcw wz Z AvIqvgx jxm cöavb kl gywre Zuvi e³ Zvq evovwji cöwz cvwk Ívwb kvmk I cvkevwnbxi AZ vpvi, ˆelg Zz j a ib, wbe vp bvëi cwiw wz I 1 gvp _ K cvkevwnbxi wbixn evovwji Ici wjel Y cwiw wz Zz j a i gzv n ÍvšÍi bzzev ^vaxbzv WvK `b wzwb Zuvi e³ Zvi kl As k e jb, ÒcÖ Z K MÖv g cö Z K gnjøvq AvIqvgx jx Mi bz Z msmövg cwil` M o Zvjv Ges Zvgv `i hv wkqy Av Q ZvB wb q cö ÍzZ _ Kv g b ivlev, i³ hlb w` qwq i³ Av iv ` ev G ` ki gvbyl K gy³ K i Qvo ev Bb&kvAvjøvn& Gev ii msmövg Avgv `i gyw³i msmövg, Gev ii msmövg ^vaxbzvi msmövg, Rq evsjv Ó 4. mvz gvp ciez x cwiw wz Ges ^vaxbzvi cö ÍzwZ ïiy: kl gywr ei Ô ^vaxbzv msmövg' NvlYvi cöw Z me vz K nizvj cvj bi cvkvcvwk me Î Kvj czvkv D Ëvjb, wgwqj, mgv ek ïiy nq AvIqvgx jxm QvovI c~e cvwk Ív bi Ab vb MYZvwš K `j Amn hvm Av `vj bi cöwz mg_ b `q 7 gvp _ KB AvIqvgx jx Mi wb ` k `k Pj Z _v K XvKv mdi k l KivwP Z MYHK Av `vj bi bzv Gqvi gvk vj (Aet) AvmMi Lvb e jb, Ò kl gywre Kvh Z XvKvi mikvi, mlv b me mikvwi Kg Pvix I mwpeiv Zuvi wb ` k cvjb Ki Q XvKvq Kej mvgwik m`i `ß i cvwk Ívwb czvkv Do Q Ó QvÎjxM, QvÎ BDwbqb XvKv wek we` vj q cöwk Y ïiy K i 20 gvp K `ªxq Ljvi gv V QvÎ BDwbq bi (gwzqv) KzPKvIqv R 300 QvÎ-QvÎx ivb d ji Kjv KŠkj cö`k b K i 23 gvp ÔcvwK Ívb w`e mi' e` j evsjv `k w`em cvwjz K i cöwm W U feb I mbv m`i Qvov Kv_vI cvwk Ívwb czvkv I owb, I o Q evsjv ` ki gvbwpî LwPZ ^vaxb evsjvi czvkv 24 gvp GK wee wz Z K `ªxq QvÎ msmövg cwil` cvwk Ívwb evwnbx K m ve cöwz iva Ki Z mk MYwecøe K Av iv Rvi`vi Kivi AvnŸvb Rvbvb Ab w` K XvKvi evb i e½eüzi 7 gv P i e³ Zvq NvwlZ N i N i `~M Mov I msmövg cwil` MV bi AvnŸv b mviv w` q wewfbœ Rjv, _vbv GgbwK BDwbqb ch v q cö ÍzwZ Pj Z _v K MwVZ nq msmövg cwil`, ïiy nq mvgwik cöwk Y 5. msmövg cwil`, mk cöwk Y I cvkevwnbx K cöwz iva (25 gvp ch ší) XvKv wefvm: XvKvi evb i Rq `ecy i cö_g mk MYcÖwZ iv ai m~pbv nq 7 gv P i ci GLv b gv. nvweeyjøvn, Av.K.g. gvrv j n Ki bz Z msmövg cwil` MwVZ nq 19 gvp Rq `ecy i RbZvi mk cöwz iva ïay MvRxcy i bq mviv ` ki mvwe K ^vaxbzvi msmöv g Zvrch c~y 25 gvp cvk nvbv`vi `i weiy mk cöwz iv ai Av MB Rq `ecyievmx M R I V Hw`b we MÖwWqvi Rvnvb R ei bz Z cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi GKwU `j XvKv _ K Rq `ecy i wøzxq e½j iwr g Ui evovwj ˆmwbK `i A Rgv biqvi Rb G j c _ nvrvi nvrvi jvk `y f ` e vwi KW `q Rq `ecyi ijµwms-gi Kv Q jvwv, Zxi, e `yk QvovI A b K e w³mz K qkwu e `yk wb q Dcw Z nq mw`b RbZvi Aby iv a 5 Rb evovjx ˆmwbK cvävwe ˆmwbK `i Ici cö_g wj Qyu o cvëv wj Z wbnz nq Rq `ecyi evrv i gbywgqv bv gi GK `wr I wbqvgz bv g GK wk kvi BDwbU--- c ôv 232

5 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq AvnZ nq Kvby wgqv bv g Avi GKRb wbnz nq gvigylx RbZvi cöwz iva gvkv ejv K i m hvîv cvk mbviv XvKv wd i hvq wkšíz Rq `ecy ii cöwz iv ai wk v mviv ` k Qwo q c o wewfbœ RvqMvq køvmvb I V ÔRq `ecy ii c_ ai, evsjv `k ^vaxb Ki ' GB NUbvi ci Rq `ecy i Aew Z evovwj Awdmvi I ˆmwbK `i mv _ AvIqvgx jx Mi bzv `i hvmv hvm cöwzwôz nq Ges ^vaxbzvi cö_g cön i ZvB gri kwddjøvni bz Z evovwj ˆmwbKiv Rq `ecyi _ K ewi q gyw³hy hvm `b 19 gv P i NUbvi ci QvÎ BDwbq bi D ` v M Rq `ecyi e b Mvc b A cöwk Y ïiy nq m hvîv 20/25 Rb QvÎ G Z Ask bq gvwbkm Ä 8 gvp _ K BDIwUwmi Wvwg ivb dj w` q QvÎ-RbZvi cöwk Y ïiy nq 25 gvp iv Z K v Þb nvwjg PŠayix K cöavb K i wecøex cwil` MwVZ nq H iv ZB gvwbkmä UªRvwi _ K A k, Mvjveviỳ wb q G m gyw³ hv v `i g a weziy Kiv nq Uv½vB j ew`d¾vgvb Lvb K mfvcwz K i me `jxq msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq GQvov QvÎjxM mfvcwz Gbv qz Kwig K mfvcwz Ges Ave`yj jwzd wmwïkx K mvaviy m úv`k K i ÔRq evsjv evwnbx' MwVZ nq GLv b ga gvp _ K 100 ZiyY K Wvwg ivb dj w` q cöwk Y `qv nq gvnv ` Avjx K jr, we `yevwmbx K jr, wkejvj zj I Avbmvi K v ú cöwk Y `qv n Zv kicy i Avwbmyi ingvb, wbrvg DwÏb, iwe wb qvmx K wb q MwVZ nq msmövg KwgwU ek wkqy msl K QvÎ hyek ^ Qv mek evwnbx Z hvm w` j G `i mvgwik cöwk Y `qv nq wk kvim Ä 10 gv P i ci Bmjvwgqv QvÎvevm K K `ª K i wewfbœ RvqMv _ K e w³mz A msmön Kiv nq AvZ i vi Rb nvweeyjøvn I AvwZ Ki (knx`) bz Z cö_g c Uªvj evgv ˆZwi Kiv nq gv`vixcy i 8 gvp gšjfx AvmgZ Avjx K AvnŸvqK K i me `jxq msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq QvÎ msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq QvÎ msmövg cwil` 10 gvp MVb K i ÔRq evsjv' evwnbx GB evwnbxi cöwk Y ïiy nq Ges 23 gvp Zxi abyk, jvwv I nvjkv A mn Rq evsjv evwnbxi i vwj kni cö`w Y K i PÆMÖvg wefvm: PÆMÖvg wefv Mi PÆMÖv g 7 gv P i e³ Zvi ci ek cö ÍzwZ P j PÆMÖvg gwwk vj K jr, KvKjx, cvbœvcvov, wmwu K jr, GgBGm K jr, nvwjkni, Rvgvj jb ivw, AvMÖvev` K jvbx Z cöwk Y ïiy nq Av `iwkjøvi e `y Ki `vkvb, PÆMÖvg K j Ri BDIwUwU feb, ivb dj K v ei A jyu K i msmön Kiv nq Gg. Avi. wmwïkx, Rûi Avn ` PŠayix K hym AvnŸvqK K i Rjv msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq GQvov MwVZ nq Avey gvnv ` nv k gi mfvcwz Z ^vaxb evsjv msmövg cwil` PÆMÖvg wek we` vjq I wewfbœ K j R msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq Gfv e 25 gv P i Av MB msmövg cwil `i bz Z I QvÎ `i D ` v M cöwk Y ïiy nq dyx Z LvRv Avn g `i bz Z msmövg cwil` MwVZ nq mxwgz AvKv i cöwk Y ïiy nq ivrkvnx wefvm: ivrkvnx wefv Mi ivrkvnx I iscy i cö_g _ KB cö ÍzwZ Rvi`vi wqj iscy i 3 gvp `i`x wm bgv n ji mvg b D` y Z jlv GKwU mvbb evw bvgv Z M j k¼z mgv`vi bv g GK e w³ R bk wenvwii wj Z wbnz nb G NUbvq wjwe gkeyj 1 gvm ci gviv hvq Zuviv iscy i cöwz iv ai cö_g knx` 25 gvp K qkwu nwjkþv i K i iscy i wecyj msl K cvk ˆmwbK Av m J iv ZB cvkevwnbx wewfbœ RvqMvq Ae vb bq bv Uv i 14 gvp Rjv cökvm Ki Awdm _ K cvwk Ívwb czvkv bvwg q d j ` ki bzzb czvkv Zvjv nq 25 gvp me `jxq msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq wbpv evrvi PvLvbvi `vzjvq K Uªvj iyg cöwzôv Kiv nq cvebvq 7 gv P i ci AvIqvgx jxm BwZnvm c ôv 233

