Chakravalam Dec_2017.pmd

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1 Unkw_ 2017 hne 10 cq] ticf kmlnxy A m-zan h {P -tim -` -bn A -c -ti -c fw kn.sp.txm-akv P -i-xm_vzn C.-Fw.-F- ns {]_- -߃ {]Im-i\w snbvxp sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\hpw sndp-iym inev]-ime

2 ticf kmln-xy-a- m-zan {]kn- o-i-cn C.-Fw.-F- ns {]_- -߃ F {KŸw apjy-a{ n ]nw-dmbn hnp-b C.-Fw. cm[bv v \evin {]Im-in- n- p- p. s{]m^. hn.-f.-ap-c-fn, _n.-cm-po-h, a{ n G.-sI. _me, A m-zan {]kn-u v sshim-j, sk{i- dn tum. si.-]n. taml-\, tum. _n. CIv_m, tum. ]n.-f-kv. {ioie F n-h kao]w ticf kmlnxy A m-z-anbpw IÆq k h-i-em-ime ae-bmf hn`m-khpw tum.-]n.si cmp kvamci Imº v bqwn-b\pw kwbp ambn kwl-sn- n sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\-hpw- -I-em-eb hnzym n-iƒ p sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-imebn Fw. apip-μ kwkm-cn- p- p. ticf kmlnxy A m-z-anbpw IÆq k h-i-em-ime ae-bmf hn`m-khpw tum.-]n.si cmp kvamci Imº v bqwn-b\pw kwbp ambn kwl-sn- n sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\-hpw- -I-em-eb hnzym n-iƒ p sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-ime ]n.-si. \mwp DZvLm-S\w snøp- p. tum. F.-Fw. {io[-c, cho-{μ sims m-sv, tum. hn.-]n.]n. apkvx-^, ]n.-hn.-si. ]\-bm, C.-]n. cmptkm-]m-e, tum. dop hn XpS-ßn-b-h-tcbpw ImWmw.

3 kmlnxy hm Øm-am-knI Unkw-_ 2017 ]pkvxiw 43 e w 3 hne: hm jni hcn-kw-jy 100 cq] D S w kmln-xy-øn\v km z\w\evim Ignbpw Fw. apip-μ 4 kzmx{ yw txsp- -h v Aim n IqS- n-d v s{]m^.-fw.-si.-km\p 6 kxy-k- -ambn Fgp-Xm kzmx{ yw C mø Imew Sn.-]-fl-\m-` 7 IY ]d-bp p; Pohn-Xta \o F v...!,? F. hn. ]hn-{x 8 hk- -tømsv AXns `mj-bn kwkm-cn- p Ihn-X-Iƒ tum.- hn.- A-_vZpƒ eøo^v 12 hnhmzw, Hm Ω hnebncpø tum. s_ ntamƒ amxyp 16 ae-bmf Ihn-X-bnse hnπ-h-`m-hp-ixzw tum.-hn.-]n.-]n. apkvx^ 18 cmam-b-whpw alm-`m-c-xhpw temtim-ø-c-im-hy-߃ tum.fw.pn Fkv. \mcm-b-w 21 hnth-im-\μ Nn -Iƒ C y- msc kzmx-{ y-øn\v A l-cm n kzman \μm-fl-pm-\μ 25 ]{Xm-[n-]-k-anXn sshim-j {]kn-u v tum. si.-]n.-tam-l-\ sk{i- dn & FUn- hnemkw: ticf kmlnxy A m-zan, Xriq , t^m : Web: keralasahityaakademi.org hn. F. Atim-I k_v FUn- - hn\-bvem, {Inb Xriq Ih Unssk a[p Imcym v {]q^v I Ω-\n-c-X-amb \mfp-iƒ ticf kmlnxy A m-zan Iem-e-b-hn-Zym n-iƒ mbn kwl-sn- n sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\hpw F sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-ime Imk tkmuv \ote-iz-cøv tum.]n.- si.cmp kvamci hnt Pv Imº-kn \S- p. aq p-zn-h-k-ßfn-embn \S inev]-im-e-bn ae-bm-f-ønse {]ap-j-cmb Fgp- Øp-Im kpo-h-ambn ]s -Sp-Øp. IÆq k Δ-I-em-ime aebmfhn`m-k-øns kl-i-c-w-tøm-ss-bmwv inev]-ime Hcp- nb-xv. Fgp-Ønse ]pxnb Xe-ap-dsb Is -Øm\pw t{]m m-ln- n- m\pw th n-bp thzn-bmbn amdn Cu inev]-im-e. Ime-Øn-\p-ap s] k cn {]Xn-`m-hn-kvabw kn.-sp.txmakns P -i-xm_vzn Fw.-sI. km\p ^ut -js kl-i-c-wtømss A m-zan BtLm-jn- p-i-bp- m-bn. A m-zan HmUnt m-dn-b-øn skan-\m, A\p-kva-c-W-k-tΩ-f\w, ]pc-kvim-c-ka -Ww, ]pkvx-i-{]-im-i\w F o ]cn-]m-sn-iƒ Ac-tß-dn. Fw.- si.km\p ^ut -j G s -Sp-Ønb {]Ya kn.-sp.txmakv tziob ]pc-kvimcw N{μ-ti-Jc Iºm v Fw.-sI.km\p ka n- p. kmlnxy A m-zan {]kn- o-i-cn "kn.-sp.-bpss tej-\- ߃' F _rlzv{kÿ-øns {]Im-i-\hpw AtX -th-zn-bn \S- p. A m-z-an-bpss ]pkvx-i-{]-km-[-\-n-cn-{x-ønse Xnfßp Htc-SmWv kn.-sp.-bpss kºq Æ-sa v ]d-bm-hp Cu tej-\-k-am-lm-cw. A m-zanbpss as m-cp-{]-[m\ ]pkvx-i-amb C.-Fw.-Fkns {]_- -߃ apjy-a{ n ]nw-dmbn hnp-b Xncp-h-\- -]p-cøv {]Im-i\w snbvxp. C y \thm- m-\-{]-ÿm-\-øns kqcy-tx-p- mb kzman hnth-im-\-μ tic-f-w k-μ in -Xns mw-hm jniw A m- Zan sim m-sp-i-bp- m-bn. A -hn-izm-k-ßfpw A\m-Nm-c-ßfpw Ipgn-amSw hn p-w-cp kao-]-im-eøv, hnth-im-\-μ-kva-cw aebm-fn-iƒ v Zo]vX-amb Znim-kq-N-I-ambn \ne-sim- p- p. {`m me-b-am-bn-cp tic-fsø sszh-øns kz w \msmbn am p- - Xn hnth-im-\-μ-k-tμ-i-߃ hln- - ] v DZm-Øhpw D z-ehp-am-wv. kakvx ticf kmlnxy ]cn-j-øns Hcp h jw \o \h-xn-b-tlm-j-ß-fpss kam-]-\-k-tω-f\w A m-z-anbpss kl-i-c-w-tømss _jo thzn-bn \S- p. ae-bm-f- Ønse {]ap-j-cmb Fgp-Øp-Im-cpsS kwk-a-ambn amdn Cu aq p- Zn-h-k-߃. A m-zan AXns P -Zu-Xy-߃ \nd-th- p- -Xns `mk-ambn kwl-sn- n- p kmln-xy-]-cn-]m-sn-iƒ _lp-p-\-]- m-fn-øwsim v A -]q Æ-am-Ip- p. D -X-amb A m-z-ani\ne-hmcw ]pe Øn-s m- p-xs IqSp-X P\-ß-fn-te v Cd-ßn-s - m- \p A m-z-an-bpss ]cn-{i-a-߃ v apgp-h klr-z-b-cp-tsbpw kl-i-cww A`y n- p- p. tum. si.-]n.-tam-l-\ FUn- (sk-{i- -dn, ticf kmlnxy A m-z-an) Printed & Published by Dr. K.P. Mohanan on behalf of Kerala Sahitya Akademi, Thrissur , and printed at Carmel Printers, Thrissur and Published at Thrissur, Thrissur District, Kerala State. Editor : Dr. K.P. Mohanan

4 Iem-e-b-hn-Zym n-iƒ p IYm-in-ev]-ime sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\hpw, sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-ime bmf IY-bpsS hmsamgn ]mc-º-cysø AS-bm-f-s - SpØnsIm- p Cu IY ]d- n inev]-im-e-bpss {]txy-i-x-i-fn-sem- m-bn-cp- p. XI-gn-bpsS sh -s m- -Øn F IY ARvPnX hmbn- p-ibpw Pb-cmPv kwhn-[m\w snbvx Ne- n{xw {]Z in- n- p-ibpw snbvxp. l etbm kns "Z sh ', {]im v hnp-bs "AwKpeo NmenXw' F o {lkz kn\n-a-iƒ {]Z in- n- p. 25 \v i\n-bmgvn ]n.-si. cmp kvamci Iymº-knse hnzym n-iƒ Ah-X-cn- n sshtem- n- n-bpss Bbnc-sØm v cmhp-isf Bkv]-Z-am- n-bp \rø-in-ev]- tømsp IqSn-bmWv sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-im-e-bpss Hu]-NmtIcf kmlnxy A m-z-anbpw IÆq k h-i-em-ime ae-bmf hn`m-khpw tum.-]n.si cmp kvamci Imº v bqwn-b\pw kwbp ambn kwl-sn- n sjlvd-kmzv: BJym- \hpw AXn-Po-h-\-hpw- -I-em-eb hnzym n-iƒ p sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-imebpss kam- ]\ ktω-f-\-øn Fw.-F. dlvam {]`m-jww \S-Øp- p. C.-]n. cmp-tkm-]m-e, tum. F.-Fw. {io[-c, tum. dop hn., {iotcj N{μ F n-h kao-]w. ticf kmlnxy A m-z-anbpw IÆq k h-i-emime ae-bmf hn`m-khpw tum.-]n.si cmp kvamci Imº v bqwn-b\pw kwbp ambn kwl-sn- n sjlvd-kmzv: BJym-\hpw AXn-Po-h-\-hpw- -I-em-eb hnzym n-iƒ p sndp-i-ym-in-ev]-ime Ahn-kva-c- Wob kwhm-z-am-bn \hw-_ 24, 25, 26 Xnø-Xn-I-fnembn \ote-iz-c-øp tum. ]n.-si. cmp kvamci hnt Pv Imº n-em-bn-cp p inev]-ime \S- -Xv. {]Z i-\w, {]`m-j-ww, cwkm-h-x-c-ww, {]_- -]-cn- N-bw, IYm-]-cn-N-bw, kwhmzw F n-ßs\ hnhn[ ktω-f-\-ß-tfmss inev-]-ime {it -b-am-bn. thßbn Ip n-cm-a \mb\m apx ba hsc-bp \qdv Fgp-Øp-Im-cpsS k m-fl-i-amb shfn-]m-sp-i-fmb "IYbpw shfn-]m-sp-ifpw' F {]Z i-\-w kmlnxy A m-zan AwKhpw {]ikvx Fgp-Øp-Im-c-\p-amb Sn.- Un. cma-ir-jvw DZvLm-S\w snbvxp. A m-zan AwKw Sn.-]n. thwp-tkm-]m-e A y- X hln NS-ßn\v 4 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw kmln-xy-øn\v km z\w \evim Ignbpw Fw. apip-μ thz-\n- p- -h v km z\w \evim kmln-xy- Øn\p Ignbp-sa v inev]-im-e- Ibn Fw. apip-μ A`n-{]mb-s - p. Fgp-Øp-Im ]qhn-cnbn- p- -h-c-. Fgp-Øp-Im-c H -bmƒt m-cm- -amwv \S-Øp- - Xv. ss[jwn-ix IY-bpsS tzmj-a. Fgp-Øn\v A -S w Bh-iy-am-Wv. azyhpw ab- pa-cp pw D]-tbm-Kn- p Fgp- Øn-eqsS bym el-cn-bnse-øm km[n- n-. Fgp- ØmWv G hpw henb kt mjw. IS-em-kn t]\-øpºv sxmsp-tºm-gp i_vzw tiƒ p-tºm-gmwv IqSp-X kt m-jn- p- Xv Fw. apipμ ]d- p. Bap-J-ambn {]ikvx sxøw Iem- Im-c ]me mbn IÆ ]pcm-hrø IY\w \S-Øn. ae-

