IS-hn henb Xncp-ta\n (]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv) CS-b- m-cpss CS-b

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1 IS-hn henb Xncp-ta\n (]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv) CS-b- m-cpss CS-b

2 (Malayalam) Kadavil Valiya Thirumeni (Paulose Mar Athanasius) Edayanmarude Edayan (Biography) By Fr. Joseph Cheeran Doctors Lane, U. C. College P. O. Aluva - 2, Ernakulam, Kerala, India Ph: Copy Right : Reserved with the Author First Published : Published by : M. J. D. Publishing House, Kunnamkulam Cover Design, Typesetting & Printing : Sophia Print House, Kottayam Mob: Rs. 100/- Ih : a y-øn IS-hn Xncp-ta\n (^m. tpm Pv amxyp aw ImSv hc Nn{Xw). At±lw sshzn-i-ÿm-\-tøbv v D]-\-bn- -h : 1. ]. _t -en-tbmkv Koh Kokv {]Y-a _mhm (C-S-Øv), ]. _t -en-tbmkv HutK {]Y-a _mhm (heøv), ]. _t -en-tbmkv Koh Kokv ZznXob _mhm (CSØv), ]mºmsn ]. am {KotKm-dn-tbmkv Xncp-ta\n (h-e-øv), ]utemkv am AØm- \m-tkymkv (CSØv), ]mtd v am Cuhm-\n-tbmkv (h-e-øv).

3 IS-hn henb Xncp-ta\n (]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv) CS-b- m-cpss CS-b ^m. tum. tpmk^v Noc {]km-[-\w Fw. sp. Un. ]ªojnwKv lukv Ip wipfw t^m :

4 ^m. tum. tpmk^v Noc Xr»q Pn bn ]g n sk v tacokv Hm - ØtUmIvkv CShIbn Noc Koh Kokv I»oimbpsS ]u{x\mbn 1945 Nnßw 1 \v P\n p. amxm]nxm ƒ amø Ip møncn. Ahn` ticf k hiemimebpss H mw dmt msp IqSn aebmfw `mjbn hnzzm _ncpzw t\sn. Imen v k Iemimebn \n v amã _ncpzw. almflmkm n k hiemimebn \n v "B[p- \ni aebmf IhnXbn ss nfns kzm[o\w' F hnjbsø n Xbmdm nb KthjW{]_ Øn\v ]n.f v.un. _ncpzw e`n p. Xr»q kn. Fw. Fkv. sslkviqfnepw Bephm bqwnb {InkvXy timfpnepw A[ym]I PqWn dn b snbvxp. sshznikpcp bqlmt\m am tkthdntbmkv sa{xmt meoøm. At±lØn \n v sshzniÿm\߃ kzoicn p apx sim n `{Zmk\Ønepw 1985 apx Ip wipfw `{Zmk\Ønepw hnhn[ CShIIfn tkh\w snbvxp Pqembv 1 apx Xriq `{Zmk\Øn Bembv Ipfºv, Im n\n msv F o CShIIfn tkh\w snøp p. bqlmt\m am tkthdntbmkv ^ut j, am Zoh mtkymkv ]T\tI{µw, Ip wipfw {InkvXy ÃUn sk, FdWmIpfw N v lnãdn Atkmtkyj F nhbpss ÿm]i snb am. kotbm ktµiw, CShI]{XnI F o k`m{]kn- oicwßfpss ÿm]i No^v FUn, c v Uk\ntesd {KŸßfpw Ccp q naº- Xntesd KthjWteJ\ßfpw {]kn oicn p. almflmkm n k hiemimebn dnk v sskuv Bbpw Hm ØtUmIvkv ÃUn ss nfns aebmfw ]cntim[i Bbpw ae- c Hm Ø-tUmIvkv N v lnãdn Atkm-kn-tb-j {]kn-u- mbpw {]h Øn p p. bpssw Uv t_m Uv Hm^v {InkvXy lb FPpt js [\klmbtømss ticfønseßpap B ss hvkpifn KthjW]cyS\w \SØn. am {KotKmdntbmkv A_vZp Peo (1665), am Cuhm\ntbmkv (1685) F nhcpss kpkvxmønt m\piƒ, am _t entbmkv b szm a{^nbm\bpss (1685) ] n{ia pkvxi߃, `mcxønse {]mno\ sk v txmakv ss nƒ, txmakv A Znbmt m (H mw am tømωm) høn m\nte b IØv, am AlØ m (1653) tkmhbn \n v siωmi m hiw simspøb IØv, Im paßm v Iqdntemkns Ip m\xivk, lqzmb Imt\m 18 A w Imt\m Bbn hyxymks SpØphm d^vh v snbvx Imt\m, B Øm v snt Sv (]Sntbme) F nßs\ ]uckvxy ]m mxy kpdnbm\nbnepw I tkm\nbnepw hs gp- Ønepw FgpXnb H [niw k`mncn{xtcjiƒ Is SpØv {]kn oicn p. `mcy: si. hn. GenbmΩ (dn. sluvankv{skv). ai : {]kmzv Noc, kv\pjm Zo]m {]kmzv. ]u{xnam : F km {]kmzv, ss m {]km-zv. aiƒ: tagvkn tpm v, PmamXmhv: tum. ]n. sf. tpm v, Zuln{X : lnam tpm v, dmwm ]n. tpm v. hnemkw: tumivtsgvkv sebv, bp. kn. timfpv ]n. H., Bephm 2. t^m :

5 ka Ww CsX-gp-Xp Bf-ns Pohn-X-k-Jn-bmbn 1972 s^{_p-hcn apx cwk-{]-thiw snbvxv kpjzpxj-ß-fn kk-t mjw ] m-fnøw hln- p-t]m-cp {ioaxn si. hn. Gen-bmΩ 2008 BKÃv 7 \v 60 hb v ]q Øn-bm- p- p. Ahy-h-ÿn-X-ambn InS Fs Pohn-X-Øn\v Xmfhpw ebhpw krjvsn v kpÿnc-amb ASn-ÿm-\-ß-fn IpSpw-_-Po-hnXw si n-s m- p- -Xn Ah XymK-]q w kln A[zm-\-߃ {]iw-km-hlw Xs. P \m ]cp- \pw hna i-kz-`m-hn-bp-amb Fs am-]q w Dƒs m- p-hm\pw Hcp sshzn-is Pohn-X-Ønse _lp kzc-xsb `mh-\m-]q w {Kln- p-hm\pw Gsd hnp-b-]q w {ian B {]nb-x-a-bpss jjvtn-]q Øn D]lmc-ambn Cu {KŸw ka n- psim p- p.

6 ^m. tum. tpmk^v Nocs IrXnIƒ 1. C y Hm ØtUmIvkv k`mncn{x hn m\timiw 2. PKZoiv N{µt_mkv 3. am C mtxymkns k]vxtej\߃ (]cn-`m-j) 4. skan\m {]_ ߃ (F-Un- ) 5. k`mtpymxnkv am Zoh mtkymkv 6. ae ck`bpw ticf kwkvimchpw 7. C y Hm ØtUmIvkv k`: hna imfli ]T\w 8. ae cbpss {]hmni 9. k`bnse {]Xnk niƒ (F-Un- ) 10. `mcxønse {]mno\ ss nƒ (]T\w, hymjym\w) 11. B[p\nI aebmf IhnXbpw ss nfpw (KthjW {]_ w) 12. almflmhmb I ΩtbmKn 13. Hcp ]ctzibm{xbpss IY (F-Un- ) 14. C y Hm ØtUmIvkv k`: Ncn{Xhpw kwkvimchpw (kl {KŸImc ) 15. h t»cn Xncpta\n: ae ck`bpss tim (kl {KŸImc ) 16. kndnb ]m{xnb ok mcpss A[nImc Zp hn\ntbmkw (kl {KŸImc ) 17. ks kviqƒ A[ym]Iklmbn (FUn ) 18. kwkvimc ]T\߃ (P\d FUn ) 19. A cßfpss BNmcy (jjvsn]q Øn D]lmc{KŸw) 20. ]{Xm[n]teJ\߃ 21. sxcs SpØ {]_ ߃ 22. Hm ØtUmIvkv {]`mjw߃ 23. Hm ØtUmIvkv ] n m piƒ 24. ae ck`bnse ]SntbmeIƒ 25. C y Hm ØtUmIvkv k` (F. Un ) 26. k`m Z i (3 awn q, hountbm Imk v) 27. kpdnbm\n kwkoxw (HmUntbm Imk v) 28. I \msv {KŸhcn (FUn, hymjym\w) 29. ]g- n- - nbpw ]nxm- - mcpw (A Snbn ) 30. IS-hn ]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv 31. The Indian Orthodox Church of St. Thomas.

7 D -S w hmmvapjw ^m. tum. tpmk^v Noc 7 1 apjw \jvs-s \n `m-ky-hm 25 2 hs- ]-d-hq-cnse CS-b 35 3 N{I-hm-f-߃ hnkvxr-x-am-ip p 57 4 alm-]p-tcm-lnx ]Zhn 74 5 IWvT-tIm-Smen IWvTm-`-c-W-ambn 87 6 `{Zm-k\ sa{xm-t m-eoøm `{Zm-k\ sa{xm-t m-eoøm (Xp-S ) Bep-hm skan-\mcn A y Zn\-߃ 164 A\p-_ w 1. am AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss hn ]{Xw 178

8 IS-hn ]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv. tzh-temiw Ac-a-\- bn kq n- n-cn- p Hcp Nn{Xw ae- -ck`m amkn-ibn {]kn- o-i-cn Hcp t^mt m.

9 hmmvapjw IShn ]ueqkv am AØm\mtkymkv henb sa{xmt meo- ØmbpsS PohNcn{Xw FgpXm\nSbmbXv Hcp {]txyi kmlncy- ØnemWv \hw_ 2 \v IShn am AØm\mtkymkns Nca ixhm jnizn\w Bbncp p. AXv tim bøv hn]peambn BtLmjn phm IShn IpSpw_mwKw IqsS Bb tum. si. ]n. tpm Pv B{Kln p. At±lw A mcyw ]. ImtXmen m _mhmsb \nc cw Hm Ωs SpØnbXns ^eambn A mcyøn Hcp Xocpam\ambn. tim bw `{Zmk\Øns B`napJyØn A{]Imcw Hcp ixhm jni ktωf\w 2007 Unkw_dn ]pxp n \nebv ] nbn h v hn]peambn kwlsn n s p. ]. ImtXmen m _mhm DZvLmS\w \n hln pibpw `{Zmk\m[n] A`nhµy Knhdp- Kokv am Cuhm\ntbmkv sa{xmt meoøm B[y w hln pibpw snbvx ktωf\øn IShn Xncpta\nsb A\pkvacn p apjy- {]`mji F \nebn At±lsØ n Nne Ncn{X hkvxpxiƒ tijcn phm F\n nsbmbn. Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcn ÿm]n pibpw AhnsSØs I_dSßpIbpw snbvx IShn henbxncpta\n ]m{xnb okv `mksø Hcp ]nxmhmbn mwv B `mk m AhImis p t]mcp- Xv. hs {]tzi߃, {]txyin v A amen sa{xmk\w ]m{xnb - okv I n mcptssx v IÆS v hntijn n mdp Hm ØtUmIvkv hn`mkhpw A amen sa{xmk\mÿm\amb Xr p Øv skan\mcntbbpw AhnsS I_dSßnb ]nxm mscbpw ]m{xnb - okv `mk m F \nebnemwv ]cma in pi ]Xnhv. IShn Xncpta\n tim bw `{Zmk\Øns H masø A[y \msw pw A amenbpss Aºm v am Iqdntemkv Imew snbvxt mƒ At±l- Øn\v A amenbpss A[nI`mcw Gev]n pibmbncp psh pw At\Iw t] Adnbm\nSbmbXv Cu ixm_vznbmtlmj thfbnemwv. ae ck`bpss c mw ImtXmen m ImcpNnd am ]oe- Ivkot\mkv, aq mw ImtXmen m am {KotKmdntbmkv, \memw ImtXmen m HutK am XotamØntbmkv, ]mºmsnbnse Ipdnbmt mkv am {KotKmdntbmkv, ]mtd v amxyqkv am Cuhm\ntbmkv F o ]nxm msc hnhn[ sshzni ÿm\ßfnte v D]\bn alm{][m\mnmcy IShn henbxncpta\nbmsw v AhcpsS AXn{]kn ßfmb PohNcn{XImc m tcjs SpØnbn ps -