6 Gm Gm GBP Gj bzv AvgRv` nv mb GgGbG- K AvnŸvqK K i 7 m`m wewkó ÔmsMÖvg KwgwU' MwVZ nq cvebvi Rjv cökvmk byiyj Kv `i Lvb I cywjk mycvi Ave`yj Mvddvi Gi m ½ hy³ niqvq KwgwUi kw³ e w cvq 12 gvp _ K cvebv Rjv yj I cyiv bv cwj UKwb K cöwk Y ïiy nq A I we ùvik ˆZwi I e envi wk v `qv nq 25 gvp mvgwik evwnbx cywjk K A Rgv `qvi wb ` k w` ji Rjv cökvmk I cywjk mycvi wb ` k cöz vl vb K ib Lyjbv wefvm: h kv i 3 gvp Kv j± i Ui mvg b evsjv ` ki czvkv D Ëvjb K i h kvievmx ^vaxbzvi kc_ bq H w`b cywj ki wj Z wgwq ji AMÖfv Mi Pviyevjv ai knx` nb Gici _ K cöwz iva evwnbx M o I V hvi bz Z wqj msmövg cwil` 25 gv P i Av MB GLv b cöwk Y ïiy nq Kzwóqv 7 gv P i ci gyw³hy i cö ÍzwZ ïiy nq 25 gvp iv Z h kvi mbvwbevm _ K Kzwóqv G m Dcw Z nq cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi A bk ˆmb mvü AvBb f½ K i mw`b iv Ívq iv Ívq e vwi KW `q RbZv Kzwóqv wmwfj mvr b Awd mi mvg b GKwU GKZjv feb _ K iscyi QvÎ BDwbq bi Kg x ibx ingvb cvk mbv `i Mvwoi Ici nvz evgv wb ci mgq cvk mbv `i wj Z cövy nvivq wzwb Kzwóqvq m yl cöwz iv a cö_g knx` Hw`b cvk mbv `i wj Z 7Rb gviv hvq Ab w` K e nëi Kzwóqvi PyqvWv½vq QvÎ-RbZv cywjk I BwcAvi evwnbxi m ½ cö_g _ K cöwz iv a Ask bb PyqvWv½vq Ae vbkvix BwcAvi-Gi 850 R bi g a 700 RbB evovwj niqvq mk j cöwz iv a Ask bb mvz xivqi gyw³hy i cö ÍzwZ Pj Z _v K gv P gv mi ïiy _ K 3 gvp we vf wgwq j wjel Y Ki j iv¾vk bv g GKRb Kg x knx` nb 7 gv P i ci GLv b ^vaxb evsjv `k QvÎ msmövg cwil` MwVZ nq gv ÍvwdRyi ingvb K mfvcwz K i 23 gvp AvbyôvwbKfv e cwil `i c _ K wewfbœ fe b cvwk Ívwb czvkv Iov bv nq 25 gvp mvz xivi Gg.Gb.G. Ave`yj Mdzi K AvnŸvqK K i msmövg KwgwU MwVZ nq SvjKvwV Z kl gywr ei fvl Yi ci cib mvgwik cöwk Y ïiy nq 23 gvp SvjKvwV Z ^vaxb evsjv ` ki czvkv D Ëvjb Kiv nq GLv b AvIqvgx jx Mi Gg.Gb.G. byiyj Bmjvg gäy ii bz Z gyw³hy i cö ÍzwZ I cöwz iva M o I V Gfv e 25 gv P i Av MB ` ki wewfbœ gnkzgv kni, _vbv GgbwK cöz ší MÖvgM Ä cöwz iva cö ÍzwZ P j Kv_vI Kv_vI cvkevwnbxi gvkv ejv K i RbZv, `k GwM q h Z Zv K GKwU me vz K Rbhy i w` K L. MYcÖwZ iv ai cök wz I we Ívi 1971 mv ji 25 gvp wksev Gi Ae ewnz ci wewfbœ RvqMvq cvwk Ívwb evwnbx MYnZ v, wbh vzb, aÿsmhá Pvjv j ïiy nq me vz K cöwz iva cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi wbh vzb gvîv h Zv e o hvq, cöwz iva DËvcI Z Zv evo Z _v K cöv_wgkfv e evovwj jvwv mvuv, vbxq A Ges cvkevwnbxi KvQ _ K D vik Z _vbv jyu I e w³mz A w` q cöwz iva ipbv K i 28 gvp wbdbqk UvBgm-G mvsevw`k wmwwb k vbevm wj L Qb, jvwv-ek v I mn Í wbwg Z ivb dj wb q c~e cvwk Ív bi jv Kiv wegvb, U vsk I fvwi Kvgv b mw¾z cvwk Ívwb mbvevwnbxi weiy cöwz iva M o Zv j GB cöwz iva bvbv RvqMvq bvbviƒ c nq Ges Gi bz Z wqj bvbv kªyxi e w³ cöwz iv ai GB ce P j g gvm ch ší BDwbU--- c ôv 234

7 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq XvKv wefvm: XvKv wefv Mi XvKv wqj cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi cöavb j e Íz GLv b m ú~y kw³ w` q I mycwikwízfv e AvµgY Pvwj q cvkevwnbx wbi RbZv I ivrvievm cywjk jvbb, XvKv wek we` vjq, BwcAvi nw KvqvU v i evovwj `i nz v K i Gme RvqMvq cvkevwnbx cöwz iv ai m ylxb nq dvg M Ui Kv Q 25 gvp cvkevwnbx cöwz ivakvix evovwj hv v `i weiy U vsk, gu vi e envi K i 29 gvp ZRMvu ij k bi Kv Q mvgbvmvgwb jovb q 126 Rb cvk mbv nzvnz nq Ges Zv `i wzbwu Mvwo aÿsm nq 31 gvp Avmv` M Ui Kv Q cöwz iva hy 5 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq XvKvi Gme cöwz iva µgvb q wefv Mi Ab Î Qwo q M o Rq `ecy i 19 gvp _ K h cöwz iv ai m~pbv nq Zv Qwo q c o Ges mlvbkvi wøzxq e½j iwr g Ui ˆmwbKiv G Z Ask bb 26 gv P i g a B GLv b Ae vbiz cvävwe ˆmwbK `i ew ` Kiv nq 29 gvp cvkevwnbx wegvb _ K evgv g i Rq `ecy ii w` K AMÖmi nq RbZvi cöwz iva f ½ hvq Ges Hw`b cvkevwnbx Rq `ecyi `Lj K i bq 26 gvp Uv½vB j hy K Av iv mymsmwvz Ki Z M o I V Ô ^vaxb evsjv MYgyw³ cwil`' jwzd wmwïkx K MYevwnbxi KgvÛvi Bb wpd wbhy³ Kiv nq Gw` K nvbkgv Ûi wb ` ki A c v bv K i Kv `i wmwïkxi bz Z GK`j mvnmx ZiyY mvwk U nvdm `Lj K i bq GLv b Ae vbiz 150 Rb cvwk Ívwb ˆmwbK Zv `i m ½ GKvZ NvlYv Ki j cöwz iva kw³kvjx nq GwcÖ ji 2 Zvwi L cvk mbv `i GKwU eo `j `ok' Mvwo wb q Uv½vB ji w` K Avmvi mgq cöwz iva evwnbx AvµgY Pvjv j cövq 300 cvk mbv wbnz nq Ges 25wU Mvwo aÿsm nq Kv `wiqv evwnbx cövq 17 nvrvi gyw³ hv v I 71 nvrvi m Qv mek wb q Rjvi wewfbœ v b cvkevwnbx K cöwz iva K i gqgbwms n vbxq hyekiv 27 gvp BwcAvi K v úi g vmwrb iy g Xz K A bk A jyu K i GKwU cöwz iva `j M o Zv j c ii w`b cvkevwnbxi m ½ cöwz ivakvix hv v `i hy nq G A w` q kn ii A bk RvqMvq Uªwbs ïiy nq 22 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx gqgbwmsn `L ji Av M ch ší gyw³ hv viv gqgbwms n KZ Z cöwzôv K i wk kvim Ä cöwz iva cö ÍzwZ cö_g _ KB P j gvp - GwcÖ ji g a gyw³ hv viv ˆfi ei Kv Q ivgbmi weªr f ½ `qv QvovI K qkwu mok I ij weªr Dwo q `q GwcÖ ji cö_g w` K gri nvq`v ii bz Z Mwijv hy I Uªwbs ïiy nq GwcÖ ji cö_g mßv ni g a Mwijviv wk kvimä-gqgbwmsn mo Ki iyz c~y ZvivNvU weªr ˆfie-gqgbwmsn ijjvb bi gymwjø ij mzz Dwo q w` q cvkevwnbxi weiy cöwz iva e e v K mymsnz K i 19 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx wk kvim Ä cö ek Ki j QvÎ-RbZv cöwz iva K i cvkevwnbxi Kv Q wuk Z bv c i gyw³ hv viv fvi Z Avkªq bq dwi`cy ii me vz K cöwz iva M o I V 26 gvp _ K GLv b GKgvme vcx cöwk Y ïiy nq Rjv AvIqvgx jxm mfvcwz BgvgDwÏ bi bz Z GKwU gyw³ hv v msmövg cwil` MVb Kiv nq 22 GwcÖ ji Av M ch ší cvwk Ív b evwnbx dwi`cy i cö ek Ki Z cv iwb 25 gvp cvkevwnbx KZ K XvKvq MYnZ vi msev` dwi`cy i ciw`b iv Z gvbk hv M cöpvi Kiv n j AmsL jvk iv Ívq ewo q Av m gv`vixcy ii ZrKvjxb GmwWI ˆmq` irvdj nvqvz UªRvwi _ K ivb dj ei K i `b cöwk Yi Rb GRb mvgwik Av`vj Z Zuvi 14 eq ii Rj nq Gmgq cöwk Yi cvkvcvwk Pj Z _v K cvkevwnbxi gv`vixcyi cö e ki c_ jvq cöwzeük M o Zvjvi KvR mok I bšc _ e vwi KW M o Zvjv nq 22 GwcÖj nwjkþvi _ K cvkevwnbx gv`vixcy i wj Pvjvq BwZnvm c ôv 235