5 -sn-dp-iyminev]-im-e-bpss `mk-ambn kwl-sn- n IYbpw shfn-]m-sp-ifpw F {]Z i\w Sn.-Un. cma-ir-jvw DZvLm-S\w snøp- p. cn-i-amb DZvLm-S\w \S- -Xv. IÆq k Δ-I-em-ime kn Un-t v AwKw tum. hn.-]n.-]n. apkvx-^-bpss A y- -X-bn ]n.-si. \mwp DZvLm-S\w \n Δ-ln- p. a v kmln-xy-cq-]-ßsf At]- n v sndp-i-y-bpss {]Xntcm[ hocy-sø- p-dn pw I -i-amb Xs {]Xy-bimkv{X \ne-]m-sp-isf pdn pw ]n.-si. \mwp {]kw-k- Øn FSpØp ]d- p. C.-]n. cmp-tkm-]m-e BapJ `mj-w-hpw, ]n.-hn.-si. ]\-bm, cho-{μ sims- msv F n-h Biwkm `mj-whpw \S-Øn. XpS v IYbpw {]Xn-tcm-[hpw F hnj-b-øn kp\n ]n. Cf-bn- Sw {]`m-jww \S-Øn. inlm-_p-±o s]mbvøpw-i-s-hpambn \S-Ønb Iymºv AwK-ß-fpsS kwhmzw IYm-I- Y-\-Øns hyxykvx hgn-i-fn-eq-ss-bp k m-c-øn\v hgn-sbm-cp- n. Fw. kpip-am-c, F.-F-kv. am[-h F o Fgp- Øp-Im-cpsS hountbm {]`m-j-w-߃ IymºwK-߃ v ]pxnb A\p-`-h-am-bn-cp- p. tkxp-hns ZqXv F IYbpsS cwkm-h-x-cww, BJym-\-Øn-t bpw Bkzm-Z-\-Øns bpw ]pxnb Xe-߃ A\m-h-cWw snøp Xmbn-cp- p. {it -b-amb 13 IY-Iƒ AwK-߃ Xnc-s -Sp-Øp. kt mjv ]\-bm, k\q]v ]n, IrjvW-Zmkv, si.-hn. kpo-h F n-hcsßnb hn[n-i Øm- ƒ tim bw Ipdp-hn-e-ßmSv tzh-amxm timtf-pnse Aa kptc-{μs "D p-ap v' F IY ani IY-bmbn sxc-s -Sp-Øp. C.-]n. cmp-tkm-]m-es au\hpw IY-\hpw F hnj-bsø Bkv]-Z-am- n-bp mtkm-sp-iq-sn-bmwv 26 \v Rmb-dmgvN Iymºv DW -Xv. hmƒ s_ -ans "Z tãmdn ss ' F {]_ w F.-kn. {iolcn Iymºv AwK-ßsf ]cn-n-b-s -Sp-Øn. XpS v temi-i-y-bnse {it -b-amb "Fd kv' F IY cmlp cm[m-irjvw ]cn-n-b-s -Sp-Øn. ae-bm-f-øns {]nb-s Fgp-Øp-Im-c Fw. apipμs km n[yw sim v [\y-am-bn kam-]-\-øn\v apºp skj. Bi-b-kw-hm-Z-ßsf Xf Øp i n-iƒ cmpyøv hf v hcp- p-s pw CXn-s\- Xn \n m ]pxnb Fgp-Øp-Im v km[n-t - -Xps pw apip-μ ]d- p. kwhm-z-ß-fn-eqss am{xta Bi-b-߃ hni-kn- p-i-bp- p-sh pw adn- p Nn - Iƒ kaq-l-øns\ ]pd-tim v \bn- ms\ D]-I-cn q F pw apip-μ Hm an- n- p. am{x-a-, Fgp-Øp-Im-c\v am\-kn-i-amb Acm-P-IXzw Bhm-sa- nepw kaq-l- Øns N -߃ ]men- m _m[yx Ds pw At±lw ]d- p. NS-ßn G hpw \ IYm-Ir-Øn- \p D]-lmcw apipμ Aa kptc-{μ\v \ In. IYbpw \ne-]m-sp-ifpw F skj tum. Aw_nImkpX amßmsv DZvLm-S\w snbvxp. tkm{i- okv si hme-øv, ]n.-hn. jmpn-ip-am, ba, hnt\mbv txma-kv, A`n tpmk^v XpSßn ]pxnb Xe-ap-d-bnse Fgp-Øp-Im kwhm-z-øn ]s -Sp-Øp. ae-bmf hn`mkw Xe-h tum. F.-Fw. {io[-cs A y- -X-bn tn kam-]\ ktω-f-\-øn Fw.- F. dlvam {]`m-jww \S-Øn. Iymwºv AwK-߃ XßfpsS A\p-`hw ] p-sh- p. C.-]n. cmp-tkm-]m-e A m- Z-an-bpsS \mfn-xp-h-sc-bp {]h Ø-\-ß-sf- p-dn pw kmaq-ln-ihpw kmwkvim-cn-i-hp-amb {]Xn m-_- -Xsb- p-dn pw `mhn {]h Ø-\-ß-sf- p-dn pw hni-zo-icn- p-ibpw Iymºv AwK-߃ p km y-]-{x-߃ hnx-cww snøp-ibpw snbvxp. tum. dop hn, {iotcj N{μ F n-h kwkm-cn- p. tum. inh-zmkv si.-si., kt mjv ]\-bm, kp\nx F.-hn. F n-h hnhn[ skj-\p-i-fn ]s - Sp-Øp. tum. ]n.si. cmp kvamci Iymºknse apgp-h hnzym n-i-fp-ssbpw Poh-\- m-cp-ssbpw km n- yhpw kl-i-c-whpw sim v {it -b-ambncp p sndp-iym inev]-im-e. n 2017 Unkw-_ 5

6 kn.-sp.-txm-akv P -i-xm_vzn ktω-f\w kzmx{ yw txsp- -h v Aim n IqS- n-d v s{]m^.-fw.-si.-km\p ticf kmlnxy A m-zan {]kn- o-i-cn kn.-sp.-bpss tej-\-߃ F ]pkvx- I-Øns {]Im-i\w N{μ-ti-J-c-I-ºm \n h-ln- p p. kwko-x-\m-si A m-zan sk{i- dn F. cm[mir-jvw \mb, kmln-xy-a- m-zan {]knu v sshim-j, s{]m^. Fw.-sI. km\p, kp[m-i-c cma- -fn, C.-]n. cmp-tkm-]m-e, tpmkv Icn-º-\, kmln-xy-a- m-zan sk{i- dn tum. si.-]n. taml-\ F n-h kao-]w. kzmx{ yw txsp a\- p-iƒ v Aim n IqS- n-d- m-sw v s{]m^.-fw.-si.-km\p ]d- p. ticf kmlnxy A m-zanbpw Fw.-sI.-km\p ^ut -j\pw kwbp- -ambn kwl-sn- n kn.-sp.-txm-akv P -i- Xm_vZn ktω-f-\-øn kn.-sp.-a-\p-kva-c-w-{]-`mjww \n h-ln- p-i-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. kzmx-{ ymt\z-jn-iƒ Hcp {]am-whpw IqsS sim p-\-s- p- n-. AXp-hsc hniz-kn- -Xns\ FXn Øn- p-t]mepw Ah apt m- p-t]m-ipw. Km n-pn-sb-t m-ep- -h kz w hnizm-k-{]-am-w-ßsf ]n osv Xncp-Øn-b-h-cm-Wv. kzbw amdn-øo-cm ImWn kxy-k- -X-sIm- mwv Km npn AS- -ap- -h am\-h-cm-insb hnkva-bn- n- -Xv. A\pk-c-W-t -SmWv G hpw henb Pohn-X-aqeyw F p hniz-kn {]Xn-`m-im-en-bmWv kn.-sp.-txm-a-kv. tnmzywtnm-zn- p- -Xn-emWv Nn -bpss al-xz-sa v kn.-sp.-sxfn-bn- p. Kpcp- - msc FXn p-i-bmwv injy- m-cpss kzm-nm-c-sa mbn-cp p kn.-sp.-bpss XØz-im-kv{Xw. ka-{k-am-b- kxyw ]d-bp- -Xn-\n-S-bn kn.-sp. kz w 6 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw Bi-b-ß-sf-Øs Jfin- p. kxysø apdpsi ]nsn- p-tºmƒ as m- n-s\bpw \ntj-[n- p Hcp Ipcp-ØwsI Ip n kn.-sp.-bn Hfn- n-cn- p- m-bncp- p. A\- - \o-en-a-bn-tebv v GbvXphn Aºp-t]mse Akz-ÿ-amb Hcp Pohn-X-bm-{X-bm-bn-cp p At±-l-Øn-t - sx pw s{]m^.-fw.-si.-km\p ]d- p. sa m-sf-bpss Cw ojv hnzym-`ymkw C y-bn hym]-i-am-b-txmss tjivkv]nb kmln-xy-øn\v apjy-[m-c-bn {]m[m\yw e`n- p-sh v N{μ-ti-J-c- I- ºm ]d p. Fw.-sI.-km-\p -^u-t js {]Ya kn.-sp.-txm-akv tzio-b- ]pckvimcw Fw.-sI.-km-\p-hn \n pw G p-hm-ßn-s m v kwkm-cn- p-i-bm-bncp p At±-lw. {_n ojv C y-bn ta[mhnxzw ]pe Ønb Cw ojv hnzym-`ymkw {]mtz-in-i-ambn C y `m-j-i-fn \ne-\n- n-cp \ms-i- {]-h Ø-\-ßsf XS- -s -SpØn. \mtsm-sn-\m-s-i-ß-fpss kpo-hx \ne- p-t]m-bn. `mc-xo-b-amb Hcp \ms-i-thzn hf p-h-cp- -Xns\ Cw ojv hnzym-`ymkw C m-xm- nsb pw At±lw ]d- p.- A- m-zan {]kn-u v sshim- J ktω-f\w DZvLm-S\w snbvxp. kwkox \msi A m-zan sk{i- dn F.-cm-[m-Ir-jvW \m-b A[y- - X-h-ln- p. A m-zan sk{i- dn tum.-si.-]n.-tam-l-\, kp[m-i-c cma- -fn, tum.-c.-]n.-cm-p-tkm-]m-e, tpmkv Icn-º-\, ^m. tdm_n IÆ- nd kn.-fw.-sf., Cu.-Un.-tUhokv F n-h kwkm-cn- p. ticf kmlnxy A m-zan {]kn- o-i-cn kn.-sp.-bpss tej-\-߃ F ]pkvx-i- Øns {]Im-i\w N{μ-ti-J-c-I-ºm \n h-ln- p. t\csø \S kn.-sp.-txm-akv A\p-kva-c-W-sk-an- \m-dn s{]m^.-fw.-txm-akv amxyp tamu-td- -dm-bn. Sn.-Fw.- F-{_lmw (km-aq-ly-ho- Ww \ms-i-øn : kn.- sp.bv v apºpw tij-hpw), tpm t]m-ƒ (kn.-sp.-bpss Zriy-hn-`m-h-\w) F n-h {]_- -߃ Ah-X-cn- n- p. n