10 10 IShn Xncp-ta\n nepw AsXms th {X {i n s SmsX t]mbn. AXn\v Nne ImcW߃ Nq n mwn mhp XmWv. 1. k`mncn{x {KŸßƒ hmbn v Imcy߃ {Kln phm k`mw- K߃ (CXn B[ymflnI t\xm mcpw Dƒs Sp p) ImWn p APm{KXbpw DZmko\Xbpw \n wkxbpw \v tijw ae ck`bn ]S v hym]n simspwxa v. Cu simspw Xakv 1909 \v apºv ae ck`bn \S txtpmabßfmb kph Æ A ymbßsf hngpßn ae ck` Cu simspw Xa ns ]nsnbn \n v hnap n t\snbt mƒ k`mncn{xw F v ]d m 1909 \v tijw \S hyhlmcßfpss Ncn{Xw F mbn [mcw \v apºv ae ck`sb \bn ]nxm msc mw Cu hyhlmcbpkøns simspw Xakns\ Wn phcpøphm ] m- Øew Hcp nb Iivae mcmbncp p F v Hs ms t_m[]q - hambpw Hs ms At_m[]q hambpw sim ntlmjn s p \pw 1950 \pw CSbn Kuch]q Æamb Ncn{X]T\ßsfm pw ae ck`bn \S n n F Xv Cu ] møeøn Hm - mhp XmWv. A\pZn\ kw`h߃ amtemisc Adnbn m\mbn t i]q w kamcw`n "CShI]{XnI' Cu simspw Xa n izmkw ap n acn txmss k`bn Ahtijn kpxmcyxbpw AkvXan p. B hyhlmcbpksø AXnPohn Xv Hcp NmØpcpØn am {KotKmdntbmkv ]nxmhv am{xw. A ImcbpKØnse I nøm Bbncp h t»cn am Zoh mtkymkv ae c sa{xmt meo- Ømbpw At±lsØ ]n ps v Aac mc\mhm \ntbmkn s aq mw ImtXmen mbpw AhcpsS c p t]cptsbpw Kpcphmb ]cpae Xncpta\nsb {]Io Øn psimt Ccp Xn\m At±lsØ hngpßphm Ccp]Xmw \q m ns ]q hm Ønse Ccp v ss[cys - n. ae ck`mncn{xønse c p {]Jym]nX ]cnip m pw k\ymkw \ Inb k\ymkkpcphpw alm]cnip \pamb ]pent m- n tpmk^v am Zoh mtkymkv ae c sa{xmt meoømbpw ae - ck` I n p Xn h v G hpw henb aev]m\pw kpdnbm\n `mjbnse ]mcmhmckam\amb Bcm[\m kmlnxyw H pan Xpw hnh - Ø\w snbvxv \ΩpsS Bcm[\m kmlnxysø kºpjvshpw kº- hpw B nb alm-flm-hp-amb IShn henb Xncpta\nbpw Cu XakvIcWØn A{]Xy cmbn.

11 11 IShn Xncp-ta\n I n hg piƒ 1909 \v tijta Bcw`n n p q F pw 1907 Imew snbvx IShn Xncpta\n X qew Ahn` k`bnse ]nxmhmsw pw At±lsØ ]cnnbs SpØphm 1909 apx Xs k`m t\xrxzw ]cmpbs p. ae ck` tkmhbnsebpw a pw anj {]h - Ø\Øn\v {]Xo ItfmsS \ntbmkn A hmdokv am bqentbmkv sa{xmt meoøm tkmhbn ItØmen m axÿcpss ]ou- \Øn AXnZb\obambn ]oun n s t mgpw HSphn At±lw A\mY\mbn Hscm sshznis km n[yw t]mepan msx tkmhbnse ap kn ivaim\øn ap\nkn men n Poh\ mcpss Iq mb Im ΩnIXzØn kwkvicn s t mgpw Atacn bnte v anj hym]\øns `mkambn \ntbmkn s dn\n hnemøn am XotamØntbmkv sa{xmt meoømbv v Imcy aamb taet\zjww \ ImXncp t mgpw hnpbn Xv ae ck`bn simsnipøn hmwncp simspwxa v Xs. IShn Xncpta\ntbmSv ]nev me ae ck` ImWn Xpw C pw XpS p hcp Xpamb Ip Ichpw \ncmkv]zhpw Bb Dt] W at\m`mhøns ] møew hy am ns m mwv Rm A\pkvacW {]`mjww Bcw`n Xv. F\n \phzn s Ac awn q kabw sim v Gsd t in v IShn Xncpta\nbpsS txtpmabamb PohNcn{XØns \JNn{Xw \nd kz n Rm hc pim n. sshinh tum. amxyqkv am tkthdntbmkv sa{xmt meoømbptsxmbncp p ASpØ {]kwkw. At±lw H hmiyøn {]kwkw Ahkm\n n p. Rm AhXcn n {]kwkw Hcp ]pkvxiambn hn]peoicn v FgpXnØ m BbXv ae c Hm ØtUmIvkv k`m {]kn- oicw hip v {]kn oicn psim mw F mbncp p At±lw AhXcn n GIhmIy {]kwkønse {]Jym]\w. IctLmjtØmsS kz v B {]Jym]\sØ kl jw kzmkxw snbvxp. ktωf\w Ign DSs\ ]cnip _mhmbpw A`nhµy Cuhm\ntbmkv Xncpta\nbpw BZcWob\mb ^m. tum. Sn. sp. tpmjzmbpw Fs ]pdøv XgpIn A`n\µn v ]pkvxisagpxwsa v Bhiys p. HcmgvN Ign v {]kn oicn m\ncn p Fs k`mncn{x hnpvrm\timiøns ap Xv tim n tum. tkthdntbmkv Xncpta\n _p v snbvxxv henb HcwKoImcambn F\n v txm n. Aßs\- bmwv IShn henb Xncpta\nbpsS PohNcn{X cn\ Rm XpSßnbXv. ]pkvxiw Gsd psd ]q Ønbmbt mƒ BWv Adnbp Xv

12 12 IShn Xncp-ta\n Fw.H.kn. bpss Ct mgsø A y tum. tkthdntbmkv sa{xmt meoøm As v. Xncpta\n v hnhcw FgpXnbt mƒ P\d sk{i dnb s t] v FgpXphm \n t±iw e`n p. sk{i dnbpss t] pw ]pxnb {]knu ns t] pw Ab IØp- Iƒ v adp]sn t]mepw e`n n F v I t mƒ \ncmi txm n. tim bw sa{xmk\ønse Hcp sshzni kplrøpambn Cu hnjbw ] ph t mƒ k`mimcy߃ Ft mƒ ASpØdnbp At±lw ]d p. tlm ens ap `mkøv \n v Hm U kzoicn v "Hcp akme tzmi' F v shbv ASp fbnte v B \ Inbmepw ASp fbnse ]mni mc tzmi Nps SpØv \ Inbmte Bhiy mc\v tzmi e`n q F mwv A\p`h kº IqsSbmb B sshzni kplrøv ]d Xv. IqsS qss k`mti{µw kµ in phm\pw NpaXe msc IqsS qss Hm Ωs SpØphm\pw IΩ n AwKßsfs m v ip]m i snøn m\psams AkuIcyambXn\m Fw. H. kn. kz]v\w hn^esa v txm n. Ipsd tim n Bsc nepw hmßpsa v Dd mbm {]kn oicww Ffp amipat m F v IcpXn Aev]w `btømss tim bw sa{xmk\ sk{i dn _lp. s]cntbm a Øne- \v Hcp Im Uv FgpXn. A qdv tim n ap Iqdmbn _p v snømtam F mwv tnmzn Xv. Fs AXy[nIw A pxs SpØns m v At±lw t^m snbvxp. Bbncw tim n FSp msa v. Gsd sshimsx At±lw `{Zmk\ Iu kn hnfn piq n HutZymKnIambn Imcyw Xocpam\n p. AUzm kv XpIbpsS sn pw Ab p. AtXmsS "IShn Xncpta\n' shfn w ImWpsa v Dd mbn. tim bw sa{xmk\ Iu knent\msv s]mxphnepw AXns A y A`nhµy am Cuhm\ntbmkv Xncpta\ntbmSpw `{Zmk\ sk{i dn _lp. s]cntbm a Øn kjdnbm A t\mspw hntijmep Fs AIw\nd \µn ChnsS tcjs SpØs. Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcn IShn henb Xncpta\n ÿm]n Bephm Xr p Øv skan- \mcn GXm\pw h jßfmbn hnhmz ÿehpw bp `qanbpw Bbn amdnbncn p p. k`bnse I nhg ns ] møeøn Ccp- I niƒ pap ÿe߃ X `qanbmipi kzm`mhniamwv. F m X hnjbßsf Ncn{X]chpw \nba]chpamb ASnÿm- \ßfn ]cnlcn phm\p {iaamwv Bhiyw. AXns\ hnimc {]iv\tam thm v_m ns {]iv\tam Bbn v k o Æ hxvicn p kao]\ßfmwv \n `mkyhim Ipsd hnizmknifpw

13 13 IShn Xncp-ta\n `cwiqshpw ssis m p Xv F v \nco n msx hø. Hcp Ncn{X hnzym n F \nebn Nne hkvxpxiƒ tcjs SpØs. Xr p Øv skan\mcn At ymjym ]m{xnb okn\m hmgn- s A amen sa{xmt meoømam ÿm]n XmWv. X qew At ymjym ]m{xnb oknt\msv `cw]cambn hnt[bxzap sa{xmt meoømam mwv AXns ssihimhimiøn\v A l- Xbp Xv F \ne]msv ]e pap v. skan\mcn ÿm]i IShn Xncpta\nbptSbpw hben dºn am {KotKmdntbmkns bpw acw]{x߃ C mcyønte v Ah A\pIqetcJbmbn Nq n- m p p. {]YaZrjvSym Cu hmzkxn kzoimcysa v ]e pw txm mw. F m Hcp Imcyw {i nt Xp v. A amenbnse Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcn am{xa ]cpae skan\mcnbpw tim bw Fw. Un. skan\mcnbpw ÿm]n ae c sa{xmt meoøm ]pent m n tpmk^v am Zoh mtkymkpw At ymjym ]m{xnb - okn \n mwv ] ta Xv. \hoicw t\xmhmb ]me p Øv amxyqkv am AØm\mtkymkpw At±lØn \n v ÿm\w {]m]n sxmgnbqcnse BeØq mc tpmk^v Iqdntemkpw Ah- Imis Sp Xv At ymjym ]m{xnb okns ssish ns ]n p- S bmwv sa{xm ÿm\ta tim\m v am bqentbmkv, Aºm v am Iqdntemkv, IShn am AØm\mtkymkv, NmØpcp- Øn am {KotKmdntbmkv, 1877 ÿm\ta apdna Øn am Cuhm\ntbmkv (ae cbnse {]Ya ImtXmen m), Itcm pho n am Zoh mtkymkv F nhcpw ]t{xmkv XrXob ]m{xnb okn \n v ÿm\ta v hnhn[ `{Zmk\߃ `cn hcmwv. Ah ]m{xnb okn \n v sa{xm ÿm\w {]m]n Xns t]cn Ah ÿm]n ] nifpw ÿm]\ßfpsams ]m{xnb okns A[n- ImcØn hcptam? ]søm ]Xmw \q m n ae ck`bnse an sa{xm mscbpw hmgn n p Xv At ymjym ]m{xnb okv Bbncp p. tijw c pt]sc A hmdokv am bqentbmkns\bpw sd\n hnemøn am XotamØntbmkns\bpw hmgn Xv ]m{xnb okns A\phmZ{]Imchpw Bbncp p. ssish v \ Ip Xp aqew ]m{xnb okn\v e`n p A[nImcØns hym]vxn sxmgnbq t kn a{zmkv sslt msxnbpw skan\mcnt kn tdmb t msxnbnse `qcn] hpw A naambn N snbvxv Xocpam\n n p XmWv. ssish v \ Ip Xp aqew sxmgnbq ] nta bmsxmchimihpw A[nImchpw ]m{xnb okn\n F v bqbm ow am Iqdntem-