8 Gm Gm GBP Gj 24 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx gv`vixcyi kni `Lj K i bq ivrevoxi KZ Z gyw³ hv v `i `L j _v K ga GwcÖj ch ší 17 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx Mvqvj ` G m cušqy j vbxqfv e cöwk YcÖvß gyw³ hv viv Zv `i evav `q GQvov gri Avey Imgv bi wbqš Yvaxb GK cøvuzb ˆmb I cöwz iv a Ask bq ivz wzbuvq cvkevwnbxi m ½ hš_ cöwz iva evwnbxi hy nq Gmgq wegvb _ KI cvkevwnbx evgvel Y K i d j Hw`bB cvkevwnbx ivrevox cö ek K i MvcvjM Äi cöwz ivai wqj kw³kvjx GLv b 28 gvp AvIqvgx jx Mi mfvcwz Kvgiyj Bmjvg K AvnŸvqK K i gyw³hy mgb q I cöwz iva KwgwU M o I V B Zvg a MvcvjMÄ kni _ K wzbgvbj `~i cvïv ii P i gyw³ hv v `i Uªwbs ïiy nq cöwzwu _vbvq Gici cöwk Y ïiy nq GLv b GwcÖ j ngv qz M o Zv jb wekvj Mwijv evwnbx 24 GwcÖj ch ší cvkevwnbx MvcvjM Ä Avm Z cv iwb 25 GwcÖj MvcvjMÄ Zviv `Lj K i bq PÆMÖvg wefvm: gvp ch ší PÆMÖvg wqj gyw³ hv v `i wbqš Y ezvi K `ª vcb _ K ïiy K i ^vaxbzv NvlYv cvv ce Gmgq m úbœ nq gv P i cö_g _ K hy i cö ÍzwZ ïiy nq 27 gvp e ` i mvqvz RvnvR _ K A Lvjvm K K `ª K i RbZv, kªwgk `i m ½ cvk nvbv`vi `i msnl nq Gici BwcAvi I B e½j iwr g U mn evovwj cywj ki m ½ eû msnl nq Z e A, hvbevnb I bz Z i Afv e 29 gv P i ci cöwz iva `ye j n q c o GwcÖ ji cö_g w` K PÆMÖvg kni cvkevwnbxi `L j P j hvq hw`i `LjKv ji Zviv gyw³evwnbxi cöwz iv ai m ylxb nq GwcÖ ji cö_g _ KB gšjfx ˆmq` Avn `i bz Z cvnvozjx, mivbcvov, U vsk ivwmn wewfbœ v b Pvjv bv nq wew ß Mwijv Acv ikb kni msjmœ MÖvg jv Mwijv `i NuvwU Z cwiyz nq g gv mi gvsvgvws kn i cöwk YcÖvß gyw³ hv viv P j Av mb Ges wew ß cöwz iv a Ask bb PÆMÖvg wefv Mi wm ju I gšjfxevrv ii cöwz iva e e v kw³kvjx wqj 27 gvp gšjfxevrv i cvävwe ˆmb `i m ½ msn l wjwe n q gviv hvq Zviv wgqv I Rwgi wgqv, gby b`xi weª Ri mvg bi Ab GK cöwz iva hy knx` nb jy `yi wgqv gšjfxevrv ii kg mibm i fv½v Uª bi IqvMb w` q ijjvb b e vwi KW M o Zvjv nq RbZv I evovwj BwcAvi hš_ cöwz iv a GKRb cvk gri mn K qkrb wbnz nq G NUbvi ci cvkevwnbx wcqy n U kicy i NuvwU vcb K i kg mibm i eû A gyw³ hv viv cvq Gici 25 w`b gšjfxevrvi nvbv`vi gy³ _v K dbx KŠkjMZ Kvi Y iyz c~y GjvKv niqvq cvkevwnbx I gyw³evwnbx Dfq c Gi `Lj ivl Z m Pó wqj GwcÖ ji cö_g mßv n cywjk, Avbmvi I QvÎ-RbZv wg j gyw³evwnbx M o Zv j Gmgq cvkevwnbx dyx cö ek K i m hvîv cvkevwnbx n U h Z eva nq 4 GwcÖj cvkevwnbxi wegvb nvgjvq Aek gyw³evwnbx wcqy n U hvq hw`i 22 GwcÖj ch ší dyx kni gyw³evwnbxi `L j wqj ivrkvnx wefvm: 25 gvp _ KB ivrkvnx kn i cvkevwnbxi ZrciZv evov bv nq 7 gv P i e³ Zvi c~e _ K QvÎjxM I mvaviy gvbyl ^ Qvq cöwk Y bq ivrkvnx K jr j ve iuix jyu K i evgv ˆZwii im` msmön Kiv nq GQvov cywjk jvb bi cvwj q Avmv m`m iv wkqy A wb q Av m 28 gvp cywjk-rbzvi mw wjz evwnbx cöwz iva M o Zv j hw`i wcqy nu Z eva nq 3 GwcÖj cybivq gyw³evwnbx ivrkvnx gy³ K i Ges 13 GwcÖj ch ší Zv Ae vnz _v K bv Uv i cöwz iva e e vi wqj kw³kvjx 27 gvp wewfbœ ivr bwzk `j, cywjk, Avbmvi mn me Í ii RbM Yi GK mgv ek gwzb cv K AbywôZ nq G Z cvkevwnbxi AvµgY cöwznz Kivi wm vší M nxz nq BDwbU--- c ôv 236

9 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq bv Uv ii gnkzgv cökvmk KvgvjDwÏb G Z hvm w` j gyw³ hv v` i kw³ e w cvq 28 gvp bv Uvi ivrevwoi Kvgvb w` q ivrkvnx-bv Uvi mo K e vwi KW `qv nq UªRvwi f ½ 250 wu ivb dj ei K i gyw³ hv v `i g a e Ub Kiv nq GB cöwz iva GwcÖj ch ší vqx nq UªRvwii A w` q 2 GwcÖj _ K Uªwbs ïiy nq 7 w` bi Uªwbs bb 60 Rb hv v 12 GwcÖj bv Uvi cö ek K i cvkevwnbx Ges kn i Ae vb bq PuvcvBbeveM Äi AevOvwj BwcAv ii m ½ 26 gvp gyw³evwnbx I evovwj BwcAvi `i msnl nq mw wjzfv e RbZv AevOvwj BwcAvi `i wezvwoz K i 19 GwcÖj ch ší gyw³evwnbxi `L j PuvcvBbeveMÄ kni _vk ji Hw`b Avevi cvkevwnbx kni `Lj K i cvebvq 25 gvp cvk mbviv cö ek K i wewfbœ v b NuvwU vcb K i 26 gvp Rjv cökvmk cvkevwnbxi weiy cöwz iv ai wb ` k w` j wewfbœ Í ii RbMY cywjk jvb b mg ez nq GB mgv e k wzwb cywjk I BwcAvi m`m `i nv Z cywjk jvb bi me A Zz j `b cvk nvbv`vi `i KviwdD f½ K i H A w` q RbZv cöwz iva hy i Rb gy LvgywL nq gvp `y'w`b GKUvbv cvkevwnbxi weiy jovb P j hy cvebv Uwj dvb Awd m Ae vbiz 27/28 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq 28 gvp WvKevsjv, wwqvg gyw³ hv v `i `L j Av m 29 gvp cvwk Ívwb mvgwik KZ c wegvb nvgjv Pvjv ji 9 GwcÖ ji Av M cvebv `Lj Ki Z cv i wb bimuv gnkzgvq 26 gvp gv. Ave`yj Rwjj K AvnŸvqK K i me `jxq msmövg cwil` MwVZ nq 11wU _vbv _ K A msmön K i mvgwik cöwk Y `qv nq m mv _ gnkzgvi cö Z K mok c _ cöwzeükzv I kîy `i cöwznz Ki Z cwilv Lbb Kiv nq cvkevwnbx evi evi bimuvq cö e ki Póv Ki j RbZvi cöwz iv ai gy L Zviv e _ nq 22 GwcÖj bimuv `L ji Av M ek K qkwu LÛ hy nq Gme hy Rqjvf K i gyw³ hv viv cvwk Ívwb ˆmb `i eû A msmön K i ïaygvî 29 gvp AvwoqvevRvi K v ú `L ji hy Rqjvf K i gyw³evwnbx GKRb K v Þb mn 10 Rb cvk mbv nz v Ges 25/30 UªvK A I Mvjveviỳ D vi K i G jv c i DËie ½i wewfbœ iyv½ b e eüz nq Lyjbv wefvm: Lyjbv wefv Mi h kv i cöwz iva e e v kw³kvjx wqj 26 gvp cvkevwnbx h kv i cö ek Ki ji cöej cöwz iv ai m ylxb nq gyw³evwnbxi me `j mw wjzfv e 30 gvp h kvi mbvwbevm NivI K i GQvov GKwU `j hv`ecy i nvbv`vi evwnbxi Ici AvµgY Pvjvq m Qv mekiv ivzvivwz Rjvi ijjvbb Dc o d j 1 GwcÖj ^ Qv mekiv Gwkqvb nvbi q eivei mekwu cyj I iv Ívi wzmvab K i wkšíz 4 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx kn i cö ek K i Ges 6 GwcÖ ji g a kni Zv `i `L j P j hvq hw`i knizjxi wewfbœ RvqMvq we kl K i 7 GwcÖj ebv cvj mok, 14 GwcÖj KvMRcyKzwiqvq BwcAvi I RbZvi mw wjz evwnbxi m ½ cvkevwnbxi msnl nq Kzwóqvq cvkevwnbxi m ½ gyw³evwnbxi cö_g msnl nq 27 GwcÖj 1 GwcÖj Kzwóqv nvbv`vi gy³ nq Gici 16 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx Kzwóqv wbqš Y cöwzôv K i g gv m K qkwu hy nq cvkevwnbxi m ½ 26 gv P i g a PyqvWv½vq gyrvwn`, cywjk I evovwj ˆmb I ZiyY hyek `i wb q gyw³evwnbx M o I V 27 gvp ij jvbb Zy j djv nq cvkvcvwk wsbvb`n-pyqvwv½v mok I g nicyi-kzwóqv mokc _ Ae iva m wó K i GB evwnbxi Kzwóqvi evwnbxmn gvu 700 Rb gyw³ hv v I 400 gyrvwn` 30 gvp Kzwóqv AvµgY K i GB hy 200 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq 31 gvp `w Y-cwðg iyv½ b Kzwóqv cö_g kîygy³ GjvKvq cwiyz nq 3 GwcÖj PyqvWv½vi Ici BwZnvm c ôv 237