7 a\- n-ep Bi-b-߃ kxy-k- -ambn Fgp- Xp-hm-\p kzmx{ yw \jvs-s Ime-am-Wn-sX v Sn.-]-fl-\m-` ]d- p. ka-kvx- ti-cf kmln-xy- ]-cn-j-øns \hxn BtLm-j-ß-fpsS kam- ]\ktω-f\w kmlnxy A m-z-an-bn DZvLm- S\wsNbvXv kwkm-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. kxyw Xpd p]d- m sim -s -Sp-sa bmym yw \ne-\n p- p. ]ecpw sime-snø-s p Ign- p. Kucn et -jns LmX-Isc ]nsn-iq-sm t]mepw Ign- n- n-. C y IS- p-t]m- Ip- Xv Hcp si Ime-Øn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. cmpy-øns tim`-bm Ncn{Xw am n-a-dn- -s -Sp- p. XmPval t]mepw Ncn-{X-Øn \n pw ]pd-øm- -s - Sp- p. R߃ ]d-bp- Xv axn, \n߃ ]d-tb- - Xn F v Nne Iev]n- p-i-bm-wv. Fkv.-Zp K F Iem-krjvSn tkmh Ne- n-t{xm- -h-øn {]Z in- n- m km[n- n-. Xncp-h-\- -]pcw Ne- n-t{xm- hønepw {]Z in- n- m Ign-bn-s hm Ø tjz-i-c-am-wv. Cu ka-bøv Fgp-Øp-Im km n- Ifmbn am{xw \n t - -h-c-. Fgp-Øn-eqsS {]Xn-Icn- p-i-bmwv Fgp-Øp-Im-cpsS [ Ωw. {]Xn-I-cWw ap{zm-hm-iy-c-n-\tbm Nph-sc-gptØm Bbn amtd- -X-. Ah-bvs mw AXn-t -Xmb {]m[m-\y-ap- v. F m, Ah k Km-flIkmln-Xy-Øn\v ]I-c-am-hn-. A\o-Xns -Xnsc {]Xn-I-cn- -Xns al-ømb ]mc-ºcyw temikm-ln-xy-øn-ep- v. djy kmln-xy-øn tsmƒtãmbv, ZkvX-tb-hvkvIn, tkm n XpS-ßn-b-h ap{zm-hm-iy-c-nbn-xm- -fm-bn-cp- n-. Ah-cpsS al-ømb IrXn-Iƒ Fgp-X-s - -Xp-t]mse ae-bm-f-ønepw kmln-xyw D mh-wsa pw At±lw ]d- p. kmln-xy-]-cn-jøv {]kn- U v kn.-cm-[m-ir-jvw A[y- X hln- p. sshim- J, kn.-hn.-_m-e-ir-jvw, Be-t msv eoem-ir-jvw F n-h Biw-k-Iƒ t\ p. tum.-sn.-f.-hnizw-`-c kzmk-xhpw s{]m^.-]n.-f.-c-{_m-lnw-ip n \μnbpw ]d- p. cmhnse \S "kmln-xy-kw-lm-s\w F-gp-Øp-Imcpw kwl-s-\-ifpw' F skan-\m s{]m^.-fw.-b.-n-{μkxy-k- -ambn Fgp-Xm kzmx{ yw C mø Imew Sn.-]-fl-\m-` ti-j-c DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. s\-sp-apsn lcn-ip-am, tum.- Fw.-F.hn\-b-Ip-am, lao-zv, kn.-hn.-]u-tem-kv, tum.- A-º-e- pg tkm]-ip-am, tuhokv IÆ-ºpg F n-h kwkm-cn- p. D -bv p-tijw \S hna i-\-k-tω-f\w tum.-fw.-eo-em-hxn DZvLm-S\w snbvxp. _me-n-{μ hst -SØv, Bjmtat\m, -]n.-hn.-ir-jvw \m-b, s{]m^.-hn.-fw.-hn-\-b-ip-am, Cu.-Un.-tU-hokv, si.-]n.- cm-[m-ir-jvw F n-h kwkm-cn- p. XpS v \S A m-z-an-ifpw kmln-xyhpw F skan-\m sshim- J DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. si.-c-lp-\m-y, F.-cm-[m-IrjvW \m-b, tum.-f.-b.-{km-a-{]-imiv, {ioaq-e-\- Kcw taml, F.cmP tum.-kn.-b-z iv, Xrin-h-t]- cq taml-\-n-{μ XpS-ßn-b-h kwkm-cn- p. sshio v Xriq \ms-i-kwlw Ah-X-cn- n Xntb- kvsi v Actß-dn. ktω-f-\-øns c mwznhkw Km\-km-ln-Xyw- -]m- ns {]k n F skan-\m {ioip-am-c Xºn DZvLm- S\wsNbvXp. Pb-cmPv hmcy, Gß- n-bq N{μ-ti-Jc, ]n.-si.-`-c-x, jmpp ]pxq, Pnj ]bkv F nh kwkm-cn- p. cmhnse \S Fgp-Øp-Imcpw AwKo- Im-chpw F skan-\m kn.-cm-[m-ir-jvw DZvLm- S\wsNbvXp. bp.-si.-ip-am-c, inlm-_p-±o s]mbvøpwtic-f-km-lnxy A m-zanbpss kl-i-cwtømss \S-Ønb ka-kvxti-cf kmln-xy-]-cn-j-øns \hxn BtLm-j-Øns kam-]\ ]cn- ]m-sn-iƒ Sn. ]fl-\m-` DZvLm-S\w snøp- p Unkw-_ 7

8 IYbpsS h Ø-am\w IY ]d-bp p; Pohn-Xta \o F v...!,? F. hn. ]hn-{x 8 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw IY ]d- p-]-d v IYm-h-tij-\mb ]p\-øn Ip -_vzp- v ( ) {i m-rvp-en. Bdp- ]-Xn- m p \o p-in-s- - Xs IYm-Im-e-Øn Pohn-XsØ \nc- cw ]co- -W- thzn-bm n am p-i-bm-bn-cp p At±lw. "kmlnxyøn-\p-th n F mw XyPn- -h\pw Xpe- -h-\p-amwv Rm. kmlnxyw am{x-amwv Pohn- m- \p Fs Imc-Ww... \n߃ \nß-fpss hm p- IƒsIm v ho pw ho pw Fs ]co- n- p-i. a mscbpw \n߃ p In n-. Fs In pw. Imc-Ww, Rm Hcp ]co- -W-h-kvXp-hm-Wv.' Bkzm-Z-\-Øn-s bpw ]T- \-Øn-s bpw BXp-cm-e-b-Øn-te v Xs IYm-i-co- I-S-hv, sjm Æq Im Øn-tI-b, Sn.-]n.-kp-[m-I-c, kn.- K-tWjv, ISm-t msv {]`m-i-c F n-h kwkm-cn- p. _me-km-lnxyw I-fntbm Imcytam F skan-\m kn n ] n- pdw DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. F.-sI.-]p-Xp-t»-cn, kn.-b.-zm-kv, C.-Pn-\, si.-hn.-k-tw-jv, Imhn cm-pv, Icm v {]`m-i-c F n-h kwkm-cn- p. t\mh - -IY ktω-f\w Hdnb IYm-Im-c Kuclcn Zmkv DZvLm- S\wsNbvXp. Atim-I Ncp-hn, si.-]n.-cm-a-\p-æn, ]mßn `mkvi-c, ]n.-bp.-a-ao F n-h kwkm-cn- p. tum.fkv.-si.-h-k- ap -t»cn A\p-kva-cWw \S-Øn. ticf Iem-a-fiew Ah-X-cn- n \rø-\r-xy߃ Ac-tß-dn. ktωf-\-øns aq mw Znhkw IhnX \msf F skan-\m Imivaocn Ihn ka A kqz DZvLm- S\wsNbvXp. {]k cmp, A h Aen, tum.- Sn.- F.-hn-izw-`-c F n-h kwkm-cn- p. tum.-kn.-cm-tp- {μ kp-ip-am Ago-t msv A\p-kva-cWw \S-Øn. kmlnxy]{x-{]-h Ø\w F hnj-b-øn-ep skan- \m si.-kn.-\m-cm-b-w DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. F.-{io- Ip-am, Sn.-Sn.-{]-`m-I-c, Znt\iv h Ω, tum.-fw.-irjvw \ºq-Xncn, Fw.-B.-cm-tP-jv, ISmXn jmpn F nh kwkm-cn- p. D bv ptijw \S Ihn-b-c-ßv _me-n-{μ Np n- msv DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. hn.-pn.-x-ºn, csø Zm\w snbvxmwv ]p\-øn `qan-hmkw hn -Xv. \hw_ XpS w Ipdn- Xv {]nb IYm-Im-cs\ kvacn- psim- m-wv. ae-bm-f-ønse F m B\p-Im-en-I-ßfpw At±-lsØ _lp-am-\-tømss bm{x-bm- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. A\p-kva-c-W- p-dn- p-iƒ pw hni-z-]-t-\-߃ pa- pdw At±-l-Øns BZy-Im-e- I-Y-Ifpw {]kn- -amb cn-\-ifpw ]p\x{]kn- o-i-cn- -s - p. amxr-`qan BgvN- -Xn v (\-hw.5) \ Inb io jiw "Rm Hcp sndp-iy' F m-wv. BZy-I-Y-bmbn \mfn-xp-hsc ]c-k-wn "IeymW cm{xn' bvs m w (1959) ]p\-øn Fw. Ip - _vzp F t]cn 1958epw (`m-ky- p-dn) 1959epw (X-e- sk_m-ãy, _nμp IrjvW, ssie, H.-]n.-kp-tcjv, Fw.-F-kv.-_-t\-jv, KncnP ]mtx- c, h Ko-km -Wn, ]n.- k-enw-cm-pv, _ taø-e, hntpjv FS- p- n, B.- {io-e-xm-h Ω, cm[n-i-k-t\m-pv, kxojv am{º, A\p ]m -, cp nwn A -\w, A\nX lcn F n-h IhnX Ah-X-cn- n- p. tem], hn.-f.-h Kokv F n-h kwkm-cn- p. kn.-cm-[m-ir-jvw A[y- X hln kam-]-\-ktω-f\w Irjn-h-Ip pa{ n hn.-f-kv.- kp-\n -Ip-am DZvLm-S\wsNbvXp. kmln-xy -]-cn-jøv ]pc-kvimcw Fw.- ap-ip-μ\v kn.-cm-[m-ir-jvw ka n p. adp-]sn{]kw- K-Øn kmln-xy-sø-t mepw Xß-fpsS Im o-gn sim p-h-cp hn]-wn-bmwv C sø temi-øns sszh-sa v Fw.-ap-Ip-μ ]d- p. F m- n-s\bpw Nc- m n am p hn]wn sszh-sø-t mepw hn -gn- p- p. \ncm-ew-_-cpss \ne-hnfn tiƒ n- p-i-bmwv Fgp- Øp-Im-cpsS [ Ω-sa pw At±lw ]d- p. _me-n-{μ Np n- msv, ]n.-hn.-ir-jvw \m-b, tum.-sn.-f.-hn-izw- `-c, s\sp-apsn lcn-ip-am, _me-n-{μ hs-t -S-Øv, Sn.- Fw.-\m-k F n-h kwkm-cn- p. ticf t^mivtem A m-z-an-bpss \ms Iem-hn-jv mcw \S- p. kn.-sp.- Ip- - Bap-J-{]-`m-jWw \S-Øn. n