14 14 IShn Xncp-ta\n kns hmzkxnisf \nckn psim v timgnt msv Pn mt msxnbpw a{zmkv sslt msxnbpw hy am nbncp p. skan\mcnt kn `qcn] hn[n Xbmdm nb PUvPnam A mcyw \nco n psim v 347 mw JfinIbn ]cma in p Xn{]ImcamWv. ""... XncphnXmw Iqdnep kpdnbm\nk`bpss ta At ymjym knwlmk\øns sshzni tae[nimcsø bmt m_mb kpdnbm\n kapzmbømepw sa{xmt meoø mcmepw kωxn s SpIbpw AwKoIcn s Sp- Ibpw snbvxn ps pw B tae[nimcøns \SØ Cu tzi- Øp k`bpss BfloI Imcyßsf \SØp Xn\v AXmXv kabßfn sa{xmt meoø msc ]m{xnb okv Xs tbm A[nImcs SpØnb {]Xn\n[nIsfs mt m hmgn p Xnepw amωqzokm apxemb Bhiy߃ v Cu tzisø ] nifn D]tbmKn p - Xn\p aqtdm (ip oicn s FÆ) Ab p Xnepw k`bpss Bflob `cwøn s]mxpthbp ta hnnmcønepw ASßnbncn p p F pw euini hnjbßfn kzmx{ yambncp Cu k`bpss apx kw_ amb `cwøn ]m{xnb okns A[nImcw D mbncp n F pw XncphnXmwIqdnep bmt m_mb kpdnbm\n k`bpss sa{xmt meoøm Cu tzisø k`bpss BflnIhpw euinihpw Bb `cwøn\v tbmky\miphm At ymjym ]m{xnb okn\mtem At±lØn \n v {Iaambn A[nImcw kn n {]Xn\n[nIfmtem {]XnjvTn s h\pw P\ßfm XßfpsS sa{xmt meoøm Bbn AwKoIcn s h\pamb Hcp aebmføp- Imc\mbncn Wsa pw A o {]Xn (]pent m n tpmk^v am Zoh mtkymkv) A{]Imcw {]XnjvTn s n pw A[nI] w P\ßfm AwKoIcn s n paps pw AXn\m At±lØn\v AØm- \mtkymkns acwøn sa{xmt meoøm ÿm\ønte v ]n pscp Xn\v Hcp ]q Æ AhImiap mbncp p F pw A o hmzn (]me p Øv txmakv am AØm\mtkymkv) {Iaambn {]XnjvTn s SpItbm A[nI] w P\ßfm AwKoIcn s SpItbm snbvxn ns pw BbXpsIm v sa{xmt meoømbpss ÿm\- Øn\pw A[nImcØn\pw AhImians pw Ahkm\sØ kωxn- s sa{xmt meoømbpw {SÃnbpamb AØm\mtkymkns acwtijw A o hmzn v k`bpss kzøp fpssbpw AtXmSp kw_ n n p Xns bpw ssihihpw Abmƒ sa{xmt meoømbpss ÿm\sø FSpØXpw sx mbncn p p F pw A o hmzn AXn\m ae c bmt m_mb kpdnbm\nk`bpss sa{xmt meoøm ÿm\søbpw ÿm\nn ßsfbpw A o {]Xnsb

15 15 IShn Xncp-ta\n (]pent m n am Zoh mtkymkv) Gev]n v simspøv Ct mƒ AXv kw_ ambn AbmfpsS ] D F m hkvxp fpw ]Wßfpw hn psimsp bpw A o {]Xn G v Zm\]{XØm Bhiys - ncn p {]Imcw thsd c v {SÃnItfmSp IqSn \SØp Xnte v B hkvxp ƒ apxembxns\ ssihis SpØpIbpw thwsa pw...'' tdmb timsxn hn[nbn `qcn] hn[nbn {]kvxmhn p (XncphnXmwIq cmpiob A o, ]p. 160). kam\amb Hcp tikn sim n tdmb t msxnbpw Imcy߃ C{]Imcw \nco n ncn p p: ""... ae c CShIbpsS Bflob Xeh At ymjym ]m{xnb okmwv. A\ymb ] ni ] niƒ B CShIbn s XmWv. ] nibnse ] nifpw hkvxp fpw, bmt m_mb kpdnbm\nk`bnse hnizmkhpw XXzßfpw in - Whpw A\pkcn v sszhsø Bcm[n pibpw At ymjym ]m{xnb okpambn kw KØn IgnbpIbpw snbvx Hcp {SÃn\v hnt[- bamwv. AXpsIm v ] nibnse ] nifpw hkvxp fpw ae c sa{xmt meoøm Bb H mw hmznbpss (]pent m n tpmk^v am Zoh mtkymkns ) BfloIhpw euinihpw sshznihpw Bb in WØn\v hnt[bamwv'' (56 mw JfinI. ]n. F. DΩ, c mbncw h jw ]n n ae ck` c mw `mkw, ]p. 20). euini tae[nimcw X߃ ps v Nne At ymjym ]m{xnb ok m `mhn n ps Xv icn Xs. ]t, kzmx{ y e_v[n p apºp cmpiob `cwimesø timsxniƒ t]mepw AXv \ntj[n n p v. X qew "At ymjym ]m{xnb okns `c- WØnepƒs ' F hn {XØnse ]cma i߃ v "Bflob tae[nimcønepƒs ' F v am{xta A amt Xp q ImtXment v ÿm]n p Xn\v apºp \nebmwxv. ImtXment v hyhÿm]nxambn ae ck`bn ]p\xÿm]n s txmss ÿnxnkxniƒ ho pw hyxymks p kapzmbt kn Xo p Iev]n kp{]owtimsxn Imcyßsf \nco Xn{]ImcamWv: ""sa{xmt meoø msc hmgn p Xn\pw aqtdm IqZmi snøp - Xn\pw A[nImcap ImtXment v A_vZp ainlm (]m{xnb - okv) ÿm]n Xns\ AwKoIcn v, ]m{xnb okn\v ae ck` taep A[nImcw A{]Xy amip t]mbn v hsc Ipd Xv sim v H p apx aq p hsc {]XnIƒ (h t»cn Xncpta\nbpw Iq p {SÃnIfpw) thzhn]coxnitfm k`bv v CXctcm Hcp \ho\k` ÿm]n pitbm snbvxn n '' (JfinI 30, 31).

16 16 IShn Xncp-ta\n kp{]owtimsxnhn[nbpss shfn Øn ]m{xnb okv ] sø `cwi Øm fmbncp CShI sa{xmt meoø m B ÿm\- Øn\v A lcs pw AhcpsS sxcs Sp n\v \nba {]m_eyans pw h piqsn. AXpsIm v B ] Øp mbncp sa{xm mscms bpw ae csa{xmt meoømbpw IqSnbmb ImtXmen mbv v DSºSn FgpXns mspøp. ""... k`bpss `mhnimcy߃ Xncpa\ nse B bn Iogn `wknbmbn \S psa v hnizkn p p. AhbpsS \nhrøn v k`bpss Imt\m\pIfpw \S nencn p `cwls\bpw A gt mƒ Xncpta\n \ Ip \n t±ißfpw A\pkcn v Ft mgpw Rm {]h Øn psim msa v Adnbn psim p p.'' i aqkmbpss Cu DSºSn kzoicn ImtXment mkv "am - tømam «olmbpss ]uckvxy knwlmk\øn BcqV\mb' F v Xm ÿm\ta 1929 apx D]tbmKn pt]mcp ]cºcmkxamb HutZymKnI e ]mun ]pxnb sa{xm mcs w ae cbnse F m sa{xm mscbpw hnhn[ `{Zmk\ßfn NpaXetbev]n p \nba\ Iev]\ 1959 s^{_phcn 25 \v 31 mw \º k pe Iev]\bmbn F m ] niƒ pw Ab p. Cu ]pxnb \nba\iev]\ aqew A - amen `{Zmk\Øns NpaXebn kzoicn s Kohdp okv am {KotKmdntbmkv (hben]dºn ) sa{xmt meoøm 1959 G{]n 10 \v Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcnbn \n pw 102 mw \º Bbn Hcp s]mxpiev]\ Xmsg]dbpw{]Imcw ]pds Sphn p: ""{]nbtc, \ΩpsS ] nifn Ct mƒ \S nencn p `cw coxniƒ v HsscIycq]w hcptø XmhiyamsW v k`bpss ]ptcmkxnsb n Xmev]cyambn Nn n p Ghcpw kωxn p ImcyamWv. sszhir]bm k`bn kam[m\w ssih ncn p Xp sim pw k`bpss GIoIcWØn\pw A`nhr n pw BhiyamsW- p XpsIm pw ti{µøn \n pw \ap v Ab v In nbn p `cwls\ \S n hcpøm\mbn AXns Hcp {]Xn CXv klnxw Ab p p. B ] nbnse ASpØ sxcs Sp v CX\pkcn v \StØ XmIp p. ASpØ sxcs Sp n\v Hcp h jøne[niw ImeXmakap ] w Hcp h jøn\p n G hpw A\ptbmPyamb kµ `Øn Øs CX\pkcn p sxcs Sp v \StØ- XmWv. Hcp sim Øn\p tijw \ΩpsS F m ] nifnsebpw AwKoIrX `cwls\bmbn CXv am{xta kzoicn s SpIbp q. `cwls\ \S n hcpøptºmƒ ] nifpss {]txyi kz`mhw sim v Fs nepw {]bmk߃ A\p`hs v I m Ah

17 17 IShn Xncp-ta\n \ΩpsS {i bn s SpØWw. Aßs\bp {]bmk߃ v \nbam- \pkcwamb {]Xnhn[nbp m phm \mw {ian p Xmbncn pw. GsXmcp hyxnbm\hpw {]mcw`øn {]bmksa v txm msa nepw ip`m]vxn hnizmktømss ssiimcyw snøptºmƒ \ mbn ]cnwan p XmWv. \nßfpss m\øn nxv axn. sszhw A\p{Kln s. F v 1959 G{]n 10 mw XobXn. Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcnbn \n pw se k`mtbmpn n\v apºv ]m{xnb m `mkømbncp sim n `{Zmk\Øns ]utemkv am tkthdntbmkv sa{xmt meo- Ømbpw ]p\ \nba\w e`n Xns\ XpS v 1959 am v 3 mw XobXn Icnßm nd ] nbn \n v 11 mw \º k pe Iev]\ C{]Imcw ] niƒ b p: ""CtXhsc \ΩpsS k`bv v {IaoIrXamb Hcp `cwls\ km - h{xniambn \S nen mbncp p. kam[m\w ssih Cu L Øn \ΩpsS k`bv v kpnn nxambn \n Ωn s Hcp `cwls\ e`n- ncn p p. AXns Hcp {]Xn B ] nhnimcn v \mw Ab p simsp p p v. hnimcn AXnse hnhc߃ P\ßsf {Kln n- Ww. Bhiy m v AXns {]XnIƒ tim bøp ImtXmen m Hm^okn \n v e`n p XmWv. CShI nisf nbp AXnse c mw A ymbw Hmtcm CShImwKhpw ]Tn ncn Ww. B `mkw A Sn v P\߃ v hnxcww snøp Xv DNnXambncn pw. taen ] nifpss `cww kw_ n v AXnep hyhÿiƒ F mbnsøpw ]men s SWw. AXnse \n_ \Iƒ v hncp ambn p bmsxmcp \S pitfm Iogvhg ßtfm XpS psim ncn m ]msn. `cwls\ A\pkcn v \ΩpsS sim n `{Zmk\ s]mxptbmkw ASpØ kuicyøn IqSn Bhiyamb Xo pifpw Iu kn sxcs Sp pw \SØp XmWv. I \msns A`n. ]utemkv am ]oeivkot\mkv sa{xmt meoøm 291/73 mw \º Bbn XØpeyamb Hcp Iev]\ Ab p. CXmWv 1958 se k`meb\øn\v tijw k`bn kwpmxamb Imemhÿ ap ]m{xnb okv `mkømbncp F m taev]- mcpw kz w `{Zmk\ßfn Iev]\ aqew \S nem nb `cw-