10 Gm Gm GBP Gj cvkevwnbxi wegvb nvgjv ïiy nq hw`i 15 GwcÖ ji Av M Zviv PyqvWv½v `Lj Ki Z cv i wb 16 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx PyqvWv½v cö ek K i mvz xivq 7 gv P i e³ Zvi ci h cö ÍzwZ ïiy nq Zv c~y Zv jvf K i 27 gvp Hw`b Lyjbvi cywjk mycvi G. K. L `Kvi mvz xiv gnkzgv cywjk Awdmvi K UªRvwi _ K 350 wu ivb dj, 30/40 ev wj cö`v bi wb ` k `b QvÎ `i bz Z M o I V Uªwbs g gvm ch ší mvz xivi wewfbœ GjvKvq gyw³evwnbxi cövavb wqj 29 GwcÖj fvgivi hy cövq 200 cvk mbv wbnz nq SvjKvwV I ewikv j gyw³evwnbxi cöwz iva wqj kw³kvjx 25 GwcÖ ji Av M ewikv j I SvjKvwV cvkevwnbxi `L j hvqwb 27 gvp Gbv qz nv mb GgGbG- K wmwfj wpd I j. wrqvdwïb K cöwzi v cªavb K i wc ivrcyi msmövg cwil` MwVZ nq b vc ( gvrvddi), AvIqvgx jxm, QvÎjxM I QvÎ BDwbq bi bz Z c _K Uªwbs m Uvi M o I V 4 gi Av M wc ivrcy i cvkevwnbx cö ek Ki Z cv iwb GwcÖj I g gv m cvkevwnbxi m ½ gyw³evwnbxi ek K qkwu hy nq mvims c cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi Avµg Yi wkkvi evovwjiv kl gywr ei 7 gv P i fvly Ges ciez x wb ` kvbyhvqx nv Zi Kv Q hv wqj Zv w` q cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi gvkv ejv K i Gmgq AZ vaywbk gviyv i weiy iy L `uvovq evovwj BwcAvi, mbvevwnbx, cywjk Ges QvÎ-RbZv mvaviy gvbyl Zv `i im` hywm q, Avkªq w` q, c_ `wl q mvnvh K i, KD KD mk hy Ask bq Gfv e mw wjz cö Póvq cöwz iva hy GwM q hvq cöwz iv ai GB jovb P j GwcÖ ji gvsvgvws ch ší cª_g w` K Zv Kv_vI wqj AcwiKwíZ, Kv_vI cwikwíz g gv m cwikwíz I m±iwfwëk hy ïiy nq ch ỳ Í n Z _v K cvwk Ívwb evwnbx msmövgx evovwj RvwZi Rq nq mnvqk MÖš cwä: 1 ˆmq` Av bvqvi nv mb, ÒGKvË ii gyw³hy Ó, ˆmq` Av bvqvi nv mb I gybzvmxi gvgyb m úvw`z, evsjv ` ki mk cöwz iva Av `vjb, XvKv, evsjv `k GwkqvwUK mvmvbwu, gvngỳ nvmvb, w`bcwä : GKvËi, XvKv, cvbiwbqvi, Avey gvt ` jvqvi nv mb, gyw³hy i AvÂwjK BwZnvm, 1g LÛ, XvKv, mvwnz cökvk, Avey gvt ` jvqvi nv mb, gyw³hy i AvÂwjK BwZnvm, 2q LÛ, XvKv, mvwnz cökvk, AvwZDi ingvb, gyw³hy i gvbyl gyw³hy i ^cœ, XvKv, mvwnz cökvk, 1997 BDwbU--- c ôv 238

11 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq cv VvËi g~j vqb- ˆbe w³k cökœ: mwvk DË ii cv k wuk ( ) wpý w`b 1 evsjv ` ki czvkv 1971 mv j cö_g D ËvwjZ nq- (K) kl gywr ei evmfe b; (M) cëb gq`v b; (L) XvKv wek we` vj q; (N) PÆMÖv g 2 Ô kl gywre XvKvi mikvi', 1971 mv ji Amn hvm Av `vj b XvKvi cwiw wz m ú K G gšíe K ib - (K) RyjwdKvi Avjx fz Æv; (M) Gqvi gvk vj (Ae.) AvmMi Lvb; (L) Lvb evnv`yi Ave`yj KvBDg Lvb; (N) Lvb G. meyi Lvb 3 ^vaxbzvi cöv v j 19 gvp cö_g RbZvi m ½ cvkevwnbxi cöwz iva hy nq- (K) ZRMuv; (M) ivrkvnx; (L) PÆMÖvg; (N) Rq `ecyi msw ß cökœ: mv j kl gywr ei 7 gv P i e³ Zvi ci _ K 25 gvp ch ší XvKvi evb i cöwz iva hy i cö ÍzwZ ms c wjlyb mv ji 25 gvp ch ší XvKv wefv Mi mk cöwz iva wjlyb 3 26 gvp _ K GwcÖj gvm ch ší ivrkvnx wefv Mi hy m ú K ms c ey bv w`b ipbvg~jk cökœ: mv ji mk MYcÖwZ iv ai cwi cöw Z I cö ÍzwZ ch v jvpbv Kiyb 2 gyw³hy Kv j 4wU cökvmwbk wefv Mi MYcÖwZ iv ai cök wz I we Ívi ey bv Kiyb BwZnvm c ôv 239

12 Gm Gm GBP Gj cvv-2 ˆmwbK I cywj ki cöwz iva D Ïk GB cvv c o Avcwb- gyw³hy Kv j evovwj mvgwik evwnbx I cywj ki m`m `i Ae vb I msl v m ú K Rvb Z cvi eb; cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi MYnZ vi m~pbv Ges mvgwik evwnbxi cöwz iva Av jvpbv Ki Z cvi eb; cywjk evwnbxi cöwz iva ey bv Ki Z cvi eb cvwk Ívwb evwnbx 1971 mv ji 25 gvp ga ivz _ K evovwj wbabh Á bvgvi mv _ mv _B cöwz iva ïiy n q hvq cvkevwnbxi gvi L q cvwj q N i bv wm q nv Zi Kv Q hv wqj ZvB wb q QvÎ, kªwgk, RbZv Ges mbvevwnbxi PvKwiiZ evovwj ˆmwbK, BwcAvi, cywjk, Avbmvi I Ab vb Avav mvgwik evwnbxi m`m iv cöwz iva M o Zv j A b K Zv `i cvwl gviv e `yk w` q, KD KD nv Zi Kv Qi A w` q, KD KD _vbv ev UªRvwi _ K A wb q ei nq G wecyj mvnm, Drmvn, DÏxcbvq ejxqvb n q mvgvb ivb dj, e `yk wb q AvaywbK gviyv mymw¾z cvkevwnbxi weiy cöwz iva ipbv K i evsjv ` ki A bk v b Gme evwnbxi m`m iv RbMY K mv _ wb q D ëv cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi `i AvµgY K i Zv `i ch ỳ Í K i cöwz iv ai G jovb P j 25 gvp _ K 17 GwcÖj gywrebmi mikv ii kc_ MÖn Yi w`b ch ší Aek Kv_vI Kv_vI cöwz ivakvixiv G ZvB kw³kvjx wqj h g gv mi gvsvgvws ch ší wb R `i GjvKv kµgy³ iv L gywrebmi mikvi m±i MV bi ci cöwz iva ch v qi hy i Aemvb N U, ïiy nq cwikwíz I msmwvz hy K. mvgwik evwnbx I cywjk evwnbxi m`m `i Ae vb I msl v cvwk Ívb mikv ii ˆelg bxwzi d j mvgwik evwnbx Z evovwj wb qvm wqj Lye mvgvb mvgwik evwnbxi ˆmwbK I Awdmvi `i g a gvî 4% wq jb evovwj ZrKvjxb c~e cvwk Ívb wb q MwVZ nq c~e vâjxq KgvÛ Mvj `vr evwnbxi weª MW wqj XvKv, h kvi, iscyi, ˆmq`cyi me wgwj q evovwj ˆmb wq jb gvî 6,000 Rb mbvevwnbx Qvov ZrKvjxb B cvwk Ívb ivb djm (BwcAvi, ez gvb wewwavi)-g cövq 15,000 evovwj ˆmwbK wbhy³ wq jb G `i eo Ask mxgvší GjvKvq Ae v bi d j Zv `i c we `ªvn K i gyw³hy hvm `Iqv mnr wqj cywjk evwnbxi m`i `ßi _ K cªkvwkz cwimsl vb _ K `Lv hvq h, 1971 mv ji 25 gvp ch ší mviv evsjv ` k gvu cywj ki msl v wqj 33,995 Rb Gi g a mk cywjk 23,606 Rb Ges evwkiv A mw¾z bv n ji BDwbU--- c ôv 240

13 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq cöwk Y cövß wqj Gme cywj ki A b KB cöwz iva I ciez x mg q gyw³hy hvm `b Aek ^vaxbzvi cö_g cön i G `i A b K MYnZ vi wkkvi nb Avbmvi, gyrvwn` `i K qk nvrvi, AemicÖvß ˆmwbK, cywjk, cvwk Ívb _ K cvwj q Avmv K qkrb, QywU Z Avmv evovwj ˆmwbKiv hy hvm `b GB cöwk YcÖvß ˆmb iv gyw³hy i m~pbvc e mg Í Í ii RbM Yi ^Z:ù~Z mg_ bi d j msl vq cövq wø Y cvwk Ívb mbvevwnbx K civwrz K i L. cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi MYnZ vi m~pbv Ges mvgwik evwnbxi cöwz iva cvwk Ívb mikvi 1970 mv ji wbe vp bi ivq Abyhvqx AvIqvgx jxm K mikvi MVb bv Ki Z `qvi cwikíbv wn m e Amn hvm Av `vjb `g bi bv g XvKv, PÆMÖvg, ivrkvnx I Lyjbvmn wewfbœ kn i evovwj wba b g Z I V 15 gvp _ K 24 gvp ch ší Bqvwnqv-gywRe ˆeV Ki Avov j Kvj cy K i ˆmb mgv ek Kiv nq Ges cwðg cvwk Ívb _ K ˆmb I A m vi G b MYnZ vi Rb cö ÍywZ MÖnY Kiv nq GB mg q mvgwik Awfhv bi cwikíbv cö ÍyZ I Aby gvw`z nq Acv ikb mvp jvbu Abyhvqx 25 gvp ga iv Z cvwk Ívwb evwnbx MYnZ v ïiy K i XvKv, PÆMÖvg, ivrkvnx, h kvi, Kzwgjøvmn mbvwbevm, BwcAvi m`i `ßi wcjlvbv, ivrvievm cywjk jvbbmn me mbv, BwcAvi I cywjk Ae vb XvKv, ivrkvnx K wl wek we` vjqmn eo eo wk v cöwzôv b AMÖvwaKvi wfwë Z AvµgY Pvjv bv nq hw`i ga ivz _ KB cvwk Ívwb Awfhvb I cywj ki cöwz iva mgvbzv j Pj Z _v K B cvwk Ívb ivb djm-gi cöwz iva wcjlvbv: mvgwik evwnbxi m`m `i g a BwcAvi-Gi f wgkv wqj LyeB iyz c~y evsjv ` ki wewfbœ A j cöwz iva M o Zvjvi Î Giv wqj AMÖYx cöv_wgk ch v q A I Mvjveviy `i eo AskI G `i gva g G m Q 25 gvp XvKvi wcjlvbvq 2500 BwcAvi m`m Ae vb KiwQ jb XvKv mbvwbevm _ K ewi q Avmv cvwk Ívwb ˆmb `i GKwU `j wcjlvbv AvµgY K i evovwj ˆmb iv cöwz iva hy ïiy K i Ges cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi I evovwj B.wc.Avi m`m `i g a hy mviv ivz a i P j kz kz evovwj ˆmb wbnz nb 26 gvp U vsk evwnbx cvwk Ívwb ˆmb `i mnvqzvq wcjlvbvq G j evovwj ˆmb iv Amg hy wuk Z bv c i wcqy n U hvq wcjlvbvq evovwj ˆmb `i gyw³hy i m~pbv c e GB cöwz iva hy exiz evovwj RbMY K AbycÖvwYZ K i PÆMÖvg mbvwbevm: 25 gvp ivz 11Uvq cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx PÆMÖvg mbvwbevm AvµgY K i cövq 1000 evovwj ˆmb K NygšÍ Ae vq nz v K i PÆMÖv g B e½j iwr g Ui 2500 evovwj ˆmb wqj evovwj ˆmwbKiv gri wrqvi bz Z lvjkn i cöwz iva M o Zv jb PÆMÖvg BwcAvi m± ii cöwz iva: PÆMÖv gi BwcAvi m± ii GWRy U U K v Þb iwdk 25 gvp iv Zi cö_g cöni _ K we `ªvn K ib Ges cwðg cvwk Ívwb BwcAvi ˆmb `i wbi K ib Gici 2/3 w`b wzwb PÆMÖvg kni `L j iv Lb Gmgq Kzwgjøv _ K Av iv cvwk Ívwb ˆmb G b mgv ek Kiv nq 26 gvp cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi m ½ PÆMÖv gi Kzwgivq BwcAvi-Gi hy nq G Awfhv b K v Þb f ubqv bz Z `b cövq 200 cvk mbv wbnz nq 31 gvp cvwk Ívwb evwnbx BwcAvi m±i BwZnvm c ôv 241