9 t\m-ºv) _me-]w- n-bn A -Sn IY-Ifpw simsp-øn- p- v. IYm-]-Tn-Xm- ƒ pw kmln-xym-kzm-z-i pw hne- ]n-sn Imcy-am-Wn-Xv. tzim-`n-am\n hmcn-i-bn (\hw.12) "Imemƒ -S-bpsS hchv' F {]ikvx IY ho pw {]kn- o-i-cn- v, "IY ]d-bm am{xw Pohn Hcmƒ' F \ne-bn BZcw tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. am[yaw BgvN- -Xn v (\-hw.13) kvac-w-iƒs m w "NnIvaw-K-fq-cnse c v N{I-߃' F IY {]kn- o-i-cn- n- p- v. N{μnI BgvN- -Xn- nepw (\-hw.4) ae-bmfw hmcn-i-bnepw (\- hw.6) `mjmt]mjnwn amkn-i-bnepw Hm Ω- p-dn- p-iƒs m w IYm-]-T-\- ßfpw {]kn- o-i-cn- n- p- v. Hm Ω-Ifn \n v ]pxnb Imehpw Pohn- Xhpw A\z-bn- n v IYm-temIw ss\c- -cy-øns alm-i-e-bmbn XpS-cp-I-bm-sW v \n w-ibw ]dbmw. N{μnI BgvN- -Xn- ns k n-zm-\-μ \hw_ BZy-e- -Øn _ fw Zmtam-Z-cs "thmuvi' F IY-bp- v. t]cp kqnn- n- p- -Xp-t]mse CsXmcp azy-]m\ IY Xs -bmwv. F m, Hcp tzi-kw-kvir-xn-bp-ssbpw cmjv{so-b-hn-nmc-ß-fp-ssbpw Nn w IqSn-bmWv thmuvi. BJym- Xmhpw kl-]m-tnbpw kplr-øp-amb Dt]-{μ-\p-amWv {][m\ IYm-]m-{X-߃. djy-bn-te v D]-cn-]-T-\-Øn-\p t]mbn as-ßn-sb-øn-bn-cn- p-i-bmwv Dt]-{μ. temicm-jv{sob-øn tkmhn-b v \msns JymXnbv v tkm _- t -hns hc-thmss \S ]cn-jvimcøns Zpc- -^e-amb Xf -bpw temicm-jv{so-b-ønse Icn-]n-Sn Hc- [ym-b-am-wv. Fgp-]-Xp-I-fn Nph {]`m-x-øn-\mbn ImtXm Øv cmjv{so-bm-`n-ap-jy-ap IY-I-fn-eqsS kmln- Xy-cwK-ØnØv _ fw Xs -bp nse ÿnxn k-a-xzcm-jv{so-b-øns {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-h-gn-I-fn-eqsS Xs bmwv Ct mgpw k -cn- p- -sx v Cu IY km ys -Sp-Øp- p. kn.-f-kv.-n-{μn-i-bpss "\c-ita \μn' (am-[yaw \hw.20) F IYbpw cmjv{so-bm-h-t_m-[- Øns \n Ωn-Xn-bm-Wv. kjmhv kn. Bdns Pohn-Xhpw cmjv{so-bhpw tn Øv IΩyq-WnÃv kn m- - -{]- tbmk \ne-]m-sp-isf IYm-Imcn A]- {K-Yn- p- p. djy cmjv{so-bm-hÿbpw tic-f- -_w-kmƒ A -co- hpw t]cnepw s]mcp-fnepw Cu IY Bte-J\w snøp- p. Kthj- C. kt m-jvip-am Wm w tkmhn-b- p-\m- n t]mb Zmkpw kn.-bdpw XΩn-ep kw`m-j-w-ßfpw Fgp-Øp-Ip-Øp-Ifpw cmjv{sobw Xs PohnXw F v Hm Ω-s -Sp-Øp p. "\ΩpsS BIm-i-Ønepw kqcy h msx IØp-I-bmsW- nepw \nd-߃ Icn- p-t]m-bn- n ' F {]kvxmh-øn {]Xy-bim-kv{X-Øns \ndw aßp-hm CjvSs -SmØ Hcp cmjv{sob Bƒcq]-ap- v. `mjm t]mjnwn amkn-i-bn h jmln\ C.-sIbpsS "Pew' IYsb sshim-cn-im-\p-`q-xn-bm- p- -Xns\m w "t_m[-\m-fl-i-am-[y-a-am- p-i-bm-wv. kq va-xbmwv Pe-Øns khn-ti-j-x. Pb-N-{μs "cma- fn' (F-Xn Zni amkn-i) {]mtz-ini Ncn-{X-kw-kvIr-Xnbpw ka-im-eni Pohn-Xhpw `mjm-t`-zhpw hnj-bam-ip cn- \-bm-wv. txm n kp\n F ip`-ti-is Pohn-X- Øns ]n m-ºpdw txsp Xpw tziw t\cn-sp ]mcnÿn-xn-i am\p-jni {]iv\-ßfpw IYsb {it b-am- p- p. `c-w-iqsw Xs ]cn-]m-en- p ÿm]-\-߃ Xpd- p-hn-sp ae-am-en-\y-߃ kmam-\y-p-\-x-bpss ip - P-e-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fmb InW-dp-Isf I q-km- nam pibmwv. \m p-`m-j-bpss ASn-bm-[m-c-Øn IYsb {]Xn-tcm-[-Nn- -am- p-i-bmwv Pb-N- {μ. ]n.-si. `mky-e van AIw- amkn-i-bn Fgp-Xnb "Xmfn- v' AKm-[-]m-cn-ÿn-Xn-Im-h-t_m[w sim v thdn- p-\n-ev p Ipfhpw Xmfn- pw {Kma-Ø-\na t]mse-xs ssph-\o-xn-bp-ssbpw AS-bm-f-ß-fm- Wv. dnb Ftà v temiøv Ipfw si.-f.-tam-l-\-h Ω \n nsw henb ^vfm v kap- -b-am-bn. \mk-cn-ix hne-bv p-hm-ßnb \fn-\- Øn\v C m-sømcp thdm- qdv AΩ-bv p- v. AXp-sIm- mwv Ah Ipf-Øn\v B p-_-en-bn-sm t]mip- Xv. `mh-xo-{h-hp-amwv Cu IY. F{_lmw amxyp-hns "ISepw \obpw' (am-[yaw \hw.6) Imhym-fl-I-amb BJym\w sim v ani-hp-]pe Øp- p. Ihn-Xsb A -ß-fpsS \Zn F p hntijn- n- p- -Xp-t]mse IY-sbbpw ]d-bmw. ssh w apl- ΩZv _jo-dns A\ L \nanjw A -Sn ImeØv KZy Ihn-X-bm-bmWv Adn-b-s - -Xv. kºq W IrXn-I-fn-se- Øn-b-t mƒ CSw IY-bn-em-Wv. anãn-kn-k-øns ]pdwtxmspw A\ L-\n-an-j-Øn-\p- v. F{_lmw amxyphns "ISepw \obpw' hmbn- p-tºmƒ Xs ISepw BIm-ihpw \obpw Rm\pw {]mw-bhpw `qan-imkv{xhpw H n-\p-]n-dsi as m- mbn ap n h p. ]pxnb-im-esø ]pxnb tbmkm-\p-`q-xn-bmwv Cu IY Xpd- p-hn-sp- -Xv, ImWp-I. ""A mx kl-bm-{xn-ti, \o C-t mƒ Fhn-sS-bm-bn-cn pw? BIm-i-hp-am-bn-cn- ptam \ns AXncp-Iƒ? Cu IS Xo-csØ aw c v ]n n v ad hscbpw ad-bm- \mbn hcm-\n-cn- p- -h-scbpw Hm Øp t]mip- p. Bbn-c-am-bncw kn.-f-kv. N{μnI Im ]m-z-ap-{z-iƒ ImWm-\m-hp- p. Hcp ]t \o as -hn-sstbm Hcp IS Øo-c-Øm-bn-cn- ptam? Xnc-Iƒ hcpw t]mipw. \ns ]mz-ap-{z-iƒ am{xw ambp-i-bn-. A mx kl-bm-{xn-ti, \mw ]n n-sp Xoc-߃... Xoc-ß-fn Ah-ti-jn- n- p p ]mz-ap-{z-iƒ... C\nbpw h p-t]m-ti- -h m-bn, ImØp-In-S- p ISepw BIm-i-hpw... Hm p-tºmƒ IS-ens cpnn. ISens cpnn IÆp-I-fn \n pw \mhn-te- v.'' {]km-[- I amkn-i-bn anyp Ir-jvW-bpsS "Cwt]-Un-b kv _ m n' F IY-bp- v. _rμbpw anenbpw {]Xn-\n- [m\w snøp kzh K-c-Xnbpw enwk-am- -Øn-eqsS 2017 Unkw-_ 9