18 18 IShn Xncp-ta\n LS\ 1934 Xs Hcp Imcyw hy am nbncp p. ""Cu LS\bnse \n_ \tbmsv tn bn møxpw B\p- Iqeyan møxpambn k`bnepw CShIIfnepw D mbncn mhp F m DSºSnIfpw DtZymKßfpw \S pifpw CXn\m Zp es - SpØn d±m nbncn p p'' (132 mw hip v). ta d hyhÿiƒ{]imcw A amen `{Zmk\mÿm\amb Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcn ae ck`bpss `cwls\bv v hnt[bamip p. AXns \SØn ns\ kw_ n v \nehnep F m DSºSnIfpw acw]{xßfpw Iogv\S pifpw B sa{xmk\w k`m`cwls\ AwKoIcn Xv apx kzbtah d±mbnt mbn. CXv k`mwkßfpw Xr p Øv skan\mcnbpss ssihihpw hn\ntbm- Khpw kw_ n Imcy߃ Xocpam\n phm \ntbmkn s `c- Wm[nImcnIfpw Adn ncnt XmWv. IShn Xncpta\n s]mxpk`bv mbn ÿm]n skan\mcn At±lw 1907 A cn Xn\v tijw 1910 Pq 9 \v hmgn s Ip n m n ]utemkv am AØm\mtkymkv sa{xmt meoømbpss ssihiønembn Bhn `hn I n {]iv\øn A amen `{Zmk\Ønse _lp`qcn] w CShIIfpw ]m{xnb okv `mksø A\pIqen XpsIm pw B `mk m mbn hmgn s Ip n- m n sa{xm (am ]utemkv AØm\mtkymkv) 1907 apx - Øs skan\mcn \n amwhpambn _ s v AhnsS dºm Bbn Xmakn ncp Bƒ BbXn\mepw 1910 apx Bephm skan\mcn ]m{xnb m I nbpss sa{xmk\mÿm\ambn D]tbmKn s p. ]n osv ]m{xnb okv hn`mkøns ae c sa{xmt meoøm Bbn sxcs Sp s At±lw 1953 P\phcn 25 \v Imew snbvxp. skan- \mcn Nm en I_dS s p. At±lØns ImeØv 1946 BKÃv \men\v Koh Kokv am {KotKmdntbmkv sa{xmt meoøm ÿm\w {]m]n p. Ip n m n am AØm\mtkymkv Imew snbvxxns\- XpS v 1953 apx am {KotKmdntbmkv A amenbnse ]m{xnb - okv hn`mkøns sa{xmt meoøm F \nebn Bephm skan- \mcnbn Xmakn v `cww \n hln p. Ct±lØns `cwime- ØmWv 1958 k`mkwtbmp\ap mbxv. AtXmsS am {KotKmdntbmkv ]m{xnb m hn`mkønse tijw sa{xm msct mse ImtXment mkn\v hnt[bxz DSºSn FgpXnsImSp pibpw k`m- `cwls\bv v hnt[bambn `{Zmk\ `cww \n hln p sim msa v i aqkm \ IpIbpw snbvxp. CXns ASnÿm\Øn

19 19 IShn Xncp-ta\n ImtXment mkv \ Inb 1959 se \nba\ Iev]\{]ImcamWv am {KotKmdntbmkv 1959 apx A amen sa{xmk\øns `cww \n hln Xv. X qew 1959 apx Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcn ImtXmen m_mhm \nban p A amen sa{xmt meoømbpss Bÿm\amsW p Xv X a kwkxnbmwv. am {KotKmdntbmkv tbmpn k`bnse A amenbpss NpaXe hln th 1966 \hw_ 6 \v Imew snbvxv Xr p Øv skan\mcnbn I_dS s p apx ae ck`bpss ]q Æ DSabnepw NpaXebnepw ssihiønepancp Xr p Øv skan\mcnbnte v ]pxnb `{Zmk\ sa{xmt meoøm Bbn tum. ^oent mkv am sxtbm^ntemkv 1967 P\phcnbn \nbanx\mbn. At±lØns ImeØv k`bn ho pw I n hn`p\ap mbn. Bephm Xr p Øv skan\mcnbpss DSaÿX kw_ n pw ssihiw kw_ n pw X ap mbn. hyhÿm]nx sa{xmt meoømam v kam cambn Ct mgsø t{ijvt ImtXmen m ]m{xnb okn \n v ] ta v sa{xm ÿm\w {]m]n- txmss X ߃ timsxnbnseøn. tcjiƒ F mw timsxnbn ]cntim[n s p. _lp. ticf sslt msxn 2002 Unkw_ 2 \v ]m{xnb okv hn`mkw ImtXmen m txmakv {]Yas\ A amen, I \msv, sim n `{Zmk\ßfnse ] nifn {]thin p Xn \n v \ntcm[n v DØchp mbn. Cu \ntcm[\w \mfnxphscbpw \o w snøs n n F v F mhcpw Hm Øncnt XmWv. ae- -c-k-`-bn c p- hn-`m-k-߃ Ds pw AXn ]m{xn-b - okv hn`m-k-øns ko\n-b sa{xm-t m-eo-ø-mbmwv Xm F pw B \ne-bn ]m{xn-b okv hn`m-k-øns F n-kvt m- kp l-tzmkv {]kn-u mbn {]h Øn v hcn-i-bmwv Xm F pw t{ijvt ImtXm-en m tims-xn-bn Ah-ImihmZ-ap- -bn- p. Cu tiknse (kn.fw.f. 198/2002) sslt m-sxn hn[n-bpss {]k- -`m-k-߃: 1. kp{]owtims-xn-bn \n p- mb c mw kap-zmbt -knse hn[n- Iƒ Cu tikn {]k- -am-wv. B \ne-bn Ct m-gp X ߃s mw kp{]owtimsxn hn[n-sim p Xs ]q Æ-hn-cmaw D mbn- p- -Xm-Wv. 2. kp{]owtims-xn \nb-an \nco- -I (P. afo-a-tv) Ah I-fpsS

20 20 IShn Xncp-ta\n km n-[y-øn IqSnb ae- c Atkm-tky-j tbmkw ssis m Xocp-am\߃ k`-bvs mw _m[-i-am-wv. Ch Hcp A[n-Imcÿm- \Øpw tims-xn-bnepw tnmzyw snøm-\p- -X-s v kp{]owtims-xn DØ-c-hm-bn- p- -XmWv. ]m{xn-b okv ] w ImtXm-en- m, k`mam-t\-pnwkv IΩn- n-bn-te v sxc-s -Sp- -s - -Xmtbm sa{xm-t meoøm Bbn AwKo-I-cn- -s - -Xmtbm Ah-Im-i-s -Sp- Xp t]mepan-. 3. ]m{xn-b okv ] w ImtXm-en- msb, sa{xm-t m-eoøm Bbn ae- c Atkm-tky-j sxc-s -Sp-Øn n- m-sb pw, kp ltzmkv AwKo-I-cn- n- n- m F pw- \nbam-\p-krxw At±lw hmgn -s - n- n- m-sb pw Cu tikn Iogvt m-sxn (F-dWmIpfw Pn m kvs]jy tims-xn) hn[n- n- p- -Xm-Wv. Cu Xocp-am-\-߃ {]k- -amb F m hkvxp-x-ifpw ]cn-tim-[n tij-am-wv. 4. ImtXm-en m ÿm\n-bmbn {]h Øn- p- -Xn\pw A -am-en, I -\m-sv, sim n `{Zm-k-\-ß-fnse ] n-i-fn {]th-in- p- -Xn\pw ] - m-scbpw siωm-i- m-scbpw hmgn p- -Xn\pw at -sx- nepw ip{iqj-iƒ \S-Øp- -Xn\pw D A[n-Imcw am Zo-h- m-tkym-kn\v (]m{xnb okv ] w ImtXm-en- m-bv v) Ds v ImWn- p bmsxmcp tcjbpw timsxnapºmsi lmp-cm- -s - n- n-. Bephm Xr p- Øv skan-\mcnsb kw_- n tiknepw hn[n D m-bn- p- v. tikv \º H. Fkv. 5/1981 Fd-Wm-Ipfw Pn mt msxn apºmsi H. Fkv. 5/81 \º Bbn ^b snbvx tikv hn[n-bm-bn. ^oen-t mkv am sxtbm-^n-temkv, ^m. tp _v aæm-d-{]m-bn XpS-ßn-b-h {]Xn- I-fmb Cu tikv H. Fkv. 247/80 \º Bbn s]cp-ºm-hq ap kn^v tims-xn-bn ^b snbvxn-cp Cu tikv Pn m tims-xn-bn-te v ]n osv am -s -Sp-I-bm-bn-cp- p. Ccp Iq -cp-tsbpw hmz-ap-j-߃ timsxn ti p. Ccp hn`m-k-øp- \n pw lmp-cm- -s tcj-iƒ F mw timsxn ]cn-tim-[n- p. Pn m tims-xn {]Xn-Iƒ v (Hm Ø-tUmIvkv k`bv v) A\p-Iq-e-ambn ]pds -Sp-hn hn[n-bn {]kvxm-hn- p: ""... -sk-an-\m-cn- - n, sk v tacokv ] n, skan-\mcn Nm F o hyxykvx t]cp-i-fn hnfn- -s -Sp X tzhm-ebw Bephm

21 21 IShn Xncp-ta\n Xr p- Øp skan-\m-cn-bpss A\p-_- -am-sw- v (Appendage) e`yamb samgn-i-fp-ssbpw tcj-i-fp-ssbpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øn Is -Ønbn-cn- p- p....'' "" se ae- -c-k`m `c-w-l-s\ hn`m-h\ snøpw{]im-c-ap Hcp km[m-cw CS-h-I- - n-bmwv F v sxfn-bn- p-hm hmzn-iƒ v km[n- n- n-....'' ""... -hm-zn-iƒ X tzhm-e-b-ønse AwK-߃ BWv F hmzw sxfn-bn- p-hm Ah v km[n- n n.'' ""... -sk-an-\m-cn- - n-bpss `cww Imem-Im-e-ß-fnse `{Zm-k-\- sa{xmt m-eo-øm-am t\cn v \SØnh n-cp- -Xmbn kwi-bmxox-amb sxfnhp-i-fpss ASn-ÿm-\-Øn t_m[y-s - n-cn- p- p....'' ""... CS-hI sa{xm-t m-eoøm \nb-an- p IΩ-n n v Hcn- epw 1934 se k`m-`-c-w-l-s\{]imcw cq]o-i-cn- p amt\-pnwkv IΩ-n nbpss ]Zhn D m-bn-cn- p- -X-.'' ""... -X tzhm-ebw A -amen `{Zm-k\ sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss ]q Æ-amb \nb-{ -W-Øn-em-sW- p H p apx \mep- h-sc-bp {]Xn-I-fpsS hmzw AwKo-I-cn- -Ø- Xpw hniz-k-\o-b-hp-amwv.'' ""..-. ta -d ImcWß-fm Cu tiknse {]iv\-߃ hmzn- Iƒ v {]Xn-Iq-e-ambn Xocp-am-\n- n-cn- p- p.'' C{]-Imcw sxfn-hp-ifpw tcj-ifpw km nsamgn-ifpw ]cn-tim-[n v Xo v I n X -Øn ]m{xn-b okv hn`mkw {Ia-k-am-[m\ {]iv\-߃ XpS -bmbn krjvsn- p- p. Cu {]iv\-߃ 2005 apjya-{ n-bpss km n-[y-øn \S-Ønb D`bI n kωx{]imcw Xmsg ]dbpwhn[w ]cn-l-cn- p. apjy-a-{ n, Pn m- I-f-IvS, {io. hlm_v (Fkv. ]n.), ^m. tum. H. txmakv (Hm ØtUmIvkv k`m {]Xn- \n[n), tpm v amxyp sxt -X-e- (]m-{xn-b okv hn`m-kw) F n-h H n Icm-dnse hyh-ÿ-iƒ ImWpI: 1. Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bn Ãm kvtim AtX-]Sn XpS-cpw. Ac-a-\bpw Nm epw ImtXm-en m hn`m-k-øns ]q Æ \nb-{ - W-Ønepw A[n-Im-c-Ønepw Bbn-cn- pw Rmb-dmgvN apx dh. ^m. t_m_n h okv Ac-a-\-bn hn. Ip m\ A n- p- - Xm-Wv. 2. ] n ]q n- n-s- p- Xv IqSn-bm-tem-N\ hgn ]pxnb Xocp-am\w