14 Gm Gm GBP Gj AvµgY K i Ges BwcAvi evwnbx cöwz iva Ki ji msl v I kw³i w`k _ K `ye j niqvq wcqy n U hvq PÆMÖv g B e½j iwr g U I BwcAvi Ges KvßvB, ivovgvwu _ K BwcAviiv KvjyiNv U mg ez nq GLv b GB hš_ evwnbxi gyw³ hv viv cöwzi v e~n ipbv K ib 29 gvp cvkevwnbx GLv b AvµgY Pvjvq 31 gvp Avev iv AvµgY Pvjv j K qk w`b a i evovwjiv cöwz iva hy Pvwj q hvq m ú~y gvp gv m BwcAvi evwnbx PÆMÖvg kn i wew ßfv e cvkevwnbxi m ½ hy Pvwj q hvq GgbwK GwcÖ ji 3-6 Zvwi LI hy nq 11 GwcÖj P~ovšÍfv e KvjyiNv Ui czb NU j evovwj ˆmwbKiv fvi Z Avkªq bq ivrkvnx: ivrkvnx kni wqj BwcAvi m±i m`i `ßi 26 gvp _ K m±i m`i `ß ii mkj evovwj ew ` n q hvb KD KD cvwj q emvgwik cvkv K RbZvi m ½ wg k cöwz iva M o Zv jb 27 gvp mymw¾z cvkevwnbx ivrkvnx kni `Lj K i 27 gvp ivrkvnxi evovwj BwcAvi m`m iv bimvu I PvucvBbeveM Ä BwcAvi `i m ½ hvm w` q cöwzi v e e v M o Zv jb Aek ivrkvnx Z GwcÖ ji 6 Zvwi L K v Þb wmqv mi bz Z gyw³evwnbx cvwk Ívwb Ae v bi Ici AvµgY Pvjvq 4 N Uv vqx hy i ci cvwk Ívwb evwnbx wcqy n U Dckn i mvgwik QvDwb Z Avkªq bq 14 GwcÖj ch ší ivrkvnx kni gyw³ hv v `i `L j _v K 11 GwcÖj _ K Avevi Zzgyj hy nq Ges 14 GwcÖj cvkevwnbxi me vz K Avµg Y wuk Z bv c i gyw³ hv viv PvucvBbeveM Ä m i hvb ivrkvnx kni cvkevwnbxi `L j P j hvq bimuv: 26 gvp bimuvi BwcAvi DBs-Gi evovwj ˆmb iv ^vaxb evsjvi czvkv D Ëvjb K ib H iv ZB cvwk Ívwb evwnbx DBs AvµgY Ki j Zvuiv A vmvi Ly j cöwz iva M o Zv j GQvov K v Þb wmqvm I gri bvrgyj we `ªvnx `i m ½ hvm w` j cöwz iva kw³kvjx nq PvucvBbeveMÄ: 27 gvp PuvcvBbeveMÄ BwcAvi DBs-Gi evovwj ˆmb iv AevOvwj BwcAvi `i m ½ msn l Rwo q c ob Gmgq evovwj BwcAvi m`m iv A vmvi Ly j w` j RbZv-BwcAvi hš_fv e AvµgY Pvjvq Ae k l AevOvwj BwcAvi m`m iv AvZ mgc Y K i hw`i GwcÖ ji ïiy _ K Avevi cvkevwnbx kw³ mâq K i gyw³evwnbxi Ae v bi Ici AvµgY Pvjvq 17 GwcÖj gyw³ hv v `i Ae v bi Ici wegv bi wjel Yi Kvi Y K v Þb wmqvm Zvui evwnbxmn fvi Z Avkªq bb hw`i G Zvw` bi cöwz iva hy Rqx n q Zvui evwnbx 3000 ivb dj, bmvb I Gj.Gg.wR. jvf K i hv fvi Z wb q hvb w`bvrcyi: w`bvrcyi BwcAvi evwnbxi m±i nw KvqvU vi wqj Avµg Yi AvksKvq 28 gvp nvwej`vi Avey mvc` evovwj ˆmwbK `i g a A weziy K i cö ÍyZ _v Kb ivz wzbuvq cvkevwnbx m±i AvµgY Ki j cvëv wjel Y Kiv nq Hw` bi cöwz iva hy evovwj BwcAviiv cvwk Ívwb `i wcqy nwu q `b Aek 31 gvp ch ší hy P j Hw`bB evovwj cöwz ivakvix `i nv Z w`bvrcyi kn ii wbqš Y P j Av m cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi mk j ˆmq`cyi cvwj q hvq g~jz Avbmvi, gyrvwn`, BwcAvi, RbZvi mn hvwmzvq GB mvdj e q Av m 16 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx w`bvrcyi `L ji Av M ch ší Zv gyw³evwnbxi `L j wqj BDwbU--- c ôv 242

15 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq VvKziMvu: 28 gvp BwcAvi evwnbxi VvKziMvu DBs-G evovwj I AevOvwj BwcAvi-Gi g a msnl ïiy nq Ges 29 gvp mviv w`b hy P j vbxq bz e ` I QvÎ-RbZv evovwj BwcAvi `i mvnv h GwM q Av m evovwj BwcAviiv DBs-Gi KZ Z wb R `i nv Z Zz j bb 104 Rb cvwk Ívwb BwcAvi mn gvu 115 Rb wbnz nq RxweZ AevOvwj BwcAvi `i ew ` Kiv nq iscyi: iscyi wqj BwcAvi evwnbxi 10 b ^i DBs m`i `ßi GQvov iscy i mbvwbevmi wqj 25 gvp ivz 12Uvq cvwk Ívb mbvevwnbx iscy i evovwj BwcAvi `i Ici AvµgY Pvjvq BwcAvi `i Av MB wbi Kivq Zviv Zgb cöwz iva Ki Z cv ibwb A b K cvwj q h Z m g nb 29 gvp Rqgwbinv U cjvqbiz 8 Rb AevOvwj BwcAv ii m ½ evovwj BwcAvi `i msn l 8 RbB wbnz nq 1 GwcÖj cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi gvkv ejvq evovwj BwcAvi evwnbx Av iv mvdj jvf K i Hw`b wz Ív weª Ri hy GKRb cvk gri mn 15 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq Gici 4, 7 I 8 GwcÖj ch ší KvwjMÄ _vbv, jvjgwbinv U evovwj BwcAvi evwnbxi m ½ cvkevwnbxi K qkwu hy nq Kzwóqv: cuwpk gvp iv ZB h kvi mbvwbev mi cvkevwnbx `i GKwU `j Kzwóqv kni `Lj K i bq e nëi Kzwóqvi PyqvWv½v Rjvq BwcAvi DBs m`i `ßi _vkvq Kzwóqvq evovwj BwcAviiv Zgb cöwz iva M o Zzj Z m g nqwb Z e PyqvWv½vq gri Avey Imgv bi bz Z 650 Rb BwcAvi evwnbx, cywjk, Avbmvi, vbxq RbMY I bz e `i mvnv h kw³kvjx evwnbx wb q cö ÍyZ _v Kb 30 gvp PyqvWv½vi GB cöwz iva evwnbx cvwk Ívb mbvevwnbxi NvuwU Kzwóqv _vbv cywjk jvbb I Rjv zj AvµgY K i wzb w`k _ K AvµgY I Rq evsjv køvmv bi d j cvk mbviv gyw³ hv v `i cök Z msl v m ú K weåvší nq cvk mbviv mk j cvwj q G m Rjv z j Avkªq bq gyw³ hv viv Pviw`K _ K zj wn i iv L cvk mbviv AZ vaywbk A _ K wjel Yi d j gyw³evwnbx GwM q Avm Z cv iwb klch ší iv Z RxweZ 40/50 Rb cvk mbv wsbvb` n cvwj q hvq wkšíz gyw³ hv viv Zv `i wcqy bq A bk wbnz I ew ` nq 31 gvp Kzwóqv gyw³evwnbxi `L j Av m Kzwóqvi hy cöpyi A gyw³ hv viv n ÍMZ K i Kzwóqv Awfhv bi bz Z `b K v Þb Avhg Kywóqvq D vi Kiv A PyqvWv½v DBs-G wb q hviqv nq 3 GwcÖj wegvb w` q cvk mbviv PyqvWv½vi Ici evgv wb c K i h kvi: 25 gvp iv ZB h kvi mbvwbev mi cvk mbviv h kv ii iyz c~y RvqMvq NuvwU vcb K i H iv ZB cvk mbviv h kvi BwcAvi m±i nw KvqvU v i AvµgY Pvjv j evovwj BwcAvi evwnbx gvkv ejv K i 30 gvp h kvi mbvwbev mi evovwj ˆmwbK `i Ici cvkevwnbx AvµgY Pvjvq Gi Av MB A vmv ii fvi AevOvwjiv wb q bqvq evovwjiv Zgb cöwz iva Mo Z cv iwb A bk evovwj ˆmwbK, Awdmvi K cwiev ii m`m mn nz v Kiv nq h kvi kn i Hw`b evovwj BwcAviiv cvkevwnbxi gvkv ejv K i Hw`b iv Z h kvi kn i cvkevwnbxi Mvwo en ii Ici AvµgY Pvwj q BwcAviiv 50 Rb cvk mbv K nz v K i evwk ˆmb iv h kvi mbvwbev m cwj q hvq Hw`b h kvi kni kîygy³ nq Ges cvk mbviv mbvwbev m ew ` n q c o 2 GwcÖj gyw³ hv viv mbvwbev mi Kv Q cöwzi v e e v M o Zv j, hw`i cvkevwnbxi AZ vaywbk A i Kv Q ewk Y wu K _vk Z cv iwb Gi g a XvKv _ K A I ˆmb G b mbvwbev m mgv ek NUv bv nq Ges 6 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx h kvi kn ii wbqš Y bq Gici cövq cöwzw`b wegvb nvgjv P j hw`i BwZnvm c ôv 243