10 km[y-am-hp Zznenw-K-_- hpw h Ø-am-\-Im-esØ Hcp s]mxp-hn-j-b-am-wv. aq m-answ F Xv C sø \nebn Ah-K-W-\-bpsS CS-a-. "Im ' ss{xam-kn-i- Øn h jo_ C.-sI-bpsS "_p \pw hymfnbpw' BcmWv bym C y- m-c F {]iv\-]-cn-k-ccsø A]-{K-Yn- p tzio-b-am-\-ap IY-bm-Wv. ktem\ F awn- qcn s] Ip n A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn- p tzi-t_m-[-kw-_- n-bmb kzxz-k- -ev]-amwv ti{μ-hnj-bw. B Sv FIvkn_nj Iyqtd- -dmb X hozpw 2014 Zn n-bn sim -s Acp-Wm- N {]-tz-in \n p hnzym n- \n- \ntzm X\ym-ans km n-[yhpw Xn_Øpw ssn\bpw _ abpw Zn nbpw tn p hcp `qan-imkv{xhpw IYbv v hnim-e-amb `mhw \ Ip- p- v. N{μn-I-bn (\-hw.11) A -Sn A_p A_n-\p-hns "]mºv' BJym-\-Øns kq va-xsim v \ A\p-`-h-amWv \ Ip- - hn.-zn-eo]v Xv. hn. Zneo-]ns NmØp-\-ºym (I-em-Iu-apZn \hw12) {]ta-b-øns ]pxpa-bvs m w \ IY ]d- n sim pw tntxm-l-c-am-wv. NmØp-hn-s bpw N{μn- Ibp-sSbpw {]W-bw, tzi-tim-bva, PmXo-b-amb Imcy߃ Dƒs ss hmb-\-sb BI j-wo-b-am- p- p- v. hn.-si. si cta-jns "BK-X ' (am-[yaw \hw.27) tãj amã tijm-{zn-bpss Zn\-NcyI-fn-eqsS a\pjym-h-ÿbv v Zm i-\n-i-amb Hcp am\w \ Ip- p- v. Fw. \K-c-Ønse ]n.-f Pz dn iywj-e-bpss DSa sim -s -Sp- Xpw Ah-ti-jn Aƒtk-jy ]- n-bpss Xntcm-[m-\hpw krjvsn- p Zpcq-lX IYbv v B cn-i-am-sbmcp _ew \ Ip- p- v. ka-im-eni ae-bm-f- Øn (\-hw.27) Fw.-Pn. _m_p-hns "Znhm Pn-aqe' thdn-s mcp IYm-\p-`-h-ambn \nev]p- v. kv{xo]o-u-\- Øns t\ km- y-ambn Cu IYsb hmbn- mw. skbn kv tkfmb kuaybpw Znhm Pn-aq-e-bn \n pw Ahsf B{I-an- p H - -ø-\mb A]-cn-Nn- X\pw ka-ime tic-f-øns Cc th - m-c F t_m[ysø ASn-h-c-bn v Dd- n- p- p. kuay tkmhnμ- man {]iv\-øn \n pw cq]-s Cu IY-bpsS {]txy-ix Xe-Io-gmbn Xqßn-\n- v, Ccp- n henb Nnd- Ip-hoin ]d- p-h-cp hδm \ Ip {]Xo-I-`w-Kn-bm- Wv. tzim-`n-am\n hmcni (\-hw.5) bn h ]n.-]n. thwptkm-]m-ens "apjm-apjw' Pohn-Xhpw ac-whpw XΩnep IqSn- m-gvn-bpss \nan-jsø Ah-X-cn- n- p B[p-\n-I-`m-h-ap IY-bm-Wv. IYm-am-kn-I-bn an\n. Fw._n (_m_p cmtp-{μ-{]-km-zv), si.-f. taml-\- h Ω (Rm Fgp-Øp-Im-c-\mb IY), Fw. ]n. iin[- c (sh- p- n- q- ƒ), k_v\- Fw. kmen (Im-ayw), thwp si. ]n. (eq-bn-kv), jmlp laozv si.-sn. (i-coc-ß-fpss Bg߃), cmpo-hv.-pn. CSh (k- - -S S ) F n-h-cpss IY-I-fp- v. "_m_p cmtp-{μ-{]-kmzv' emfnxyw sim pw "Imayw' {]ta-b-øns ]pxp-asim pw BI j-wo-b-am-wv. jmlp lao-zn-s bpw cmpohv Pn. CS-h-bp-sSbpw Fw. ]n. iin-[-c-s bpw IYm- Jym-\-Øn\v hyxy-kvxx ]pe Øm-\m-hp- p- v. kn. ]n. cho-{μ Fgp-Xnb "]d-fn-bpss IYm-Imc ' (am-[y-aw) kmam-\y-øn-e-[niw \o p-t]mb BJym- 10 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw \-am-sw- nepw Fgp-Øp-Im-c\pw Np n-ep-ap a\p-jymh-ÿbpw {]Xn-k- n-ifpw {]Xn-tcm-[-ß-fp-sa \nebn Bhn-jv -cn- p- p- v. Iem-Iu-apZn (\-hw. 26)-bn cmpohv inh-i Fgp-Xnb "t{]x-k-hmcn' F IYbn hn{`m-a-i-k-xy-ßsf Bhn-jv -cn- p- p. IY-sbgp-Øp-Xs a{ -hm-z-ambn amdp-i-bm-wv. Fw. ]n. \mcmb-w-]n- -bpss apcp-i F ]mºm- n pw D m-z- Øns lcnx{io pw tij-ap hyxy-kvx-amb IY-bm- Wn-Xv. AtLmcn F a{ -hm-zn-bpss Nn{Xo-I-c-W-Ønse kq vax A`n-\-μ-\m l-am-wv. IYsb Hcp B`n-Nm-c-{In-b-bm- p BJym\w \ v. amxr-`qan BgvN- - Xn v (\-hw. 12, \hw. 26) {]kn- o-icn c p-i-y-iƒ \hw-_ am-ksø IYm-N-cn-{X-Øns GSp-I-fn-te p ]I Øp- p. C. kt m-jvip-am-dns jo_ C.-sI. "]cp v' IYm-h-kvXp-hnepw BJym\Ønepw k tδm-]cn PohnX \ne-]m-sp-i-fnepw AXy w {it -bamb A\p-`hw \ Ip p. hmb-\-bnepw hk- -Øns CSn-ap-g w ]cym-]vx-amwv kt m-jns k{in-b-amb Fgp-Øv, Nn{X-Im-c IqSn-bmb BJym-Xmhpw kplr- Øp- fpw hmßnb ae-{º-tz-iøv Gsd- m-e-øn-\ptijw `mcym-k-taxw FØp- -XmWv IY-bpsS XpS- w. ÿew t\m m-t\-ev]n Ipcn-bm p ÿe-øn-. ho ns ap Øv Hcp Ib p I n-en Ccp-hcpw Ccp- p. Xte- mƒ Im n howp-in-s- p ac-øns simºp- Iƒ tij-cn- m ImSp-I-b-dn-b-Xm-Wv Ipcn-bm- p. Adp- ]Xp hb- p-{]m-b-ap `mcybpw iøm-h-ew-_n-bmb A- \pw PnΩn F ] nbpw timgn-ifpw B ho n-ep- v. A s I n-en- -Sn-bn \n pw Is -Ønb ]mºn-s\- p-dn p ]d-bp-tºmƒ, ]cp- p-s - n ]mºp hcn F v Ipcn-bm- p-hns `mcy ]d- -t m-gmwv Ccp-hcpw ]cp- n-s\- p-dn- -dn-bp- -Xv. "ap -Øns Hcp hi-ømbn timgn- q- n- - p-døv Ipd p hen-sbmcp kna psxm n si n-bn-cn- p- p. AXns api-fn kmam\yw hep- ap Hcp ] n H - m-en \nev]p- v... apjn \ndap Xqh-ep-I-fm-bn-cp p AXn-\v. \oe ]S Idp- p- \n-dw, Hcev]w Iq Ø sim v, Nnd-Ip-Iƒ HXp- n. kzbw Npcpßn [ym\n p \nev p- -Xp-t]mse txm pw. CSbv nss Xe-Ip-\n v Xmsg sxm n-bnse sh -Øn-te p t\m pw. Np p-]m-sp-ap a\p-jy-sctbm a p ] n-ar-km- Zn-I-sftbm AXv ]cn-k-wn- n-cp- n-.'' th\-enepw ag-bnepw Htc-t]mse Xs -bmwv ]cp- v. Ipcn-bm- p-hn\v Xosc sim m-bn-cp- w Im n-b-xmwv ]cp- n-s\. sxm nbnse sh -Øn t\m n-bp \nev]v, AXp-t]m-ep as mcp ]cp- mbn txm p IuXp-I-am-bn-cn- p-sa- mwv Ipcn-bm- p-hns `mcy ]dbp- -Xv. t^md-ãp-im hcp-tºmƒ AI-te p ]d- pt]mbn s]m -bn Hfn- n-cn- p ]cp v ]ns as-ßnh v sxm n- p-ta ÿm\w ]nsn- pw. ais t]cmb "hn n' F p-x-s -bmwv ]cp- n\pw t]cn- n-cn- p- -Xv. Pbn Nm-Snb ai ]mxn-cm-bv p-h v AΩsb I v Im n-te p t]mbn t]meo-kns shsn-tb v acn- -Xns ASpØ Znh-k-amWv Ipcn-bm- p-hn\v ]cp- ns\ In p- - Xv. Hcn-bv epw ho n AS-ßn-\n- n- n- m-ø, \m p-imcy-ß-fn am{xw Xev]-c-\mb ai\pw hosp-hn- p-t]m-imø