22 22 IShn Xncp-ta\n D m- p- Xphsc CtX \ne XpS-cp- -Xm-Wv. 3. \mep I_dpw cmhnse Ggv awn apx sship-t cw 7 awnhsc Xpd- n-sp- Xpw ` P\-߃ Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cmbn h v {]m n- p-hm Ah-kcw simsp- p- -Xp-am-Wv. F m Cu ka-bøv Iq mbn h v {]m n- p-hm Ah-kcw D m-ip- -X-. 4. C v ( ) i\n sship-t cw 7.30 apx 8.30 hsc I_-dn- {]m n- p-hm Ah-kcw D m-ip- XmWv. Pqsse 31 RmbdmgvN apx F m Rmb-dm-gvN-bnepw sship-t cw 4 apx 5 hsc Aº-Xn IqSmØ hn[-øn hnizm-kn-isf {]m -\bv v th n Ib- p- -Xm-Wv. am sxtbm-^n-temkv Xncp-ta-\n-bpsS I_-dn- Hm Ø-tUmIvkv hn`mkw Ct mƒ snøp- Xpt]mse I_ apdn-bpss AIØv Ibdn [q]w hbv p- Xpw aq v Xncp-ta-\n-amcpsS I_-dn- Hm Ø-tUm- Ivkv hn`mkw Ct mƒ [q]w hbv p- Xpt]mse I_ apdn-bpss ]pdøp\n v am{xw [q]w hbv p- -Xp-am-Wv. hnizm-kn-iƒ am{xta AIØv Ib-dp-I-bp- p. Cu Xocp-am-\-߃ t]meokv ]q Æ-ambpw \S- n-em- p- Xm-Wv. Cu Icmdpw ]n o-sp h j-ß-fn ewln- -s - -Xmbn ImWmw. P\m-[n-]Xy hyh-ÿbv v A]-am-\-I-c-amb \o -߃ v F mwv hncm-a-ap- m- m Ign-bpI F v `c-wm-[n-im-cn-iƒ Nn n-t -Xt? \n t±-i-߃ \nb-a-øn-s bpw \nb-a-\n-tj-[-øn-s bpw Imcy-߃ AhnsS \nev -s. a p Nne Nn -Iƒ ChnsS hmb-\- m-cp-ambn ] p-h-bv phm B{K-ln- p- p. ae- -c-k-`-bpss s]mxpÿe-sa v skan-\m-cn-ÿm-]-i B{K-ln- -Xn\v sa{xm-k-\m-ÿm\w F v am{xw A w Iev]n- m axntbm? sx pw hs pw F p Nn k`-bn Hcp bmym y-am-bn-cns k`-bpss hs- `mk-߃ v AwKo-Imcw \ Ip Nne \S-]-Sn- Iƒ k`m-[n-ir-x-cn \n v D m-ti- -Xt? (sim- n-bpw Xncp-hn-Xmw- Iqdpw tbmpn v sfiy ticfw cq]-s - -t mƒ `c-w- X-e-ÿm\w Xncphn-Xmw-Iq-dn\pw timsxnxe-ÿm\w sim n pw \ In-bXv ChnsS Hm m-hp- -XmWv). 1. k`-bn {]h Øn- p F m Bflob kwl-s-\-i-sfbpw

23 23 IShn Xncp-ta\n DØc - -Z- nw taj-e-i-fmbn hn`-pn- p-i. DØ-c-ta-J-e-bnse kwl- S-\m-tI-{µ-߃ Bep-hm -Xr- p- Øv skan-\m-cn, simc n kotbm sean-\m-cn, Ip w-ipfw Ac-a\ F n-hn-s-ß-fn {Iao-I-cn- p-i. DØc taj-e-bpss ]cn-[n-bn _tø-cn, ae-_m, I -\msv shãv, I \msv CuÃv, A -am-en, sim n, Ip w-ip-fw, Xriq F o `{Zm-k-\-ßsf Dƒs -Sp-Ø-Ww. 2. Fw. H. kn. bpss Hm^okv Xr- p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bn-te v am -Ww. k`-bpss A SntPmen-Iƒ AhnsS \n -ln- p-hm G m- Sp- mhww. 3. sshzniskan-\m-cn-bpss H pw c pw h j m p-iƒ Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bn-te v hn\y-kn- -s -S-Ww. 4. Bephm skan-\m-cn-bnse s]cp- m-fp-iƒ hn`-pn v \mep Znhk-ß-fn-te v {Iao-I-cn- -Ww. {][m\ s]cp- mƒ Bbn skan-\mcn ÿm]is Hm ΩZn\w BtLm-jn- -Ww. F m h jhpw taj-ebpss Hcp Bflob {]ÿm\øns ZznZn\ tim {^ kv A v skan-\m-cn-bn kam-]n- Ww. 5. ae- c kpdn-bm\n {InkvXym\n Atkm-tky-js tbmk-߃ H n-s-hn v hs- taj-e-bn ktω-fn- -Ww. 6. taev ÿm\m-tcml-ww, ImtXm-en m hmgvn F n-hbv v taj-em-sn-ÿm-\-øn thzn Hcp- -Ww. 7. H n-s-hn Ah-k-c-ß-fn hnip aqtdm IqZmi hs- taje-bn {Iao-I-cn- -Ww. 8. ae- c k`m]{xn-i-bpss {]kn- o-i-cww tim -bøp \n v \S- p- -Xp-t]mse ae- ck`m -am-kn-ibpss {]kn- o-i-cww hs- taj-e-bn \n v ]p\x{iao-i-cn-t - -Xm-Wv. 9. Bh-iy-sa- n Bep-hm, ]mºm- p-s, timx-aw-k-ew, apf- pcpøn, simc- n, Ip w-ipfw XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fnse k`m-]n-xm- - m-cpss I_-dn-S-ß-fn-tebv v sx taj-e-bn \n pw ]cp-a-e, a -\n- -c, tim -bw, hmi-øm-\w XpS-ßnb ÿe-ß-fnse I_-dn- S-ß-fn-tebv v hs- taj-e-bn \n pw Xo m-s\ ]cn-]m-sn-iƒ k`m-x-e-øn kwl-sn- n-t - -Xm-Wv. 10. am tømωm «olm ÿm]n ]meq ] nsb (B Øm- v- - Nm- p-ip-f-ß-c) sk v txmakv Xo ms\ti{µ-ambn {]Jym-]n- p-

24 24 IShn Xncp-ta\n Ibpw k`m-zn-\-tøm-s-\p-_- n v AJne ae- -cmsnÿm\-øn kap- Nn-X-amb ]cn-]m-sn-iƒ AhnsS kwl-sn- n- p-ibpw sntø- -Xm-Wv. k`-bn ka-xpen-xm-hÿ kwc- n- -s -Sp taev m-wn hnti-{µo-i-cw ]cn-]m-sn-iƒ {]mh Øn-I-am- p-tºmƒ hn`-p-\-øns tcj-iƒ C m-xm-ip Hcp Imew hcp-sa v Xs -bmwv CsX-gp-Xp Bƒ {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. Ahn-`- -k-`-bn tim -bw, A -amen sa{xm-k-\-ß-fpss Npa-Xe hln- n-cp ]pwy-t«m-i-\mb IS-hn henb ]ueqkv am AØm- \m-tkymkv ]nxm-hns Cu Poh-N-cn{Xw CuZri sfiynn- -Iƒ pw \S-]-Sn-Iƒ pw {]tnm-z\w Ipdn- s F {]m -\-tbmss Cu cn\ klr-zb-k-a w ka n- p- p. bp. kn. timfpv Bephm 2, iqt\m-tbm-s]-cp- mƒ ^m. tum. tpmk^v Noc

25 25 IShn Xncp-ta\n 1 apjw \ -s \n `m-ky-hm almhy n-xzß-fpss BI-Øp-Isb ]cn-k-wn v Ah v DNn-Xamb hnti-j-w-ßfpw _lp-a-xn-ifpw tcj-s -Sp-Øp Imhym-fl- Ihpw [z\ym-fl-i-hp-amb kao-]\w thz-]p-kvxi cn-bn-xm- fpw k`m- N-cn-{X-Im-c- mcpw Bcm-[\mkmlnXy \n Ωm-Xm- fpw Ah-ew-_n- n- p- v. Zo L-Z in-am-cn Xe-h\mb tami, cmpmhpw {]hm-n-i-\p-amb Zmho-Zv, m\n-i-fn m\n-bmb item-tam, al-xz-ap Gimb, \oxn-am-\mb Ctøm-_v, hnizm-kn-i-fpss ]nxm-hmb A{_-lmw, \oxnam-\mb t\ml, amem-j-am-cpss Xe-h Bb K{_n-tb, \oxn-am- \mb butk-^v, CSn-\m-Z-Øns ]p{x- mcmb bmt m_pw tbml- m-\pw, kxy-øns {]`m-j-i Bb tbml- m kv\m]i, «ol m-cn Xe-h-\mb ]t{xmkpw ]ueqkpw, siωm-i- m-cpss Xeh-\mb kvtx^m-t\m-kv, `mky-hm-\mb ]ueq-kv «o-lm, A n-a-b-\mb C m-øn-tbmkv, hn m-\-k-ap-{z-amb txthm-tem-tkm-kv, kz Æ-\mhp-Im-c Cuhm-\n-tbm-kv F n-ßs\ \mw D]-tbm-Kn- p-t]m-hp hnti-jw-߃ AXXv Pohn-X-ßsf ka{k tim`-tbmss Bhn-jv cn- p-hm siev p- -h-bm-wv. B ]m-x-bn hfsc ]n n \n psim v IS-hn (Iq-c ) ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv henb sa{xm-t m-eo-ømsb apjw \ -s \n `m-ky-hm F v At±-l- Øns Poh-N-cn-{X-Øns Bap-Jm-[ym-b-Øn hnti-jn- n- p- Xv Ahn-th-I-am-sW- n Bb-Xn\v BZyta a tnmzn- p-sim- p- p. Ncn-{X-Øns A[ym-b-io j-i-߃ v hnj-b-amb alm m s]mxp-hn aq v hn`mk-ß-fn s -Sp- -Xmbn \nco- n- -s - n- p- v. alm- m-cmbn P\n- p- -h-cmwv Hcp hn`m-kw. PohnXw sim v alxzw B n- p- -h-cmwv as mcp hn`m-kw. aq m-a-sxmcp hn`mkw {]mtzin-i-xz-øns tbm a v Xmev]-cy-ß-fp-sStbm ]cn-k-w-\-bn alxzw Btcm-]n- -s -Sp- -h-cm-wv. al-ømb ] m-øew sim v {it bamb hwim-h-en-i-fn ]nd- p- -Xp-sIm- p-xs A\iz-c-cmbnØocp- -h-sc-bmwv BZy- hn-`m-k-øn ImWpI. c -masø hn`mkw {i n- -s -Sp- Xv Ah-cpsS ] m-ø-e aln-a-bp-ssbpw knwlm-k\ hnkvxr-xn-bp-ssbpw ]mc-º-cy-øns bpw ASn-ÿm-\-Øne, t i-]q - Æ-amb ÿntcm- m-lw-sim pw XymK-]q Æ-amb A[zm\w sim pw {]Xn-Iqe ]cn-xx-ÿn-xn-isf Iog-S n kz w km{am-py-߃ ÿm]n