16 Gm Gm GBP Gj gyw³ hv viv cöwz iva Ae vnz iv Lb 13 GwcÖj bovbj cvkevwnbx `Lj K i bq Z e ebv cvj-h kvi iv Wi KZ Z wqj evovwj BwcAvi m`m `i `L j wm ju: wm ju wqj BwcAvi-Gi m±i m`i `ßi GB m± ii 12bs DBs-G Ae vbiz evovwj BwcAviiv 29 gvp mkj AevOvwj BwcAvi K ew ` K i 27 gvp my e`vi drjyi bz Z BwcAvi evwnbxi GKwU `j kg mibmi wegvb NuvwU AvµgY K i cvkevwnbx cvwj q wm ju P j hvq gšjfxevrv i BwcAvi evwnbxi m ½ cvkevwnbxi msn l 21 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq GQvov AvLwjqv, mybvgmä, kvjywuki-g K qkwu hy evovwj BwcAviiv mvdj jvf K i 1 GwcÖj gri wpëiäb `Ë wew ß BwcAvi `i msmwvz K ib kicyi I kv`xcy i Zvui evwnbx cvkevwnbxi Ici AvµgY Pvjv j AwaKvsk cvk mbv wbnz nq kv`xcyi gyw³ hv viv `Lj K i bq KzjvDov, kijv, MvjvcM ÄI kw³kvjx cöwz iva gyw³ hv viv M o Zz jb 7 GwcÖj wm ju wegvb e `i I jv vzziv Pv evmvb gyw³ hv v `i wbqš Y Av m ga GwcÖj ch ší cvkevwnbx wegv b K i wm j Ui wewfbœ v b evgv d j d j gyw³ hv viv wew Qbœ n q c o Ges A b K fvi Z Avkªq bq Kzwgjøv: Kzwgjøvi wewfbœ DBs-Gi evovwj BwcAviiv cvwj q h Z m g nq 28 gvp we `ªvnx BwcAvi m`m iv wkqy msl K Avbmvi, cywjk I QvÎRbZvi mg ^ q cöwz iva evwnbx M o Zv jb 29 gvp BwcAvi `i GKwU `j AvLvDov Kv úvwb Z cvwk Ívb evwnbxi Ae v bi Ici AvµgY Pvjvq eû cvk mbv GLv b cvjv Z wm q gviv hvq AvLvDov gyw³evwnbxi `L j Av m 2 GwcÖj cvk mbviv wegvb _ K eªvþyevwoqv I gyw³ hv v `i wewfbœ Ae v b evgvel Y K i 14 GwcÖj cvkevwnbx Kzwgjøv _ K eªvþyevwoqv hviqvi c _ cvkevwnbxi Mvwoeni K BwcAvi evwnbx AvµgY Ki j 170 Rb cvk mbv wbnz nq Gfv e `Lv hvq h, 25 gv P i iv Z cvwk Ívb evwnbx AvNvZ nvbvi ci BwcAvi evwnbx hgbfv e mk cöwz iv a GwM q G mwqj Zgwbfv e mviv evsjv ` k GgbwK _vbv, BDwbqb, MÖvgevmx ch ší cvwk Ívwb `i weiy GwM q Av m Gfv e mw wjz cöwz iva M o I V M. cywjk evwnbxi cöwz iva 1971 mv ji cö_g _ KB cywjk evwnbxi GKwU eo Ask evovwj RvwZi ^vaxbzvi cöwz GKvÍZv NvlYv K i 7 gvp im Kvm gq`v b kl gywreyi ingv bi HwZnvwmK fvl Yi ci ` ki wewfbœ GjvKvq msmövg KwgwU I vbxq wfwë Z cöwk Y ïiy nq G ch v q cywjk evwnbx A bk RvqMvq msmövg KwgwUi m ½ hvmv hvm vcb K i, Uªwbs I A w` q mn hvwmzv K i Kvb Kvb v b Mvcb mg SvZvi gva g mieivnk Z cywj ki A w` q Uªwbs Pvjv bv nq Ab w` K Uªwbs-Gi msev` DaŸ Zb KZ c i Kv Q Mvcb i LI cywjk mn hvwmzv K i wefvm, Rjv ch v q mvgwik RvšÍvi wb ` k Agvb K i A Rgv bv w` q wb R `i wbqš Y iv L Gfv e gyw³hy i cöv v j cywjk evwnbx cöwz iv ai cö ÍywZ bq cvwk Ívb mikv ii wewfbœ Mv q `v ms vi wi cv U cywj ki GB cö ÍywZ m ú K D jøl Kiv nq ZvB gyw³hy i cövi we kl K i 1971 mv ji gv P i g a cvwk Ívwb mvgwik evwnbx XvKv, PÆMÖvg, ivrkvnx, Kzwgjøv, bvqvlvjx, wm ju, gqgbwms, Lyjbv, h kvi, Kzwóqv, cvebv, e ov, w`bvrcyi I iscyi mn wewfbœ cywjk e vivk, _vbv I D jøl hvm cywjk BDwbU--- c ôv 244

17 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq GjvKvq AvµgY Pvwj q eû cywjk K nz v K i cywjk evwnbx Gme GjvKvq ïay 303 ivb dj m ^j K i mymw¾z cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi weiy cöwz iva ipbv K i Ges eû cvwk Ívwb ˆmb K nzvnz K i hw`i cöv_wgk cöwz iv ai mvdj wqj Y vqx ïay g bvej m ^j K i hy cywjk m mgq ewk Y wuk Z cv iwb cywjk evwnbx Gici wewfbœ iyv½ b Qwo q c o hy K wzz cö`k b K i vbxq wfwë Z M o IVv gyw³ hv v wkwe i Uªwbs cö`vb, iyv½ b Ges gywrebmi cöevmx evsjv `k mikv ii wewfbœ Kg Kv Û cywjk evwnbx mwµq f wgkv iv Lb G evwnbxi 151 Rb Awdmvi wewfbœ m± i mivmwi hy K ib ivrvievm cywjk jvbb: 1971 mv ji 25 gvp Mfxi iv Z ÔAcv ikb mvp jvbu'-gi gva g ` ki wewfbœ GjvKvq cvkevwnbx MYnZ v Pvjvq Mv q `v wi cv U i wfwë Z Zviv m iv Z cö_ gb ivrvievm mn wewfbœ Rjvq cywjk e vivk I cywj ki j e Íz Z AvµgY Pvjvq ivz ev ivuvi g a B XvKvi ivrvievm cywjk jvb b cö_g AvµgY Pvjvq cywj ki cöwz iv ai gy L cö_ g nvgjvkvixiv myweav bv Ki Z cvi ji c i fvix A mn AvµgY Ki j A bk cywjk knx` nb cöwz iva ipbv Ges Avµg Y m iv Z knx` nb 39 Rb exi cywjk, AvnZ I MÖdZvi nb Av iv A b K igbv _vbvq wwgmwc wrqvdj nk jv`x Zvui cywjk dvm wb q cöwz iv ai AvcÖvY Póv K ii e _ nb G msn l K qkrb cywjk wbnz I ew ` nb wrqvdj nk jv`x ^vaxbzvi cici wgicy i wenvwi `i m ½ msn l knx` nb cvkevwnbx 25 gvp iv ZB kvlvwievrvi cywjk dvuwo Z AvµgY Pvwj q K qkrb cywjk K nz v K i m iv ZB cywjk wgicyi I eskv j cöwz iva ipbv K i hw`i klch ší wu K _vk Z e _ nq m~îvcyi, dwi`vev` mn XvKvi mkj cywjk dvuwo I _vbv 25 gv P B cvkevwnbxi wbqš Y P j hvq `vgcvov, PÆMÖvg: XvKvi cib me P q ewk MYnZ v msnwuz nq PÆMÖv gi `vgcvov cywjk e vivk 25 gvp iv ZB cvkevwnbx `vgcvov cywjk e viv K AvµgY Pvjvq PÆMÖvg mbvwbevm _ K fvix A mw¾z GB evwnbx K cöwz iva Ki Z wm q eû cywjk cövy nvivb 29 gvp ch ší P j cvkevwnbxi ZvÛe GKw` bb cvkevwnbx cywjkmn 81 Rb K nz v K i `vgcvov Qvov PÆMÖv gi wewfbœ GjvKvq cywj ki Kv Q cvkevwnbx evavi m ylxb nq PÆMÖvg KvU wewìs-gi mvg b Kv Zvqvjx _vbvi ZrKvjxb Iwm Ave`yj Lv j Ki bz Z cywj ki m ½ cvkevwnbxi msnl nq Iwm Lv jk cvkevwnbxi nv Z aiv c ob Zvu K Rx ci cq b eu a iv Ívq QuPwo q wb q hvq Ges wbh vzb k l nz v K i gyw³ hv v `i mn hvwmzvi Aciv a PÆMÖv gi Gmwc kvgmyj nk Ges AviAvB AvKivg Lvb K cvkevwnbx nz v K i dbx: dbx ZI cywjk evwnbx cö_g _ K cöwz iva M o Zv j 29 gvp dbx Z cywj ki cö_g cöwz iva mdj nq cywjk-rbzvi hš_ Avµg Y mw`b cvkevwnbxi 9 Rb m`m gviv hvq dbxi gnkzgv cywjk Awdmvi gvnv ` Avjx dbx Z iw Z cywj ki hvezxq A vbxq RbcÖwZwbwa I gyw³ hv v `i nv Z Zz j `b dbx Z v Mi Av M cövq 100 Rb cywjk K v Þb i ei Aax b cöwk Y bb Ges c i wewfbœ iyv½ b hy K ib Kzwgjøv: 25 gvp iv Z cvwk Ívwb evwnbx Kzwgjøv cywjk jvb b AvµgY K i Ges cywjk cöwz iva ipbv K i wkšíz Kzwgjøv mbvwbevm _ K AvMZ mymw¾z evwnbxi Kv Q cywjk ch ỳ Í nq mw`b A bk BwZnvm c ôv 245