11 ]cp pw sshcp yw krjvsn- p-tºmgpw hy n-k-øbpss Bfl- A-]-c-`m-h-ßsf kqnn- n- p- p- v. Nn{X- Im-c\pw `mcybpw ]cp- ns Nn{Xw samss_-en ]nsn- p- p- v. hf-sc-b-spøp \n n pw `mh-t`-z-an- mø ]cp- v, sxm n-bnse sh -Øn Iøn- -t mƒ Pe-bn-f w sim v ]cn-{`m- -\m-hp-i-bm-wv. ]cp v AhnSw hn p. Ccphcpw as-ßp-tºmƒ apjn \oe-\n-d-ap Hcp ]cp- n Xqh Imdns Umjn-\p-ta IpØn-h- p. Ipcn-bm- phns ho nse \n»-_vzx t`zn v Hcp hnlz-e-kzcw Ahsc ]n p-s-cp-i-bm-wv. ImS-Ißfn cl-ky-ambn {]h Øn- p amthm-bn-ãv Xo{h CS-Xp-]- - Øns {]Xn-\n-[n-bmWv Ipcn-bm- phns ai hn n F p Icp-Xmw. \msn\p ka n- -s ais Pohn- X-Øns adp-`mkw ]cp- ns km n- [y-øn-ep- v. hnimc Xo{h-amWv Cu Bfl A]c kqn-\-iƒ. sxmsnbnse \ni-_vz-amb sh -Øn jmln\ C.-sI. Bfl-`m-hsØ I p-sim- n-cp ]cp- n\v It -dp-sim- p Pe-bn-f w D m- p Akzm-ÿy-amWv IYbpsS ImX F p ]dbmw. Xo{h CS-Xp-] cmjv{so-b-øns ka-im-eni apjsø \ndw-a-ß IY-bn hy -am-wv. ]cp v Cu h jsø ani IY-I-fn-sem- m-wv. {^m knkv s\mtdm-w-bpss "I p-ifn' bpw (am-xr- `q-an \hw- 26) \hw-_-dns henb kw`m-h-\-bm-wv. `mjbpw `mhhpw ]pe Øp ]mc-kv]-cyhpw PohnX kwkvim-c-ønse ImWm- p-d-ßfpw Cu IYsb Xo{hamb A\p-`-h-am- p- p. "A -Øn-sem-fn- n simfpøp ImWmsX B Øn ImWn- -h-bpss Ic n sim v' apj-cn-x-amb IY-bn s]mgn- m-en\v A -scbpw C sc-bp-ap \ Pohn-Xhpw Ah-cpsS {]Xn-k- n-ifpss I p-i-fn-t]m-ep If-ß-fn-em-Sm hn[n- -s {]iv\- ßfpw s\mtdmw a\p-jy- -t mss hc- n-sp- p. kjmhv hmkp-]n- -bpss Iq p-im-c-\mb Idp-º kjm-hns ai-fmwv \Sm-en-b. c p kjm- fpw tn v s]m mfn- m-søv sns msn Db Ønb HIvtSm-_-dn-emWv \Smenb P\n- -Xv. A -s bpw mc-tn n-bp-ssbpw ac-wtømss AΩbpw \Sm-en-bbpw am{x-am-ip p ho n. ]en-i- m-cs s]mdp-xn- p-ap-tº, \Sm-enb sszh-hn-fntbmss at-øn tncp- p. azdn-s\m w \Sm-bnbsb at- Øn-te p sim p-t]m-im h sim p knã v s]mgn-tbmcw bym -]-dp-zo-k-bm-wv. e w ho nse \Sm-enb A -\n tamkvtim t]cpw If v azdns `mj-bn ta^vf-h Ipcn-in- BIp- p. athpw Nm epw \Sm-en-bbv p henb axn-ep-i-fmbn amdp-i-bm- Wv. kzmx-{ y-an-s p am{x-a-, ]e-xcw ]ou-\-߃. HSp-hn AΩ-tbm-sSm w s]mgn-tbm-c-øp ho n-te v. ]en-i- m-c At m-tg pw A sc s]mdpxn XpS-ßnbn-cp- p. AΩbpw \Sm-en-bbpw I p-i-fnbpw am{xw. Ifw hc v Cetbm apt m F tnmzy-øn Cebpw ap pw F cq]iw ap -psim v apdn-bp kvss{xwx sxfn- p-h-cp- p. IS h-cm-ev, Ccpƒ cxn, Xe-sXm- -, s]æm n t]mep IY-Iƒs m w I p-i-fnbpw ae-bm-f-øn \ho-\-am-sbm-c-\p-`-h-am-ip- p. ]m iz-h -cn- -s - txm ImWmsX t]mbtxm Bb Pohn-X-ßsf IY Xncn- p-]n-sn- p-sa ZuXyw IYbn-ep- v. Ihn k n-zm-\-μ BZy-am-sb-gp-Xnb aq p IY-Iƒ (A-aq Øw, `mj, cl-kyw) amxr-`qan BgvN- - Xn v ( \hw. 19) {]kn- o-i-cn- n- p- v. CS-t»-cnbpw Fw. tkmhnμ\pw H.-F.hn Ipdp pw Un. hn\-b-n-{μ\pw Np n- mspw tdmkv tacnbpw IY-I-sf-gpXnbn p- v. Ihn- X, \msiw \ncq-]-ww, hnh Ø-\w, bm{xm-hn-h-cww F n-ßs\ kmln-xy-øns F m AS-cp-I-fn-te- pap bm{x-bpss `mk-ambn IYm-c-N- \-sbbpw ImWmw. ] -Øp-hn-f, Fw. kpip-am-c, kmdm tpmk^v F nhsc pdn- p ani IYm \ncq-]- W-ßfpw k n-zm-\-μ-t Xp Xs -bm- Wv. Aaq Øw io jiw kqnn- n- p- -Xp-t]m-se, aq Ø-X-bn-eqsS Ah Xnc-kvI-cn- p CSw txsp hn.-si.-si. ctajv At\z-j-W-am-Wv. Ihn-X-bmbn Xo IY-Ifpw IY-bmbn amdp IY- Ifpw ka-im-eni kmlnxy `mhp-i-xz-øns `mk-am- Wv. "`mj' D]-a-Ifpw cq]-i-ßfpw {]tem-`-\-amb lco- {μ F Ihn-bpsS `mjm-kz-xz-øns Nn{X-am-Wv. KuX-an-bpsS {]m]- ni kxyw txsn-bp k m-c-amwv "clkyw'. cmlpepw KuX-anbpw ]ns D a-bpss s]mcpƒ Adn-bm-\p Akzÿ a\ pw IY-bn-ep- v. IYsb Ihn-X-t]mse Im n-ip-dp- p-hm-\p hy{k-xbpw Pm{K-Xbpw aq p IY-I-sfbpw hyxy-kvx-am- p- p. C y IY-bpsS `mh-xo-{hx km y-s -Sp-Øp aq p hnh Ø-\-ßfpw \hw-_-dns [\y-x-bmbn Icp- Xmw. alm-tiz-xm-tz-hn-bpss "A[hm' (a-e-bmfw \hw 13, 20 e -߃) {]Xn-`m-tdm-bn-bpsS Hdnb IY Xntem- Ø-a-bpsS IuXp-I-s n (N-{μn-I \hw 18), 2017 se m\-]ot tpxmhv IrjvWm t_m_vxn-bpss "itωm- Pms kzmx{ yw' ({K-Ÿm-tem-Iw) F o IY-Iƒ bym- {Iaw eoem k m, tum B kp, tum. an\n-{]nb F n-h-cmwv hnh Ø\w snbvxn-cn- p- -Xv. Pohn-X- Ønepw cmjv{so-bm-`n-ap-jy-ønepw aq p-i-y-ifpw kxyk- X ]pe Øp- p- v. Npcp- -Øn Htc kabw Xs "Pohn-Xta \o F v' F v tnmzyw snøm\pw B -cy-s -Sm\pw IY-bv p {]m]vxn shfn-s -Sp-Øp p F -XmWv \hw-_ IY-IfpsS {]txy-i-x. {]tab kzoi-c-w-ønepw PohnX \nco- -W-Ønepw cmjv{sob t_m[y-ønepw Bhn-jvImc X{ -Ønepw "ka-im-eni ae-bmf IY' ani amxr-i-xs -bmbn ]cn-w-an- n-cn- p- p. Pohn-X-Øns AkwJyw ]cym-b-ß-fpss \n Ωn-Xn-bmWv Hmtcm IYbpw km[y-am- p- -Xv. n {KŸI Øm fpssbpw {]km[icpssbpw {i bv v kmlnxy A m-z-an-bpss B\p-Im-enI {]kn- o- I-c-W-ß-fn {KŸm-h-tem-I-\-Øn-\-v {KŸ-ßfpsS c p tim n-iƒ hoxw Ab-bvt - -XmWv. ""{KŸm-h-tem-I-\-Øn\v'' F v {]txyiw tcj-s - Sp-Øn-bn-cn- -Ww Unkw-_ 11

12 Ihn-X-bpsS h Ø-am\w hk- -tømsv AXns `mj-bn kwkm-cn- p Ihn-X-Iƒ tum.- hn.- A-_vZpƒ eøo^v ae-bm-f-i-hn-x-bpss h Ø-am-\-ß-fn-se mw \nd-km- n- [y-am-ip- -Xn\v Ipgq hn ks Ihn-X-Iƒ \nc- cw km yw ]d-bpw. IhnX F kmln-xy-kw-øn\v Abmƒ ]pxn-b -Ip- m-b-߃ s\bvxv hmb-\- msc Ihn- X-bn Øs ]nsn p \n Øp p. CXv Ipgq-cns Ihn- X-Iƒ p-am-{x-a, Ihn-X-bv msi B KpWw ]Icp p. \hw-_ amksø FgpØv amkn-i-bn h "Fs IhnX hk- -tømsv AXns t]cv tnmzn p' F IhnX hk- -tømsp Ihn-X-bpsS kuμ-cym-fli kwhm-z-am-wv. hn k apºpw ]co- n- n- p hcnap-dn pw apdn- m-sxbpw Fgp-Xp BJym-\-amWv Cu Ihn-X-bpsS DS m-gvn. AI-tØ p IS- ptºm-gmwv IhnX Fßs\ ]pxnb `mjbpw kuμ-cy-ßfpw FSp-Ø-Wnbp- Xv F v t_m[y-s -Sp Xv. \m nse H ac-øn s] p t]mb Infn-bpsS Ic- n-emwp Xms\ v Adn-bm-am-bn-cp Fs IhnX hk- -tømsv AXns t]cp tnmzn p kpk-x-ip-amcn F ap p-c-bn-emwv IhnX Bcw-`n- p- -Xv. ]ns hk- -Øns Dug-amWv. hk- -sa- m {]Ir-Xn-bm- Wv. {]Ir-Xn-sb- m ac-ß-fmwv Fs m pw ]d-bm \n msx AXv Hcp ImSns\ \nh Øn- m-wn- p-ibm-wv. ]qøp Imbv p \n p hø- -X, AXns ap p thz-\-iƒ. X -an K^v, AXns an\m-c-߃, DΩ-IƒsIm v tnm sxm n, AXns \\ Np p- Iƒ, Bcp-an- msx BS-tem-S-Iw, ]p n-bp-sp- n v s\ n- p-fn, Im ns\ ImØv ]pfn-hm-i, sxt m v Xe-sh v B n-en, tim p-hm-bn v sndp-]p-...-c-ßs\ \qdp-\qdp hr -e-xm-zn-iƒ h p \nc- p-i-bm-wv. NpSp-Im- ns\ DΩ shbv p Nqf, Acn-s\- n, amºgw k -S-Øn snm n amhv, Nμ-\-th-ºv, \Sp-\n-h Øn t]cm F n-ßs\ tzi- Øns cq]-`m-h-ßfpw kwkvim-c-n-cn-{xhpw ]e-xcw a\pjy-tn-jvs-i-fp-am-bmwv ac߃ \nc- p- Xv. {]IrXn Ihn-bpsS `mj-bn kwkm-cn- p- -Xp-sImt m ]d-bp- Xv Ihn Xs kwkvim-c-_- -ß-fmbn Xncn- -dn-bp- - Xp-sImt m Bhpw, hmbn- p Hmtcm-cp-Ø pw Ahc-h-cpsS `mj-bn Cu t]cp-]-d- n A\p-`hn- mw. `mjsb- p-dn- p hnnm-c-߃ pw Cu Ihn-X-bn ÿm\- ap- v. ImgvN-Ifpw ioe-ßfpw Hm Ω-Ifpw ]e-xcw tnjvs-ifpw hnnm-c-ßfpw Xs -bm- Wv `mj, F{X-ta AXn-te v IÆntN-cp- pthm A{Xbpw AXv lrzb- Øn-e-dnbmsa v CØcw Ihn-X-Iƒ ]Tn- n- p- p. {ioip-am Icn-bm-Sn-s bpw Un.-hn- \-b-n-{μ-s bpw Ihn-bpsS Xs ap I-hn-X-I-fp-sSbpw {]tnm-z-\hpw Ggm-t cn cma-n-{μ XpS -bp-amwv Cu IhnX F v ]n Ip-dn- n Ihn kqnn- n- p- p- v. Rm\pw \obpw c F v a\p-jy {]Ir-Xn-tbmSv Nncn p \n p ssph-hy-hÿ F -Xn-s\m w am p-t]m-ip kl-po-hnisf Ihn-X-bn-se- nepw {]XnjvTn- n-sp B ss -h kz`m-hhpw Cu Ihn-X-bv p- v. tic-f-ønse h\-hr- -߃ F ]pkvx-isø B{i-bn- mwv C{X-b-[nIw t]cp-iƒ AXns ssph-`mh-ß-tfmss Ihn hc- n-sp- -Xv. hcpw Xe-ap-dbv v C tø-xn-t\- mƒ Cu IhnX KpWw snøpw. Irjn-Ko-Xt]m-ep BJym-\-]m-c-º-cy-ß-fpsS XpS Cu t_m m- Wn- \tc-js\ t]mb- n- \tc-j-\m n Hs mcp sshim-cn-i-x-tbmss ssph-tem-isø Poh- I-fm n Dd- n- p- p. p Hm Ω- 12 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw

13 hk w AXns t]cp ]d v sim n-cp p agbpw shbnepw Im pw XWp pw amdn amdn h p-sim- n-cn- p p F v IhnX Hcp ImSns Ah-km-\-an- m-bvasb Xpd- n v H pw CjvS-an- msx Ah-km-\n- p- p. bm{x Ihn-X-bn-eqsS kuμ-cy-amhp Ihn-X-bmWv ssn\-bpss ] m- Ø-e-Øn Sn.-]n.-cm-Po-h cnn ag \SØw F Ihn-X. Ihn-Xbnte p hcp-tºmƒ A\y-tZiw ImgvN-bmbpw kwkvim-c-ambpw hmb- \- m-cs\ sxm p \n p- p. jmwlmbv \K-c-Ønse G hpw Sn.-]n.-cm-Po-h ]gb sxcp-hn-eqss \S- p-tºmƒ Iq p-h-cp agsb Ah-X-cn- n- p-ibmwv cmpo-h. (ka-im-eni a-e-bmfw \hw-_ 27) AXv AXns `mj-bnepw Rm Fs `mj-bnepw Hmtcm p ]d-bp p Nncn- p p \n»-_vz-cm-ip p s]bvønse B\-μ-Øn\pw s]øm-xn-cn- p- -Xnse thz-\bv pw `mj-bn-s p sxfn-bn- p p ssph-xm-f-øn-eqss Np p-]m-sns\ \ m-b-dn-bp Cu IhnX hmbn- p-tºmƒ B sxcp-hn-t\msv IqSp-X {]nbw txm p-w. I sxcp-hp-i-sf mw C\nbpw ImtW- -Xm- Wt m F v k Sw hcp-w. CtX e -Øn A -cn lnμn Ihn Iph \mcmbwns Ihn-X-I-fp-ap- v. efnxw F p txm p ImgvN-Isf AXn-kp-μ-c-ambn hc- n-sp- -txm-ssm w ap\- bp cmjv{so-b-i-hn-x-ifpw _m_p cma-n-{μ hnh Ø\w snbvx Ihn-X-I-fn ImWmw. jmpn j p- JØns PVw, P w, C\n F IhnX (\-hw-_ 13) Ihnsb kw_- n v cq]w `mhw F nh Zzμ-`m-h-ßfmWv F pw {]Ir-Xn-bn AXv H -bmwv F pw sx v Akq-b-tbmsS Xncn- -dn-bp cn-\-bm-wv. ImgvN-Isf at\m-lcambn Bhn-jvI-cn- p c p cn-\-iƒ IqSn Cu ae-bmfw e ßfn-ep- v. atl-μdns ImSv Hcp sk ^n-sb-sp- p p; Im\-\- m-gvnsb sk ^n F s{^bn-an HXp- p- p. Hcp sship-t -cøns kq n v (\-hw-_ 20) F Pn\p snºn-fmhns IhnX Hcp sship-t cw \S v _ n Ib-dp- -Xns ]t\m-ca tjm p t]mse hmbn- mw. cmtpjv NnØn-cbpsS s] Pm-K-c-߃ (\-hw-_ 6) Hm Ω-I-sf, Ncn- {XsØ C m-xm- p \pw-bn hniz-kn- p temisø ImWn p Xcp- p. ImWm-Xm-hp kviqfn-s\- - n-bmwv cmpp- h- n- p- -Øns IhnX. tkma- IS-eq-cns th F Ihn-X-bmWv P\-i- n-bnse BI j-ww. Ae-k-amb th -Iƒ CcIsf i n-s -Sp-Øp-Itb D q F Xncn- -dn-hn \nd-sbm-gn- p- -sx- n C\n \cn-bpss s\ n v Xs F v ]d- p-d- n- p- p. th F cq]iw Xncn p hmbn- mte Cu IhnX Dƒh-ln- p cmjv{so-b-kmcw t_m[y-s -Sp-I-bp- q. s\ n-bn Xs sim n- p B shsn ark-bm-hn-t\m-z-øn-\mbn GsX- nepw km[par-k-øn\p t\sc-bp H -, Xs C m-xm- m {ian- p H mw i{xp-hn\p t\sc-bm-wv. Zp tω-z- ]hn-{x Xo p\n n- mø Cu IhnX GXp Ime-tØ pw ]miam-ip H m-wv. t_m_ sim - q-cns kz]v\hpw ap p- n- qhpw hmbn- pt]m-im ck-ap Hcp temeihn-xbm-wv. \hw-_ 16- s P\-i- nbn h t\c-anxv t\cns t\c (Ip- ] m- q ), IÆq-cnse cmjv{so-b-sim-e-]m-x-i-ßsf sxm pt]mip k -S- -S (P-b-]me Imcym- v), shbn (tkm-wnb hnizw) F nh icmi-cn- -hn-x-i-fm-wv. si. Zneo]v Ipamdns Pe-L-Sn-Imcw F IhnX Pe-L-Sn-Imcw F Cta-Pns\ hen p \o p- p. kzbw Pe-L-Sn-Im-c-ambn Xncn- -dn-bp-tºmƒ Cu IhnX kpμ-c-am-ip- p. \qd-\msv tamls CjvSn-I-\n-d-Ønse Ip n-h-f-iƒ ({]km-[-i amkn-i) F IhnX i -amb Hcp cmjv{sob tnmzyw apt m p sh p- p. C y-bn cq]- s - p-h-cp cmjv{so-b-zn-im-am w \ncm-ibpw `b-hp-ambn Cu Ihn-X-bn \nd-bp- p- v. Zo\m-\p-I-º-bp- -h-fmwv Cu Ihn-X-bnse Iq p-im-cn. Bƒ q- -ßsf BI jn Zpc- -ßfpw sime-]m-x-i-ßfpw Ahsfbpw s\mº-cs -Sp-Øp- p- v. F m IrXy-amb Nne cmjv{so-b-sime-]m-x-i-ß-fpss t\ v Ahƒ au\n-bm-ip- p. Xs bp-a D m BÀm-Zn- p p F p txm n- p-amdv ]nt v timw-h-f-i-f-wn p {]Xy- -s -Sp- p. sk]vxw-_ 5 cm{xn 8 awn Kucn-e-t jv c -]p-jv]-߃ hnxdn ] p-ho-gp p sk]vxw-_ 6 {]`mxw:... \ob v ]Xn-hn- msx t {X-Øn-te v t]mip p as-ßn-h \ns ssiø- -bn CjvSn-I-\n-d-Ønse [mcmfw Ip n-h-f-iƒ InS p Inep-ßp- Xv s\ n-sn-t m-ss-bmwv Rm I Xv Gsd {]Xo Xcp- p v ]S-bmfn ka-b-øn h kn p si.-hn.-bpss bm{x-samgn F IhnX. hmbn p t]mip-tºmƒ Ihn-X-bnse sshtem- n- n- mew Icn- n sh ambn \mhn-se-øp- p. hms-i- ho-sn-t\msv bm{x-]-d-bm hnj-an- p Cu IhnX Xm\pw Cu ssph-{]-ir-xn-bpss `mk-am-sw v D -Øn Xncn- -dnbp p Unkw-_ 13

14 sam n-sm sshin-tbmcm ap sø ap -bv -t mƒ D n-bn t mepw ]q ƒ Fs -t m Nncn- nspw F v Ihn. CtX e -Øn tkma IS-eqcns tcj-iƒ samgn-iƒ F Ihn-X-bp- v. aq p `mk-ßfp Cu cn-\-bpss BZy-`mKw hmb-\m-kp-j-ap- - XmWv. t{]a{μ tnmºm-e-bpss c p Ihn-X-Iƒ F Xe-s - n h s] n-iƒ F Ihn-X-bn s] n-iƒ otj-i-fmbn h p \nc- p- p. ssen-hn-j sk v Ihn v C pw hnuvvn-s - n-bmwv F Xv \ncm-i-bp- m- p- p. Nq v F c mw Ihn-X-bn F m-a-w- mepw IhnX shfn w ]c-øp Nq m-bp- mipw F {]Xo- bpw t{]a-n-{μ ]pe Øp- p- v. cmjv{sm- -co-b-`m-h-ß-fp Ihn- X-bmWv Iem-]q Æ amkn-i-bn h si.-f-kv.-c-xojns a\p-jy-_- \w F Ihn-X. Nq -bn v ImØn- knhniv N{μ cn- p {]W-bn\nIfpsS `mj-bn A`-bm n-i-fpss IY ]d-bm {ian- p- Cu IhnX s]msp- s\ ao\p- I-fpsS ] -Øp-\n v Imcy-ßsf t\m n- m-wp-ibpw ss nƒ hn\w Hm Ωn n p-sim v kie th - mscbpw i]n- p-ibpw snøp- p. F m {]tem-`-\-ß-sfbpw AXn-Po-hn v Xs am{xw s]æns\ ImØncn- p ]pcp-js\ Bhn-jvI-cn- p Hcp B hr- sø hk w DΩ shbv p- Xv (A- \m-an-i), Pbn- -h-cpss am{xw temiw ImWn p Xcp Itºm-fØns Cdp-ºn-eqsS, txm -h-cpss PmY ImWn p Xcp txm -h-cpss ]m v (Po-th-jv) F nh ]pxnb `mj ]co- n- p- p- v. BZn-hmkn kwkvir-xn-bpss \jvsßsf Bhn-jvI-cn- p ae tidnb shfpø sxbvh߃ (KtWjv ]pøq ), tpmen-i-gn-s -Øp AΩsb ImØn-cn- p Ip p-a-i-fpss kvt\l-hm- - ey-߃ Ihn-X-bm-Ip aiƒ v ({ioie Nntßm-en), enwk-]-z-hn (Gender) {]iv\-h -cn- p H -ap-e- n (A- \L {io\n-hm-kv) F n-hbpw Iem-]q Æ-bpsS \S p e sø {][m-\-s - -Xm- p- p. ]n.-cmas s]s p t]mb ]I F IhnX (`mjm-t]m-jn-wn) \ng-ep-i-sf kq va-ambn \nco- n- p- p. ac-ß-sfbpw Xmgvhm-c-ß-sfbpw [mcm-f-ambn Ihn-X-bnte p sim p hcm-dp cmas\ Cu Ihn-X-bnepw ImWmw. ac-ß-tfm-ssm w HXp-ßnbpw k y-tbmss NmSn- p-xn- p \of-ambpw \ng-ep-isf AS-bm-f-s -Sp- Øp Cu IhnX ka-b-sø- p-dn pw Nne Hm Ω-Iƒ sim p hcp- p-. sndp-sx- nepw kpμ-c-amb Ihn-X-bmWv Fw. kno{μs \qev F Ihn-X. Zmº-Xy-Øn X\n v sndn-sbm-cm-imiw am{x-ta-bp- q-sh- v, F m BIm-ißfpw X\n v kz -a-s v Cu IhnX Hm Ωn- n- p p. Fs aæn Du n-\n v F\nbv p hc-bv m-hp Cu A -hrøw am{x-amwv Fs BImiw F p ]d v AXn-\- pdw t]mim Iq p-im-cn v Hcp aq ad p sh p Cu IhnX Zmº-XysØ 14 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw kw_- n p aqey-t_m[ß-fn Xncp-Øp-Iƒ \n t±in- p- p- v. ac-ww, c -km- nxzw F nh hcm-\n-cn- p kac-߃ v Du -am-th- -Xp v F p hnnm-cn- p ac- WØns Xmt m (kn.-f-kv.-p-b-n-{μ ), A\p-Zn\w C m-xm-ip cm-jv{so-b-aq-ey-ß-sf-s m n hnnm-c-s -Sp AkvX-abw (l-cn-{]n-b) Hcp hc Fßs\ AXn Ønbmbn kwkvim-c-ßsf hn`-pn- p p F v ImWn- p-xcp hc (cm-tpjv \μn-bw-sim-sv) shdpsx FSpØ Ah[n Znh-kØns t\m - m-sn sxfn-bp kpμ-c- {]-Ir-Xnsb Bhn-jvI-cn- p ImcWw IqSm-sX(-_nPp tdm n) F nh `mjm-t]m-jn-wn-bn h hmb-\m-kp-j-ap cn-\-i-fm-wv. N{μnI (\hw-_ 4) hmcn-i-bn doa AtPmbv Fgp-Xnb Fcn-hn-Øncn IqSp-X-emWv F IhnX ]pxnb Nne hnnm-c-߃ apt m p sh p- p- v. Krl-ÿs\ {]W-bn- p IpSpw-_n- \n-bpss BJym-\-Øn-eqsS kzm-nm-c- Ipgq hn k k- -ev]-ßsf t\m n sim \w IpØp- p v doa-bpss Ihn-X-bpsS Fcn-hv. \nt - mƒ aps F\n p acn- Ww F km{º-zm-bni hnnm-c-øn Cu Ihn-X-bpsS BJym-Xm-hn\v hnizm-k-an-. AXn-\p ImcWw CXmWv: \o acn-s - -dn-bp-tºm-gp ]ns- n-se-\n- -dn-tbt \o t]msb- -dn-bp-tºmƒ F v snø-w-sa- -dn-bmsx HØn-cn-t\-c-an-cn-t t? \ns Nncn-tbm t t? Np ns \\-thm t t? C\n-b-Xn Ft m t i_vz-an msx Ic p XpS-tßt? Ccp-Xe aq -bn-emwv IhnX Ah-km-\n- p- -Xv. Fs t{]an- p-tºmƒ \otbm -W-am-bn-cp p apf-ip-]m- -bn Hfn- n-s m-fn- n v Fs lrz-b-øn-s\m-cn-øncn Fcnhp IqSp-X-em-sW v. Bflmw-iØns Fcnhpw ]c-kv{xo-_- -ßsf teme-hn-t\m-z-ambn ImWp ]pcp-j-tem-iøn\p t\ p Xm oxpw Cu hcn-isf kvss{xwm-jym- \Øns cp-x-tc-j-bm- p- p. hnpne Nnd- msns Dd- p D]-a-Iƒ (\-hw-_ 11) Dd p txsp s] Po-hn- XØns Bhn-jvIm-c-am-Wv. A_vZp t]cm-{º-bpss a yw Hcp sh - m- -amwv (\-hw-_ 25) F cn\ Pem-i-b-ß-fpsS ssph-{]-ir-xnsb a y-߃ Dƒh-ln- p- -Xmbn k -ev]n- p at\m-l-c-i-hn-x-bm-wv. Nne a y-ß-fn IS Xnc-b-Sn- p- Xns H AS w snø-s - n- p- mipw Nne-Xn, ]mb txmcww Xq nb hb