26 26 IShn Xncp-ta\n {]Xn-`-bpsS t]cn-em-wv. aq m-asø hn`m-k-øn\v ] m-øe tim`bp-an, I Ω-Im-fi tim-`-bp-an-. Nne {]mtz-ini ]cn-k-w-\-i-fpss `mkyw sim pw a p- -h-cpss HuZmcyw sim pw kµ `-i- nsim pw e`n ]Z-hn-I-fp-sStbm ]n me injy- m-cpss Kpcp-` n ]mc-h-iyw-simt m alxzw ASn-t - n- -s -Sp- -h-cmwv aq mw hn`m-kw. Cu aq p hn`m-k-øn\pw amxr-i-iƒ tzi-n-cn-{x-øn-se t]mse ae- -c-k-`m-n-cn-{x-ønepw kq -va-ambn ]cn-tim-[n- m ImWmhp- -tx-bp- p. A{X-tbsd \nco- -W-hn-t[-b-am-bn- n- mø \mem-asxmcp hn`mkw IqsS-bp v alm- m-cpss kaq-l-øn. ]n mse hcp al-xz-imw- n-i-fpss IpXn-Im sht p \new]xn- -h \bsshieywsim v XpS-sc-Xp-Ssc ]cm-p-b-߃ G p-hm-tß- n-h-cp-tºmƒ X߃ v t\cnts- n-h-cp ]cm-p-b-߃ ap Km-an-I-fpsS \bw sim v A\n-hm-cyambn A\p-`-hn-t n h -Xm-sW v {]N-cn- n v ]m]-`mcw apgph ap Km-an-Ifn A n p kl-xm]w Cc- p hmiv]-xn-i-fpss Xakv -c-w-øn\v hnt[-b-cmb ap Km-an-Iƒ, sxm p]n mse hcp Zimk- n-i-fpss Iem-]-Im-eq-jyw- aqew Ncn-{X-Øns {i -bn ]nsn- p-\n-ev m-\m-hm-sx-t]mb \njvim-a-i Ωn-Iƒ Ch-scm-s -bmwv \memw hn`m-k-øn s -Sp alm- m. Zu `m-ky-h-im Cu \memw hn`m-k-øn-emwv IS-hn am AØm-\m-tkym-kns\ Dƒs -Sp-tØ- n-h-cp- -Xv. At±lw Pohn ]søm-ºxmw \q m- ns DØ-cm w \ho-i-c-w- m-cp-ambn ae- -c-k` \S-Ønb \nb-abp -ß-fpsS kwl - j-im-e-am-bn-cp- p. bp -Im-e-ß-fn AX-Xp-] Øns \mb-i- mcn-em-wt m Ncn{Xw ZrjvSnbpd- n- p-i. \ho-i-c-w-bp- -Øn ae- - c-k-`-bp-s-s Aa-c- m-cn {][m\n Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j (IS-hn am AØm- \m-tkym-kv) A m-bn-cp- p. X qew Ncn-{X- -Æp-Iƒ At±-lsØ Ah-K-Wn- p. At±lw A -cn- p- Xv 1907 emwv. sxm p-]n- mse h Zim-_vZ-߃ as mcp bp -Øns i -m-b-am\-amb kwl j- L- -am-bn-cp- p. Cu kwl j-߃ kr n- -h ]cm-p-b-s -Sp-tºmsgms B ]cm-p-b-øns DØ-c-hm-ZnXzw \nc-]-cm-[n-i-fmb ap Kman-I-fn si n-h-bv p kz`m-h-amwv {]I-Sn- n- -Xv. bp w snøp- t]m-cm-fn-iƒ v t\xm-hns hm p-iƒ thz-hm-iy-am-tb- ]- q. AXns KpWtZmj-ßsf hnth-nn- p-hm bp m- -co- -Øn B pw A\phmZw e`n- mdn. X qew I n-h-g- ns Xtam-a-b-amb A v ]Xn- m v Ign- v kam-[m\ kqcy ae- -ck`-bn DZn -t m-tg pw Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j Ncn-{X-Øn\v hnj-b-a- m-xm-bn. Cu c v alm-bp- -

27 27 IShn Xncp-ta\n ߃ n-sbn Pohn-t - n-h- -Xn-\memWv At±-lsØ \n `m-kyhm F v hntijn n-t - n -h-cp- Xv. At±-l-Øn\v tijw ae- -c-k`-bpss HutZym-KnI t\xr-xz-øn hncm-pn- n-cp- -h-sc- mwxs k`-bpss hs- {]tz-i-ß-fpss kwkvim-c-a-ln-a-i-sf- p-dn v th {X Ah-Kmlw kn n- -h Bbncp-t m- F v kwi-b-am-wv. Hcp ]t, ap Xe-ap-d-bn ae- -c-k- `bn Db ph F m ]nxm- - mcpw hs- {]tz-i-øp-\n- p- -h Bbn-cp- -Xn-\m hs- {]tz-i-ß-tfmsv a\x-imkv{x-]c-amb \ockw Ah-cpsS D]-t_m-[- a-\- p-i-fn ad- p-in-s- n-cp- pthm F v kwi-bn- m-hp- -XmWv \pw 1900 \pw CS-bn ae- -c-k-`bn taev - -ÿm\tø pb Ø-s Xv Ggv t]cmwv. 1. ]pen-t m- n tpmk^v am Zoh- m-tkymkv ae- -c -sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-. -kztziw Ip w-ip-fw. 2. tim\m v Koh-dp- okv am bqen-tbmkv sa{xm-t meoøm. kz-tziw ]mºm- p-s. 3. IS-hn ]utemkv am AØm-\mtkymkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm. kztz-iw hs- ]d-hq. 4. apdn-a- -Øn ]ueqkv am Cuhm-\n-tbmkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-. -kz-tz-iw time-t cn (tim q ). 5. Aºm v Koh-dp- okv am Iqdntemkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm.- kz-tziw A -am-en. 6. Itcm- p-ho- n sia-hq am Zoh- m-tkymkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm. kz-tz-iw I -\m-sv. 7. NmØp-cpØn Koh okv am {KotKm-dn-tbmkv sa{xm-t m-eoøm. kztz-iw apf- p-cp-øn. kv] -amb Cu hs- B[n-]Xyw sx {]tz-isø kzm`mhn-i-ambpw hnt m-`n- n- n-cn mw. ]n osv c p -I- n-i-fmbn ae- ck` {[pho-i-cn- -s - -t mƒ hs- {]tziw {]mtbw ]m-{xn-b - okv A\p-`m-hn-I-fmbn amdn-b-txmss k`-bpss HutZym-KnI t\xrxzw hs- {]tz-isø i{xp] ambpw {]Xn-tbm-Kn-bmbpw ImWp-hm \n _- n-x-ambn. hs- {]tz-isø Fgp-Xn-Ø- n-b-txmss B {]-tz-iøv I_-dSßnbn-cp Ahn-`- -k-`-bpss taev - - m t]mepw k`-bpss HutZym-Kn-I-tc-J-I-fn \n v Kf-lkvXw snø-s - p. ]n osv XpSsc XpSsc h "^dt-hm-'am "butk- ns\ Adn-bm-Ø-h-cm-bncp p.' Npcp- n- -d- m A -am-en-bn Imew-sNbvX Aºm v am Iqdn-temkpw Bep-hm- Xr- p- Øp skan-\m-cn-bn I_-d-S-ßnb IShn am AØm-\m-tkymkpw ISp-ß-aw-K-eØv I_-d-S-ßnb siahq am Zoh- m-tkymkpw Ahn-` ae- -c-k-`-bnse taev - - m Bbn-cp-s - nepw, Ah-cpsS I_-dn-S-߃ ÿnxnsnøp CS-h-I- Ifpw {]tz-i-ßfpw ]nev m-eøv ]m{xnb okv {Kq ns s\sp-t m- -Iƒ Bbn-Øo -Xn-\m Ahsc ]m{xn-b okv I n-bpss

28 28 IShn Xncp-ta\n taev - m F v s]mxp-hn hnti-jn- n- -s - p. IS-hn am AØm-\m-tkymkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss Nc-a -i-xm n Hm ØtUmIvkv k`-bpss HutZym-Kn-I-t\-XrXzw 2007 Unkw-_ 23 \v ]. ImtXm-en- m-_mhmbpss Iev]-\-{]-Imcw tim bw sa{xm-k-\-øns B`n-ap-Jy-Øn ]pxp- n \ne-bv ] n-bn h v BtLm-jn- -s - -t mƒ ae- -c-k-`-bn-emsi AsXmcp ]pxnb Adn-hmbn amdn IS-hn Xncp-ta\n Ahn-`- -a-e- -c-k-`-bpss tim bw sa{xm-k- \sø aq v ]Xn- m- p- Imew `cn {]Y-a -km-cyn Bbn-cp p!! Cu Xncn- -dn-hns ] m-ø-e-øn-emwv 2008 P\p-h-cn-bnse Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bnse s]cp- m-fn ]s -Sp- p-hm \nc-h-[n -Xo m-s- I sx `{Zm-k-\-ß-fn \n v Bep-hm-bn-se-Øn-bXv. AXp-hscbpw k`-bpss HutZym-KnItI{µ-ß-fn Cu Xncn- -dnhv t\sn-bns v t_m[y-s SpØp H v c v DZm-l-c-W-߃ ChnsS Nq n- m-wn- p-hm-\p- v ticf sszh-imkv{x kan-xn-bpss B`n-ap-Jy-Øn {]kn- o-i-cn- -s k`m-n-cn{x \nl- p-hmwv Hcp {][m\ tcj. ae- -ck`bnse ]fin-x-cmb AwK-߃ IqSn Dƒs Hcp FUn-t m-dn-b t_m Uns Npa-X-e-bn Xøm-dm- -s ae-bm-f-`m-j-bnse k`m-ncn-{x-\n-l- p-hn IS-hn am AØm-\m-tkym-kns t]cn Hcp io jiw Dƒs -Sp-Øn-bn- n-. AXXv k`-iƒ \ Inb io j-i-amwv B {K-Ÿ-Øn Dƒs -Sp-Øn-b-Xv. ae- c Hm Ø-tUmIvkv kpdn-bm\n k`-bpss Npa-X-e- m \ Inb io j-i-en-ãn k`m-n-cn-{x-\n-l- p-hn tn m-\mbn \ Inb enãn \n `m-ky-hm-\mb Cu Ncn- {X-]p-cp-js t] kvacn- -s - n sk v txmakv Hm Ø-tUmIvkv sshznikwlw ae- -cbpss Hcp sshzn-i-u-bivsdn CZw{]Y-a-ambn {]kn o-i-cn- p. AXns A sø A[y- hniz-hn-{ip-x-\mb tum. ]utemkv am {KotKmdn-tbmkv sa{xm-t m-eoøm Bbn-cp- p. P\-d sk{i- dn ^m. tum. Fw. F. aømbn-bpw (C v tum. amxyqkv am tkth-dn-tbmkv sa{xmt m-eo-øm) AXns 25 apx 33 hsc-bp ]pd-߃ 17 mw \q m pap-x 20 mw \q m- p -hsc H mw am tøm-ωm -ap-x ImewsNbvX bmt m_v am t]mfn- m t mkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm- hsc D ae- -c-k-`m-]n-xm- - m-cpss elp-po-hncn-{x-ßfpw e`y-am-b-h-cpss Nn{Xßfpw {]kn- o-i-cn- n- p v. ae- -c-k-`-bnse AXpey thz-im-kv{x- \pw InS-b k`m-n-cn{x ]fin-x\pw khn-ti-j- kp-dn-bm\n ]fin- X\pw aev]m-\p-am-bn-cp ^m. tum. hn. kn. imap-th BWv B