18 Gm Gm GBP Gj cywjk knx` nb Kzwgjøvi Gmwc Kwei DwÏb Avng` K cywj ki cöwz iv ai bz Z `qvi Aciv a a i wb q wm q nz v K i ivrkvnx: ivrkvnx mvi`v GKv Wgx I cywjk jvb bi cywjkiv cöwz iv a D jøl hvm f wgkv cvjb K ib ivrkvnx Z 26 gvp cywjk RbZvi mv _ iv Ívq iv Ívq e vwi KW `q mbw`bb mü vq cvk ˆmb `i K qkwu Mvwo cywjk jvb bi Kv Q K qk ivdû wj Qvu o cywjk evwnbx cvëv wj Quyo j cvkevwnbx H iv Z Avi AMÖmi bv n q mvgwik QvDwb Z wd i hvq cök Zc Zviv cywj ki kw³ m ú K AvuP Kivi R b B G AvµgY Pvjvq 27 gvp mkv j cvwk Ívwb ˆmb iv gviyv mw¾z n q ivrkvnx kni Unj `q Ges `ycy i cywjk jvbb AvµgY K i cywjk evwnbx Rjv cywjk mycvi Gg.G. gwr `i bz Z cöwz iva K i wzb N Uv vqx hy cywjk wuk Z bv c i bvbv v b Qwo q c o mw`bb cywjk jvbb cvk mbviv `Lj K i bq 31 gvp cvkevwnbx Gmwc gwr` K a i wb q hvq Ges c i nz v K i ivrkvnx i Äi wwavbwr gvgyb gvngỳ I gyw³hy i cö_g ch v q knx` nb cvebv I e ov: ivrkvnx wefv Mi cvebv I e ovq cywjk D jøl hvm f wgkv cvjb K i cvebvq 3 gvp cywjk jvb b RbZv I cywj ki hš_ mgv ek nq cywjk evwnbx G mfvq gyw³hy Svuwc q covi wm vší bq Ges vbxq AvIqvgx jxm bzv AvgRv` nv mb Gg Gb G cywjk d vm v Û evsjv ` ki czvkv Iovb GLv b cywjk mycvi Ave`yj Mvddv ii bz Z cywjk cöwz iva ipbv K i Rjv cökvmk I cywjk mycvi cywj ki mkj A, Mvjveviỳ gyw³ hv v `i nv Z Zz j `b 27 gvp cvkevwnbx cywjk evwnbx K AvZ mgc Yi wb ` k `q wkšíz cywjk evwnbx G wb ` k Agvb Ki j hy ïiy nq cywjk I gyw³ hv v `i hš_ evwnbxi Kv Q wuk Z bv c i mw`b cvkevwnbx wcqy n U hvq mw`b iv Z cywj ki m ½ Avev iv msnl nq Ges 28 gvp cvkevwnbxi nvz _ K cvebv gy³ nq hw`i ciez xkv j GwcÖ j cvebv cvk mbv` ji `L j P j hvq cvebvq cöwz iva hy I iyv½ b eû cywjk knx` nb 30 gvp ch ší e ov cywjk jvbb cywjk `i `L j wqj 30 gvp cvkevwnbxi nv Z cywjk jvb bi czb N U Lyjbv: Lyjbv wefv Mi cywjk evwnbx gyw³hy Amvgvb K wzz cö`k b K i wsbvb`n gnkzgvi cywjk Kg KZ v gvneyedïxb Avng` gyw³hy i ïiy _ KB hy I msmv b iyz c~y f wgkv cvjb K ib hy cwipvjbvq Acwimxg K wz Z i Rb 10 GwcÖj Zuv K K v Þb c ` f wlz Kiv nq 17 GwcÖj gywrebm i AbywôZ cöevmx evsjv `k mikv ii kc_ MÖnY Abyôv b wzwb A vqx ivóªcwz ˆmq` briyj Bmjvg K MvW Ae Abvi cö`k b K ib wzwb wq jb 8 b ^i m± ii mve- m±i KgvÛvi Zvui bz Z wsbvb` n 400 gyw³ hv vi evwnbx M o Zvjv nq G evwnbx wsbvb`n, Kzwóqv, PyqvWv½vq Acwimxg iy bcyy cö`k b K i Kzwóqv: Kzwóqv cywjk jvbb 25 gv P cvk gri kwd Ki evwnbx AvµgY K i wbwe Pv i evovwj cywjk `i nz v K i 30 gv P cywjk BwcAvimn cvkevwnbxi Ici AvµgY K i H w`b mü vq cywjk jvbb mn iyz c~y GjvKv gyw³ hv v I RbZv `Lj K i bq gyw³hy i ïiy Z Lyjbvq ZrKvjxb Gmwc Ave`yi iwke L `Kvi gyw³ hv v `i mn hvwmzv K ib Zvui wb ` k mvz xiv gnkzgv cywjk Awdmvi UªRvwi _ K msmövg KwgwU Z 350wU ivb dj I wîk/pwjøkwu wj fiv ev BDwbU--- c ôv 246

19 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq `b msmövg KwgwUi c gȳ ÍvwdR, Kvgiyj Bmjvg, gvmỳ, Gbvgyj, nvejy G A MÖnY K ib ZiLv`vi GgwcG Wv. gbmyi Avjx K iwke L `Kvi 70wU ivb dj I 40 nvrvi wj cö`vb K ib ZiLv`v _vbvi Iwm evey wbiäb Nvl I cywjk dvnvg DwÏb I evinvb DwÏb gyw³ hv v `i ZiLv`v nvb zj gv V Uªwbs w` Zb GQvov mvz xiv _vbvi ZrKvjxb Iwm Ave`yj nvwkg gyw³ hv v `i mn hvwmzv K ib ewikvj: ewikv j cywjk evwnbxi mve-bý c±i gynv ` ev`kv wgqv, my e`vi AvKei gyw³ hv v `i Uªwbs-G f wgkv iv Lb ewikv ji Gmwc dliywïb, AwZwi³ Gmwc Mvjvg nv mb (knx`) gyw³hy f wgkv iv Lb cywj ki 500 ivb dj gvp gv mb vbxq GgwmG b~iyj Bmjvg gäyi K `qv nq Mvjvg nv mb GwcÖ j cvk mbvi nv Z aiv c ob Ges wb LvuR nb wc ivrcy ii gnkzgv cywjk Awdmvi dqryi ingvb Avng` Ges `~b xwz `gb wefv Mi Kg KZ v nx i `ª gnvrb K gyw³ hv v `i mn hvwmzvi Aciv a cvk ˆmb iv nz v K i mvims c 1971 mv ji 25 gvp ga iv Z mk cvkevwnbx evovwj wbabh Á bvgvi mv _ mv _ cöwz iva M o I V XvKv, PÆMÖvg, PyqvWv½v, h kvi, w`bvrcy i cöwz iva wew Qbœfv e M o DV ji me jv NUbvi g~j Drm wqj BwcAvi nw KvqvU vi wcjlvbv I cywjk m`i `ßi ivrvievm cvwk Ívwb `i wcjlvbv I ivrvievm Avµg Yi Lei mgmö ` k Qwo q covi mv _ mv _B evovwj mk e w³iv A nv Z GwM q Av m cöv_wgk ch v q mgmö evsjv ` ki AwaKvsk Î hv j Kiv M Q Zvn jv mevb Kej AvZ i vi ZvwM `B A nv Z AMÖmi n q Qb G cöwz iva wqj wew Qbœ mk cöwz iva ev hy i Rb h cö ÍywZ _vkvi cö qvrb Zv wqj bv ZvB cöwz iva mn RB f ½ hvq GwcÖj gv m Aek g gv m m±i jv wµqvkxj n j cwikwíz hy ïiy nq mnvqk MÖš cwä: 1 nvmvb nvwdryi ingvb, evsjv ` ki ^vaxbzv hy : `wjjcî, câg LÛ, XvKv, Z_ gš Yvjq, iwdkzj Bmjvg wcgmwm, GKvË ii gyw³hy cöwz iv ai cö_g cöni, XvKv, BDwcGj, evsjv `k ivb djm, gyw³hy I ivb djm, XvKv, Avey gv: ` jvqvi nv mb, gyw³hy evsjv `k cywjk, ˆ`wbK B ËdvK, 16 ww m ^i 1995 cv VvËi g~j vqb- ˆbe w³k cökœ: mwvk DË ii cv k wuk ( ) wpý w`b 1 gyw³hy Kv j mbvevwnbxi evovwj m`m msl v wqj- (K) 5000 (L) 6500 (M) 6000 (N) ez gvb wewwavi-gi cvwk Ívb Avg j bvg wqj- BwZnvm c ôv 247

20 Gm Gm GBP Gj (K) BwcAvi (L) B e½j iwr g U (M) B cvwk Ívb (N) e½j iwr g U 3 gyw³hy Kv j wcjlvbvq Ae vbiz evovwj BwcAv ii msl v wqj- (K) 2700 (L) 2400 (M) 2500 (N) Kzwóqvq ^vaxbzv hy i cövi BwcAvi evwnbxi bz Z `b- (K) gri wmqvm (L) gri Av bvqvi (M) gri Avey Imgvb (N) gri iwdk 5 cöwz iva hy bz Z cö`vbkvix knx` cywj ki wwavbwr n Qb- (K) 50 (L) 49 (M) 39 (N) 38 msw ß cökœ: 1 gyw³hy Kv j evsjv ` k Ae vbiz evovwj ˆmb, BwcAvi I cywj ki Ae vb I msl v m ú K wjlyb 2 BwcAvi wcjlvbv I PÆMÖv g wkfv e cöwz iva M o Zv j m m ú K msw ß weeiy w`b 3 Kzwóqvq cvkevwnbxi weiy BwcAvi-Gi cöwz iva m ú K UxKv wjlyb 4 ivrvievm I PÆMÖv gi `vgcvov cywjk jvb b cywj ki cöwz iva m ú K ms c ey bv w`b ipbvg~jk cökœ: mv ji gvp - g gvm ch ší cvwk Ívwb evwnbxi weiy ˆmwbK I cywj ki cöwz iva ms c ey bv Kiyb BDwbU--- c ôv 248

21 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq cvv-3 evsjv `k K 11 m±i wefw³kiy D Ïk GB cvv c o Avcwb- gyw³hy Kv j m±i MV bi KviY wby q Ki Z cvi eb; m±i MV bi cö vcu Av jvpbv Ki Z cvi eb; 11 m± ii AšÍf y³ GjvKvi ey bv w` Z cvi eb; m± ii iyz c~y hy Ges mvdj ms c e vl v Ki Z cvi eb; wzbwu weª MW dvm m ú K Rvb Z cvi eb cvwk Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbx 1971 mv ji 25 gvp ga ivz n Z evovwji Ici MYnZ v ïiy K i Zv `i cöavb j e Íy nq wek we` vjqmn wk v cöwzôvb, mbvwbevm I BwcAvi DBs, cywjkmn Avav mvgwik evwnbxi Ae vb jv Gme vb _ K cvwj q Avmv Awdmvi I ˆmwbK `i eo Ask nv Zi Kv Q hv wqj ZvB wb q kîyi gvkv ejv K i hw`i mymw¾z nvbv`vi evwnbxi m ½ c i bv I V GK ch v q Zviv wcqy n U hvq Gwi g a 10 GwcÖj gywrebmi mikvi MwVZ n j hy Av iv msmwvz I cwikwíz iƒc jvf K i M o I V gyw³ dšr 17 GwcÖj mikvi hy iz AvÂwjK KgvÛvi `i wb q MVb K i GB dšr hv ciez xkv j 11wU m±i wef³ nq GQvov MwVZ nq 3wU we MÖW dvm Gfv e GKK Kgv Ûi Aax b hy evovwj µgv ^ q mvdj jvf Ki Z _v K K. m±i MV bi KviY h Kvb ` ki gyw³hy B `ªyZ mvdj jv fi c~e kz Gi mk PwiÎ Ges GKK KgvÛ GB D Ïk K mvg b i L hye wkwei Ges cöwk Y K `ª M o Zvjv GKvšÍ cö qvrb wqj GKK KgvÛ M o Zvjvi cq b Ab vb Av iv hme KviY wqj Zv n jv- cö_gz, hmg Í e½j iwr g U, BwcAvi, cywjk, gyrvwn`, Avbmvi evwnbxi m`m wew Qbœfv e cöwz iva Pvwj q hvw Qj Zv `i g a hvmv hvm vcb K i GKK Kgv Û wb q Avmv wøzxqz, cvkevwnbxi g bvej, kw³ I cök wz wby q mv c hy KŠkj ˆZwi Kiv Z ZxqZ, gyw³hy hvm`vbkvix wewfbœ mvgwik Awdmvi `i `vwq Z wb qvm I hy GjvKv wba viy K i hy k sljv Avbv PZz_ Z, wecyj msl K QvÎ I K lk-kªwg Ki g a _ K hviv hy Ask wb Z B QzK Zv `i cöwk Y w` q hy wb qvm Kiv câgz, A k msmön K i gyw³ hv v `i mw¾z Kiv lôz, AvšÍR vwzk ch v q evsjv ` ki gyw³hy K cöwzôv Kiv Gme D Ïk K mvg b i L wbqwgz I AwbqwgZ (MYevwnbx) evwnbx K GKB Kgv Ûi Aax b Avbv nq BwZnvm c ôv 249

22 Gm Gm GBP Gj L. m±i MV bi cö vcu evsjv ` ki gyw³hy wuk qk Awe epk Qvov mk jb gyw³hy i c wq jb cöwz iva hy B e½j iwr g Ui ˆmwbK, BwcAvi, cywjk, Avbmvi, QvÎmn wewfbœ ckvi gvbyl Ask bb cöwk YcÖvß mkj gyw³ hv v K cybm wvz Kivi cö qvrbxqzv cö_g _ KB DaŸ Zb evovwj Awdmviiv Abyfe K iwq jb 4 GwcÖj wm j Ui Zwjqvcvov Pv evmv b K b j Gg.G.wR. Imgvbxi mfvcwz Z AbywôZ ˆeV K gri kwddjøvn, gri Lv j` gvkvid, gri Gg. b~iy¾vgvb, gri b~iyj Bmjvg, K b j iemn A bk c` Kg KZ v Dcw Z wq jb GLv b cwikwíz hy QvovI ivr bwzk mg_ b MVb I Mvjveviỳ mieivn m ú K Av jvpbv nq 10 GwcÖj evsjv `k mikvi MV bi ci mikvi mvgwik cökvmb M o Zvjvi wm vší bq Ges G ch v q evsjv `k evwnbx MwVZ nq hvi nw KvqvU vi vwcz nq KvjKvZvi 8 b ^i w_ quvi iv W 17 GwcÖj AvbyôvwbKfv e evsjv `k mikvi kc_ MÖn Yi ci AvbyôvwbKfv e MwVZ nq gyw³ dšr ev gyw³evwnbx hvi cöavb mbvcwz wbhy³ nb Imgvbx B Zvg a 10 GwcÖj evsjv `k mikvi evsjv `k K gvu PviwU m± i fvm K i PÆMÖvg m± ii AwabvqK wbhy³ nb gri wrqv, Kzwgjøv m± ii gri Lv j` gvkviid, wm ju m± ii gri kwddjøvn Ges Kzwóqv m± ii gri Avey Imgvb c ii w`b bvrgyj nk K w`bvrcyi-ivrkvnxcvebv GjvKv, gri Rwjj K ewikvj-cuzqvlvjx GjvKv, K v Þb biqv Rk K iscyi GjvKvi `vwqz `qv nq mviv ` ki gyw³hy K Av iv emevb Kivi j we kl K i gyw³hy hvm`vbkvix mkj mvgwik- emvgwik e w³em K h _vchy³ `vwqz wb qvm Kiv Ges hy GjvKv wba vi Yi Rb m±i jv K bzzbfv e msmwvz Kivi cö qvrbxqzv `Lv `q G D Ï k GwcÖj cöavbgš x ZvRDwÏ bi mfvcwz Z m±i KgvÛvi `i Awa ek bi mxgvbv wpwýzkiy, evsjv ` ki Af š i Mwijv NuvwU vcb BZ vw` iybxwz cöyqb Kiv nq K b j ie K evsjv `k evwnbxi wpd Ae vd Ges MÖyc K v Þb G. K. L `Kvi K WcywU wpd Ae vd wbhy³ Kiv nq GB ˆeV K evsjv `k K 11 wu m± i wef³ K i mxgvbv wpwýz Kiv nq cöwzwu m± i GKRb KgvÛvi wbhy³ Kiv nq M. 11 m± ii cwipq GK b ^i m±i: PÆMÖvg, cve Z PÆMÖvg I dbx b`x ch ší wb q MwVZ `yb b ^i m±i: bvqvlvjx, AvLvDov, ˆfie ijjvbb ch ší Kzwgjøv Rjv, wm ju Rjvi nwemä, XvKv I dwi`cyi Rjvi wkqy Ask wzb b ^i m±i: AvLvDov, ˆfie ijjvbb _ K c~e w` K Kzwgjøv Rjv, wm ju Rjvi nwemä gnkzgv, XvKv Rjvi Askwe kl I wk kvimä Rjv wb q MwVZ Pvi b ^i m±i: wm ju Rjvi c~e vâj LvqvB-kv q ÍvMÄ ijjvbb QvovI c~e I DËi w` K WvDwe mok wb q MwVZ cvup b ^i m±i: wm ju Rjvi cwðgvâj wm ju-wvdwk mok n Z mybvgmä-gqgbwmsn mok ch ší GjvKv wb q MwVZ BDwbU--- c ôv 250

23 evsjv `k Db y³ wek we` vjq Qq b ^i m±i: iscyi I w`bvrcy ii VvKziMvuI gnkzgv wb q MwVZ mvz b ^i m±i: w`bvrcyi Rjvi `w YvÂj, ivrkvnx, cvebv, e ov Rjv wb q MwVZ AvU b ^i m±i: Kzwóqv, h kvi, dwi`cy ii AwaKvsk Ges Lyjbv Rjvi `ŠjZcyi-mvZ xiv mok ch ší GjvKv wb q MwVZ bq b ^i m±i: `ŠjZcyi-mvZ xiv mok _ K Lyjbv Rjvi `w YvÂj, dwi`cyi Rjv Askwe kl Ges ewikvj I cuzqvlvjx Rjv wb q MwVZ `k b ^i m±i: `k b ^i m± ii Aax b wqj bš Kgv Ûi, mgỳ ª DcK jxq AÂj I Af šíixy bšc_ GMvi b ^i m±i: wk kvimä Qvov gqgbwmsn I Uv½vBj Rjv wb q MwVZ N. 11 m± ii iyz c~y hy I mvdj GK b ^i m±i: GB m±ify³ wqj PÆMÖvg, cve Z PÆMÖvg I bvqvlvjxi GKvsk m±i KgvÛvi wq jb gri wrqvdi ingvb (Ryb ch ší), c i m±i KgvÛvi nb gri iwdkzj Bmjvg GB m±i 5wU mve m± i wef³ wqj- FwlgyL mve- m±i, kªxbmi mve- m±i, gbynvu mve- m±i, ZejQwo mve- m±i I wwgvwmix mve- m±i 1 b ^i m±i nw KvqvU vi wqj nwiyv RyjvB gv m RW dvm MwVZ n j gri wrqvi jvwfwl³ nb gri iwdk GQvov cöwz mve m± i wq jb GKRb K i mve- m±i KgvÛvi GB m± ii Aax b wbqwgz ˆmb wqj 2,000 Gi g a 1,400 BwcAvi, 200 cywjk, 300 mbvevwnbx Ges 100 bš evwnbx I wegvb mbv GQvov emvgwik MYevwnbx wqj cövq 8,000 GB m± ii cö_g cwikwíz hy 26 gvp PÆMÖv gi Kzwgivi hy 3 w`b vqx GB hy i ci 28 gvp Kzwgiv cvkevwnbxi `L j P j hvq 20 GwcÖj wgik ivb _vbvq cvkevwnbx cöwz iv ai m ylxb nq Dfq c i ek K qkrb ˆmb nzvnz nq GB m± i g-ryb gv m D jøl hvm hy Pvù MvRx hy, wpkbqvov hy Gme hy ek K hkrb cvwk Ívwb ˆmb wbnz nq RyjvB _ K Av iv AwaK msl K cöwk YcÖvß hv v hvm w` j gyw³ hv v `i mvnm e o hvq RyjvB gv m `excyi weiwc, KiyBqv evrvi, wnqvkz Z cvk mbv `i nw KvqvUv i gyw³ hv viv AvµgY Pvwj q kîy evwnbxi e vck wz K i G gv mb AvgwjKv Zv `i AwaKvi Av m 1 b ^i m± i ZrciZv Av iv e w cvq m Þ ^i gv m G gv mb QvMjbvBqv weiwc Ges c ii gv m mwjqv`xwn hy evovwjiv mvdj jvf K i b f ^i gv m Pvù MvRxi hy I gyw³evwnbxi mvdj AwR Z nq ww m ^ ii ïiy Z 2 b ^i m± ii m ½ hš_ Awfhv b cvwk Ívwb evwnbx wcqy n U hvq 1 ww m ^i QvMjbvBqv kîygy³ nq 12 ww m ^i mxzvkzû, 16 ww m ^i Kzwgiv I PÆMÖvg nvbv`vi evwnbx gy³ nq 1 b ^i m± ii wewfbœ hy m±i KgvÛvi QvovI bz Z `b K vþb gvndzr, j. kikz, K v Þb Rvdi Bgvg, K v Þb Awj, K v Þb kvgmyj û`v cögyl `yb b ^i m±i: GB m±ify³ wqj bvqvlvjx, AvLvDov-ˆfie, ijjvbb ch ší Kzwgjøv Rjv, wm j Ui nwemä gnkzgv, XvKv I dwi`cy ii wkqy GjvKv cö_g GB m± ii AwabvqK wq jb Lv j` gvkviid c i GB `vwqz cvb gri G.wU.Gg. nvq`vi GB m± ii Aax b wqj 30 nvrv ii BwZnvm c ôv 251