29 29 IShn Xncp-ta\n Ncn-{X-`mKw Xøm-dm- n-bxv. F m B N-cn-{X-am-e-bn ae -c-k-`bnse kp{]-kn kpdn-bm\n ]fin-x\pw tim bw ]g-b-sk-an-\m-cnbnse ap aev]m\pw \nc-h[n kpdn-bm\n {KŸ-ß-fpsS hnh Ø-I- \p-amb IYm-]p-cp-js t]tcm kw`m-h-\-itfm Nn{Xtam Dƒs -SptØ- -Xp-s v B pw txm n-bn-. ae- -c-k-`-bpss apgp-h ] mfn-ø-hp-ap Hcp sshzn-i -U-b-d-IvS-dn-bn At±-l-Øns t] Dƒs - p-im-wmø-xns\ \n `m-ky-sa- - msx hnti-jn- n- m-\m-hptam? 1972 \v tijw D mb ]pxnb I n-`n- -X-bn IS-hn IpSpw- _-Øn \n v Hcp taev]- - m-c D m-bn. At±-l-Øns t]cpw ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv F m-wv. BZysØ Bƒ ZnhwK-X- \m-bn v Gtgmfw ]Xn- m- p-iƒ Ign- mwv c m-a taev]- - m-c- \m-b-xv. Hcmƒ Ahn-` k`bnepw c m-a ]m{xn-b okv I nbn am{xhpw sa{xm\m-bn-cp p. \n `m-ky-sa v ]d-bs, Ch c p- Im-e-L- -ß-fmbn Pohn c p hy n-xz-ßfmsw v Hm msx t]mb-h-cmwv k`-bnse ]e HutZym-Kn-I-ÿm-\n-I-fpw. \n `m-ky-øn\v I n- Iq-Sm Hcp ImcWw IqSn-bp v \v tijw I n-h-g- p-i-fp- m-b-t mƒ ]m{xn-b m- {Kq ns ae- -c -sa-{xm-t m-eoøm Bbn hmgn- -s - Xv as mcp ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv Bbn-cp- p. At±-l-Øns HutZym-Kn-I B-ÿm\w Bephm Xr p- -Øv sk-an- \mcn Bbn-cp p. At±-l-Øns A yhn{iacwk-hpw Bep-hm -Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bm-bn-cp- p. Htc t], Htc Bÿm-\w, Htc A y hn{i-a-ti{µw. HSp-hn ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv F t] ti m ]m{xn-b okv `mksø Hcp taev]- - m-cs sfxn-lmkn-i-\m-a-ambn amdn. I n hn`-p-\- m-eøv Xr p- Øv skan-\mcn ]m{xn-b okv `mk-øns Bÿm-\hpw sshzn-i-sk-an-\m-cnbpw Bbn-cp- -Xn-\m AXv Ahn-` ae- -c-bpss kºm-zy-am-sw pw Ahn-` ae- -c-k-`-bnse A -amen sa{xm-k-\-øns Bÿm-\- am-sw- Xpw AhnsS I_-d-S-ßnb H m-asø taev - - m-c\pw Bephm Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bpss ÿm]-i-\p-amb IS-hn henb ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv Ahn-`- -k-`-bnse A -amen sa{xmk-\m-[n-] BsW- Xpw ae- -c-k-`-bpss HutZym-KnI t\xr-xz- Øns t_m[-a-\- n \n v A{]-Xy- -am-bn Imew snbvx At±-l-Øns Hm Ω-s -cp- mƒ, {]Ya sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss Hm Ωs -cp- mƒ F - \n-e-bn tim bw `{Zm-k-\-Ønse F m ] n-ifnepw ap sshzni skan-\mcn aev]m F \nebn tim bw ]gbskan-\m-cn-bnepw \S-Øp-hm ]nev m-esø ae- -c -sa-{xm-t m-

30 30 IShn Xncp-ta\n eoømbv pw tim bw sa{xm-k-\m-[n-]\pw Npa-Xe D m-bn-cp- p apx B Npa-X-e-Iƒ \n h-ln h -t»-cn am Zoh- m-tkymkv, Imcp-Nn-d am ]oe-ivkot\m-kv, ]mºm-sn am {KotKm-dn-tbm-kv, _t - en-tbmkv Koh-dp- okv ZznXo-b ImtXm-en- m, ]mtd v am Cuhm-\ntbm-kv, ]nev me ImtXm-en- m-am Ch s ms \n h-ln- m-ambn-cp B NpaXe Ah-scms hnkva-cn- Xv Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j \n `m- Ky-hm Bbn-cp- -Xp-sIm- p- X-s -bm-wv. Htc t]cp-im-cmb aq v t]cn At±-lØns apjw th Xncn- -dn-bs -SmsX t]mbn. apjw \ -s Cu ]nxm-hns\ thsdbpw \n `m-ky-߃ ImØp-\n p- p- m-bn-cp- p \v tijw ae- -c-k-`-bn I n-h-g- p- m-b-t mƒ Hm ØtUmIvkv `mkøv t\xrxzw \ Inb Nne-sc- nepw IYm-]p-cp-js injy- mtcm At±-l-Øn \n v ] -ta- -htcm Bbn-cp- p. ]. Kohdp- okv {]Y-a ImtXm-en- m, ]. Koh-dp- okv ZznXo-b ImtXm-en m, ]. HutK {]Y-a ImtXm-en m F o k`m-x-e-h- mcpw ]mºm-sn am {KotKm-dn-tbmkv, ]mtd v am Cuhm-\n-tbmkv F o tim bw sa{xm-k-\m-[n-]- mcpw IYm-]p-cp-js injy- mcpw sa{xm-k-\m-[n- ] F \ne-bn IYm-]p-cp-j-\n \n v ssihbv v kzoi-cn- -hcpw Bbn-cp- p. Ah-cmcpw Cu Ahn-`- -k-`-bnse ]nxm-hns apjw Hm m-xn-cp- Xv F psim v? Chsc Bscbpw Ncn-{X-]m-T-߃ ]Tn- n-t - -Xp- m-bn-cp- n-. Hcp Imc-Wta Ncn-{X-hn-Zym n p ]dbm-\-m-hq. At±-lØn\v tijw BZyw sa{xm-k-\m-[y- \pw ae- -csa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-bp-ambn Npa-X-e-tb h -t»-cn ]pwy-t«m-i-\mb am Zoh- m-tkymkv, X\n-s -Xn-sc- bp- w \-bn- p ]S-Ø-e-hs Bÿm-\-ambn Bep-hm -Xr- p- Øv skan-\m-cnsb hymjym-\n- p. AXn-e- p-d-ambn Hcp hymjym-\tam hne-bn-cp-øtem \S-Øp-hm A m pw km[y-a- m-bn-cp- p. AXpw IYm-]p-cp-js \n `m-ky-mhÿbv pw apjw \ -s -S-en\pw A\p-tbm-Py-amb Imem-hÿ kr n p. kz w Kpcp-hmb ]cp-ae am {KotKm-dn-tbm-kns\ ` n- ]q w Db Øn- m- p-hm F m i n-ifpw kam-l-cn injy a p \ -{X-ßsf t_m[-]q h-a-s - n t mepw Ah-K-Wn- p-hm Hcp bp -Im-e-]-cn-X-xÿn-Xn-bn kwk-xn-bmbn. AXpw At±-l-Øns \n `m-kyw. At±lw Imew snøp-tºmƒ ]pen-t m- n tpmk-^v am Zoh- m-tkymkv ZznXo-b Bbn-cp p ae- -c -sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm. ae- -c-k-`bpss HutZym-KnI Pnlz-bm-bn-cp "CS-hI]{XnI' IYm-]p-cpjs \ncym-w-sø-øp-s v 1907 Xpem- am-k-øn {]kn- o-i-cn amkn-i-bn C{]-Im-c-w F-gpXn:

31 31 IShn Xncp-ta\n ""]Tn- v, sszh-`- n, kxyw, k m w, IWniw F n-ßs\ ]e KpW-ß-fpsS hnf-\n-e-am-bn-cp- Cu ]ptcm-ln-xs \ncymww ae- - c v Hcp henb \ -am-ip- p. ac-w-hm Ø tim -bøv Adnhv In nb- D-S Chn-sS-bp F m ] n-i-fnepw ZpxJaWn ASn- p-ibpw tbmkw IqSn Xß-fpsS ]nxm-hn\v th n {]m -\-Ifpw ip{iq-j-ifpw Ign- bpw snbvxp. Cu ]n-xm-hns Bflm-hn\v th nbpw At±-l-Øns {]m \ \ap v Hcp tim -bm-bn-cn- m th nbpw hmb-\- m F mhcpw {]m n- m-dm-iww.'' C{]-Imcw icn-bmb Znibn 1907 ae- -c-k` Nn n-s - nepw ANn-tcW B Zni-bn Icn-\n-g ]Xn- p. AtXmsS At±lw A\y\pw ]c-tz-inbpw apjw \ -s - -h\pw Bbn-Øo p. At±-l-Øns apjw \ -s - -Xns \n `m-ky-]-c-º-c-bn Hcp Imcyw -IqsS kvacn- p-hm-\p- v. A -am-en-bpss {]Y-a- km-cyn Aºm v am Iqdn-temkv Cl-tem-I-hmkw shsn- Xv Hcp t^mt m- t]mepw Ah-ti-jn- n- m-sx-bm-wv. A sø- m-eøv AsXmcp t]mcm-bvabmbn B pw txm n-bn-cp- n-. GXm\pw ]Xn- m- p-iƒ Ign- txmss Nn{X-c-N\m hyh-km-b-w k-`-bn {ItaW -h-f p. Nn{Xw C m-xn-cp ]e ]nxm- - m-cp-ss-bpw Nn{Xw D mbn. A_vZpƒ Peo {KotKm-dn-tbmkv, Im p-a-ßm v H mw Iqdn-tem-kv, c mw Iqdn-tem-kv, tim bw ]g-b-sk-an-\mcn ÿm]-i F n-h-cpss Nn{X-߃ C{]- Imcw `mh-\-bn \n v hc-s -Sp-Ø-Xm-Wv. Ct mƒ B Nn{X-߃ bym t^mt m-iƒ Bbn sx n- -cn- -s - n-cn- p- p. A -amen sa{xm-k-\- m Xß-fpsS {]Ya sa{xms t^mt m- \n Ωn- m Hcp D]mbw Is -Øn. Bcpw Ah-Imis -S-m\n- m-xn-cp IS-hn ]utemkv am AØm-\m-tkym-kns ]Sw tn pi; ASn-bn Aºm v am Iqdn-tem-kns t] tcj-s -S-p-Øp-I. HutZym-Kn-I-amb ]e kph-\o-dp-i-fnepw A -am-enbpss {]-Ya sa{xms\ ]cn-n-b-s -Sp- Øn-bXv am AØm-\m-tkym-kv sa{xm-t -meo-øm-bpss t^mt m-bpss ASn- pdn mbn Aºm v am Iqdn-tem-kns t] tcjs Sp-Øns m- mwv. ae- -c -a-ev]m\pw k`m-n-cn{x hnim-c-z-\p-w Bb IWn-bm-º-d- ºn hµy Ipcn-b timsd- n-kvt mt m kzkp-cp-hmb Ip n- m- n ]ueqkv am AØm-\m-tkym-kns Poh-N-cn{Xw Fgp-Xn-b-Xns c mw ]Xn v {]kn- -s -Sp-Ønbt mƒ (H mw ]Xn v CsX-gp-Xp Bƒ I n- n- ) A -am-en-bpss {]Y-a -sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-bp-ts-xmbn tn ØXv IYm-]p-cp-js t^mt m BWv. ASnbn Aºm v am Iqdn-tem-kns t]cpw!! apjw \ -s alm-\n `m-ky-hm!! ].

32 32 IShn Xncp-ta\n ZnZntamkv {]Y-a ImtXm-en- m-bmwv \n `m-ky-hm-\mb Cu ]nxmhns\ k`-bpss apjy-[m-c-bn sim ph-cp-hm \n t±-in- -Xv. AXns ^e-amwv sa{xm-k-\msnÿm-\-øn \S ]pxp- n \nebv ktω-f-\hpw AXns t{]c-w-bn cnn- -s Cu Poh-Ncn-{X-{K-Ÿ-hpw. I n-h-g- p-i-fpss Ncn{Xw At±lØn\v apºn kr n p-h ]pi-a-d-ifpw I n-bp Xnc»o-e-Ifpw Aev]w t iw kln v FSpØp am- n-bm IYm-]p-cp-js txtpm-a-b-amb apj-amwv sxfn-bp- -Xv. Cu DZy-a-Øn Rm Ah-ew-_n hmnn-ihpw enjn-x-hp-amb t{kmxp-iƒ ChbmWv. 1. I -\msv {KŸ-hcn: I -\msv kztz-inbpw Ncn-{X]pcp-js ka- Im-en-I\pw sim n-bpss {]Ya kmc-yn-bp-amb Itcm- p-ho- n siahq am Zoh- m-tkymkv sa{xm-t m-eoøm Fgp-Xnb k`m-n-cn-{x- {K-Ÿ-am-Wn-Xv. ]søm-ºxmw \q m ns A y-]m-z-øn FgpXs Cu k`m-n-cn-{x-øn ae- -c-k-`-bpss ka{k Ncn{Xw Dƒs m- n n- p-s - nepw 19 mw \q m- ns DØ-cm -Ønse kw`-h-_-lpe-amb Ncn-{X-߃ FgpXnbn p- Xv Hcp ZrIvkm- n-bpss kq va-xtbmspw kxy-k- -X-tbmSpw IqsS-bm-Wv. ]me- p- Øp am AØm- \m-tkymkv taev - -ÿm\øv {]Xy- -s -Sp- Xpw At±l-Øn-\-\p- Iq-e-ambn hnfw-_cw Xncp- -sim n cmpm- - m ]pd-s -Sp-hn- p- -Xpw skan-\m-cn-bpss {]h Ø\w Bcw-`n- p- Xpw Ct±-lsØ sndp- phm bqbm ow am Iqdn-temkv Ab- -s - Xpw ]pen-t m- n tpmk^v am Zoh- m-tkymkv taev - - m-c-\m-bn -h v \ho-i-c-w- {i-a-ßsf sndp-øxpw ]cp-a-e-bn kp -l-tzmkv IqSn-bXpw ]t{xmkv XrXo-b ]m{xn-b okv ae ck` kµ in- Xpw apf- p-cpøn kp -l-tzmkv IqSn-bXpw XpSßn IYm-]p-cp-j-\p-ambn _ - s \nc-h[n ]cm-a i-߃ Cu {KŸ-Øn-ep- v. A{]-Im-in-X-am-bncp Cu {KŸw CXp-hsc Hcp Ncn-{Xc-N-\-bnepw {]tbm-p-\-s -Sp- Øn-bn- n-. Cu Poh-N-cn{Xw apjy-ambpw B{i-bn- p- Xv Cu B[n- Im-cnI {]am-w-{k-ÿsøbm-wv. 2. CS-h-I-]-{Xn-I-bpsS ]g-b -e- -߃: CS-h-I-]-{XnI h -t»-cn am Zoh- m-tkymkv ae- -c- sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss `c-w-im-eøv {]h Ø\w \ne-bv p Xph-scbpw ae- -c-k-`-bpss HutZym-KnI Pnlz-bm-bn-cp- p. ka-imetcj F \ne-bn Cu amkn-i-bpss Ncn{Xaqeyw A\n-tj-[y-am-W-t m.

33 33 IShn Xncp-ta\n ]n. sp. tbml- m IØ-\m FgpXn {]kn- o-i-cn hs- ]d-hq am tøm-ω ] n- -cn{xw. B CS-h-I-bnse AwKam-bn-cp- IYm-]p-cp-js Poh-N-cn{Xkw{Klw B ]- n cn-{x-øns 103 apx 109 ]pdw hsc-bp `mk-ß-fn Dƒs -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. IYm- ]p-cp-j Fgp-Xn-h- n-cp "Bfl-IY'sb D]Po-hn- mwv Cu Poh-Ncn{X kw{k-lw F v ]pkvxiw km n- p- p. X qew AXnse hkvxp-x-i-fpss {]mam-wn-i-xbpw B[n-Im-cn-I-Xbpw h n- p- p. 4. ae- -c-bnse c mw ImtXmen m, h n- m v Zb-dm-bn I_- d-s-ßnb Koh-dp- okv {]Y-a _mhm-bpss Ub-dn- p-dn- p-iƒ. ]. _mhm dºm-\m-bn-cp ImeØv IYm]p-cp-js sk{i- -dn-bm-bn-cp- p. siωm-i, I»o-im, dºm F o ÿm\-ß-fn-em-bn-cp -t mƒ IYm- ]p-cp-js kl-nm-cnbpw sk{i- -dnbpw Xr p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bpss ÿm]-\-øn apjy-k-lm-bnbpw A y-cwkw Dƒs ss IYm-]pcpjs tim -bw- -A- -amen sa{xm-k\ `c-w-np-a-x-e-i-fn ] m-fn-bpam-bn-cp _mhm-bpss Ub-dn- p-dn- p-i-fn IYm-]p-cp-j-s\- nbp \nc-h[n ka-ime ]cm-a i-߃ ImWp- p- v Bephm tzi-cxv\w {]kn \n v ^m. sska ]pent m- n (NpΩm-c- ) {]-kn- o-i-cn \mev -Øn-aq- v t]ppifp Poh-N-cn{Xw. NpΩm-c- IYm-]p-cp-j ÿm]n Bep-hm- Xr- p- Øv skan-\m-cn-bpss amt\-p Bbn-cp- p. IYm-]p-cp-js\ A y- Im-eØv ]cn-n-cn injy\pw Bbncp- p. IYm-]p-c-p-j Fgp-Xn-h- ncp Bfl-I-Ysb D]-Po-hn- mwv Cu elp-po-h-n-cn{xw Fgp-Xn-bXv F -Xn-\m AXnse hnh-cw-߃ v hnizm-ky-x-bpss ]n _-eap v. 6. tim bw `{Zm-k-\-Ønse AwKhpw tim bw sshzn-i-sk-an-\mcn-bnse {]K- - a-ev m-\p-w ae- -c-k-`-bpss Bcm-[-\m-km-ln-Xy-sØ- p-dn v Bg-ta-dnb Dƒ mgvn t\snb Kth-j-I-{]-Xn-`bpw Fs Kpcphp-amb bqlm-t\m am tkth-dn-tbmkv sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bn \n v ]mc-ºcyambn e`n Ipsd ti -dn-hp-iƒ mw \q m- ns k`m-n-cn{xw khn-ti-j-k-th-j-w-øn\v hnjb-am- nbxns `mk-ambn cq]o-i-cn \nco- -W-ßfpw \nk-a-\ßfpw. 8. A -amen `{Zm-k-\-Øn \n v {]kn- o-i-cn- -s Ub-d-IvSdnbpw Nne kph-\o-dp-i-fpw. 9. B\p-Im-enI {]kn- o-i-c-w-ß-fnepw a p-ambn h Nne tej- \-߃.

34 34 IShn Xncp-ta\n 10. tim bw ]g-b-sk-an-\m-cn-bnse B ss -hvkn tij-cn- -s \qdpiw- n\v kpdn-bm\n Isø-gpØv {KŸ-ß-fpsS Im temkv Xømdm- p-hm-\mbn 2007 \S-Ønb Kth-j-W-߃ ns-bn Is -Ønb kpdn-bm-\n -I-sø-gpØv Ip m-\-{i-ahpw Ip w-ipfw ]pen-t m- n tpmk^v IØ\mgvkv {] n \n v 1850 Ifn A Sn v {]kn- o- I-cn- Ip m\ XIvkmbpw (kpdn-bm\n) ]me- p- Øv amxyqkv am AØm-\m-tkymkv aq mw ]Xn- mbn {]kn- o-i-cn \a-kvim-c-{i-aw tim bw kn. Fw. Fkv. {]kn \n v {io. si. kn. tpmjzm _n. F.; _n.-f. kam-l Øm-hmbn am tøm-ωm-k` HutZym-Kn-I-ambn {]kn- o-i-cn ae- -c- «olm SpØ knwlmk\- Øns A[n-Im-c-Øn Iogp kpdn-bm\n {InkvXym-\n-I-fpsS ] n- {Ia ]pkvx-iw. CXn \a-kvimc{iaw, IqZm-i-I-fpsS {Iaw, s]c-p- mƒ ip{iq-j-i-fpss {Iaw, t\mºp-zn-h-k-ß-fnse {Iaw, a p ip{iqj-i-fpss {Iaw F n-ßs\ A p- `m-kßfpw Hcp A\p-_- hpw Dƒs ss 670 tesd ]pd-߃ D v (C-Xns Hcp tim n Fs ssihi-ap- v. Hcp tim n tim bw Hm Ø-tUmIvkv skan\m-cn-bnepw D - Xmbn Adn-hp- v. Fs Kth-j-W-{i-a-ßsf A\p-tam-Zn- p-sim pw Bio h-zn- p-sim pw Fs A`n-hµy Kpcp-\m-Y kωm-\n- -XmWo {KŸw) 13. k`m-n-cn{x Kth-j-I-\mb {io. tpmbvkv txm -bv msv IS-hn Xncp-ta-\n-sb- p-dn v Xøm-dm- nb A{]-Im-in-X-amb Hcp Poh-N-cn-{Xw. sa{xm-t m-eo-øm-bpss At\Iw kzimcy IØp-Ifpw GXm\pw Iev]- \-Ifpw At±lw Imew snbvx-t mƒ {]kn- o-i-cn ]{X dnt m p- Ifpw Cu {KŸ-Øn kam-l-cn- n- p- v. 14. ]me- n- n A{_lmw aev]m kpdn-bm-\n-bn \n v hnh - Ø\w snbvxv {]kn- o-i-cn kpdn-bm\n kaql hrøm- w. 15. dh. Ct yc Cu ]m{zn cnn v {]kn- o-i-cn ae- c kpdnbm\n k`-sbbpw kaq-l-søbpw Ipdn- p Hcp hncp-xv{]-icww.

35 35 IShn Xncp-ta\n 2 hs- ]d-hq-cnse CS-b ae- -c-k`mncn-{x-øn A -am-en-bpss ÿm\hpw {]m[m-\yhpw kphn-zn-x-am-wv. `mc-xob {InkvXym-\n-I-fpsS ]n søm n Bb ]meq-cn \n v Xncp-hnXmwIqdns ]e `mk-ß-fn-te- p-ambn ]S v ] -en ae- -c-k`bpss Xe-ÿm\w Ipsd- mew A -amen Bbncp- p. tdmωm km{am-py-ønse Ae-Ivkm{ nbm Xpd-apJhpw tnckm{am-py-øn\v A`n-am-\hpw Ad-_n- -S-ens BZy dmwnbpw Bb s]m m\n Xpd-ap-Jhpw ti{µo-i-cn v \S- n-cp hntz-i hym]mcw \nb-{ n- n-cp BZn-tNc cmpm- - m ]meq-cnse timt m, ]øq, ht cn apx-emb ÿe-ß-fn tim -si n Bÿm-\-am n `cn t mgmwv ]meq {]tz-i-߃ v ss{ikvxh ax-øns Xe- n F v t]cp- m-b-sx- n c mw tnckm{ampyw F. Un. 9 mw \q m p apx tnµaw-kew, simsp-ß- q XpS-ßnb ÿe-߃ ti{µ-am n hntz-i-hym-]mcw \nb-{ n ImeØmWv ]d-hq, sndm-bn, A -am-en, AI- -dºv apxemb ÿe-߃ v ae- ck`m Ncn-{X-Øn {]m[m\yw kn n- p- -Xv. Hcp \q m p Imew \S \nc- -c-amb, "t]m fw' ti{µ-am- nb bp -]-c-º-c-iƒ ]meq-cnse im -PohnXw Akm-[yam- n-b-xns\ XpS v ]meq {]tz-isø \nhm-kn-iƒ {]mw-c- m- w kao] {]tz-i-ßsf A`bw {]m]n- p-i-bm-bn-cp p. ]meq {]tzi-øns {][m\ Pe-am KXm-KXtI{µw A v Nmh- msv Bbncp p. Nmh- msv \n v ]em-b\w snbvx ]meq m-cpss BZy Xmhfw sxm -SpØ N -c- -S-hn-t\mSv tn (N- c IS-hn\v {imbn AYhm sndmbn F pw t]cp v. Nmh- m-sn\v kao-]-ap Im m-im-ºm Imb-ense Hcp IShv C pw {imbn IShv F t]cn Adn-b-s -Sp- p. Im -Im-ºmense {imbn IShpw sndm-bn-bnse N c IShpw XΩn Hcp Ime-Øp- m-bn-cp KmV-kw-k -Øns Hfn-a-ßmØ Hm Ω-bmWv Cu t] C pw -h-ln- p- -Xv) ]d-hq {]tz-iøv ]m pd- n- p. Cu kt -X-amWv s]cn-bm-dn-eqss BZyw AI- dºv A - amen {]tz-i-ß-fn-te pw Imem\pKX-ambn s]cp-ºm-hq, Ipdp- -ºSn, timx-aw-kew F o {]tz-i-ß-fn-te p-ambn ]S v ] -en- Xv. A - am-en-bnepw Ipdp ºSn-bn-ep-ap {]mno\ IpSpw-_- m ]meq-cp-ambp Ah-cpsS ]q ni _ sø Ah-cpsS IpSpw_Ncn-{X-ß-fn tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v (bp `oj-wn-sb XpS v Xß-fpsS ]q hni