15 F v A_vZp Fgp-Xp-tºmƒ cmtijv \myns ac-ßfpss \røw F IhnX, ac-߃ azy-]n- m-dp- v. s] a-c-߃ sh -s m- -Øn Ipfn- m-dp v F v ac-ß-fpss temisø a\p-jy-`m-j-bn Xncn- -dnbp- p. CtX e -Øn klodm X߃ Fgp-Xnb c v A]m-b-a-Wn-Iƒ F Ihn-Xbpw HXp- -ap `mjsim v kpμ-c-am-ip- p. F n\v, a Xym-bp- n kmc-am-bxp Nne ap nb kμ `-߃, A am{x-iƒ am{xw (Du m-en ) F sshtem- n- n- -hn-x-bpss a Ωw sxm p \n p- -Xp-sIm mwv ap nb am{x- Iƒ F kpk-x-ip-am-cn-bpss Zo Lm-Jym\w (am-xr- `qan \hw-_ 26) hmb-\- msc BI jn- p- -Xv. sshtem- n- n- -hn-x-bpss A\p-`-h-temIw BZym-hkm\w IqsS-\-S- p Cu cn\ ae-bm-f-i-hn-x-bpss Hcp Im-esØ \S- p-io-e-ßsf ImWn p Xcp- p. IhnX a p Iem-cq-]-߃ v shfn- -am-ip- -Xp-t]mse Nn{Xßfpw inev]-ß-fp-sa mw Ihn-Xbv pw shfn- -am-ipw. ^mz ]t{xm-kns Iyma-d- n-{x-ß-fmwv ]n.-cm-as s]s p ]mdn-h Infn-Iƒ F Zo Lm-Jym-\-Øn\v tlxp. \mev]xp ImgvN-I-fmbn cma Nn{X-ßsf Ihn- X-bn-te p sim p hcp- p. knhniv N{μs t\ - Øpºn t\cnb hnjm-z-øns kuμcyw ]I-cp Ihn- X-bm-Wv. ]tømfw Ip p Ip p ImgvN-I-fpsS BJym-\-amWv shfn- -߃ Ccp- p-iƒ F taml-\- Ir-jvW Ime-Sn-bpsS Ihn-X. (\-hw-_ 19) ag s]bvxn pw Ddh s]m møxns, Hgp- n- m- n pw ssibv p ]\n-]n-sn- -Xn-s cmjv{so-b-th-z-\- Iƒ IqSn Dƒhln- p Ihn-X-bmWv K^q Icp-h- Æqcns \o m-ep-iƒ. (-tz-im-`n-am\n \hw-_ 19) Ggmt cn cma-n-{μs tic-f-]m-tm-hen (\-hw-_ 5) F IhnX khn-ti-j-x-iƒ FSp-Øp-]-d-bm-\n mø `mj-bnemwv. a{ -]q ΔIw Znhym kv{x߃ Rm kωm-\n- sxm pta ]mgm-bn-s ]m tc XpS mepw! km YIw Xh-bm{X; ka Yw txtcm-sn- ; B Øcmw a Xy n-xn c-sa- m-tem-nn- m! F a n {]mkhpw kmam-\y-hy-h-lm-c-tømsp tn p \n mø ]Zm-h-en-I-fp-ambn Nne kvar-xn-iƒ DW Øp- p-sh-t -bp- q. am[yaw BZy-e- -Øn hocm Ip n hnh Ø\w snbvx antdm- mhv tlmeq-_ns s\t m-fn-b F Ihn-X-bp- v. s\t m-fn-b-s\- p-dn- p A[ym-]Is tnmzy-ßfpw Ip n-i-fpss adp-]-sn-i-fp-amwv Ihn-X. Hcp-h ]d p: Rß-fpsS Ab m-c-\mb Cd- n-sh- p-im-c\v Hcp \mb-bp- m-bn-cp p AXns t]cv s\t m-fn-b s]mxnsc X p-am-bn-cp p Abm-f-Xns\ hni p hni- m-wxv NØ-Xv. Ncn{Xw ad p t]mip- Xns bpw tnmzy-sam p am n-bm GXp tzi-øn\pw ]mi-am-ip- -Xn-s bpw Xeß-fp v Cu \ hnh Ø-\-Øn-\v. D -h- -d-ºn F m-hcpw hgn-sx- n-b-h-cmwv F v Pohn-XsØ D - h- -dºpw AXnse At -hm-kn-isf hgn-sx- n-b-h-cpam- p taml-\-ir-jvw Ime-Sn-bpsS D -h- -dºv, Fkv.-c-ta-is ]Øp-sk nse ]ip F o cn-\-ifpw \ v. J_-dn InS- mepw c p-ssi-iƒsim pw Xm Fgp-Xn-s m-t -bn-cn- pw F ]p\-øn Ip -_vzp- -bpss ]cm-a isø Hm Øv ]n.-cm-a Fgp-Xnb ib\w F IhnX (am-[yaw \hw-_ 13) \ cn-\- bm-wv. ]{ p s] I-hn-X-I-fp-am-bmWv am[yaw \hw-_ 20 mw e w ]pd-øn-d-ßn-b-xv. _nμp IrjvWs sh Nz hm\-{]ÿw F IhnX tkmjy aoun-bbnse asp- n \n- p c -s -S-em-Wv. Ipa-fn-tbm Ω- I-fmWv hnpne Nnd- m-sns Ipa-fn-bp-t]- n D]-a-Iƒ F Ihn-X. I\n Fw., Pn.-F-kv.-ip` F n-h Ipsd s] ImgvN-Ifpw s] ]o-u-ifpw hc- n-sp- p. kz]v\ {io\n-hm-ks hosp Xnc-bp p F IhnX Xmt m ImWm-Xmb-Xns Aº-c- m-wv. ]Xnhpt]mse Cta-P-dnbpsS kº- -X-bp-ambn B.-kw-Ko-X-bpsS Ihn-X-bp- v. aq p sndp-i-hn-x-i-fn Hgp v F IhnX Gsd `wknbp- -Xm-Wv. Hgp- ns Ne-\-\n-b-a-߃ sx n v Hcne ASn-Ø- nse Dcp-f I ns Xmsg InS- p p Ic-bn D m-bn-cp AXns \ng-en h n-cn- m-dp ie-`- n-d-ins XWp v C{X Zqcw AtXm-sSm w Hgp-In-h-s t m?... F v kwko-x-bpss IhnX kuμcyw Xpfp-ºp p. _nμp kpo-hv, Znhy F. F n-hcpw {it -b-amb cn-\-i-fpambn s] I-hn-I-fpsS ] ni ]q Øn-bm- p- p. \hw-_ BZy-hmcw Iem-Iu-ap-Zn-bn ]hn-{x Xo p-\n-bpss at\m-l-c-amb Hcp Ihn-X-bp- v. sxm p apºv F Cu IhnX h Ø-am-\-ImeØns kmaq-lyssz-\y-ßsf Imhym-fl-I-ambn hc- n-sp kpμc cn-\- bm-wv. Nph sxcp-hnse PohnXw A\p-`-hn- n- p-ibmwv tkm\m-k n F KtWiv ]pøq-cns Ihn-X. Iem-Iu-ap-Zn-bpsS XpS e- -ß-fnepw [mcmfw Ihn-X-Ifp-s - nepw Ae-km-Jym-\w-sIm pw Ihn-X-bn- m-bvasim pw an Ihn-X-Ifpw snsn- p- m- p- p. ImSpw agbpw Pem-i-b-ßfpa-S-ßp ssph-tem-itø v Ab-Xv\-e-fn-X-ambn ]mew ]Wn-bp- - [mcmfw Ihn-X-Iƒ, \hw-_-dnse A -Sn- -hn-x-i-fpss khn-tij-x-bm-wv. hnnm-cw-sim v ]d-bp- -Xn-t\- mƒ lrz-bwsim v kwhm-z-߃ km[y-am- p AIr-{Xn-a-c-N-\-IfmWv an -h-bpw. {]Ir-Xn-tI-{μo-Ir-X-amb Pohn-X-hyhÿ Ihn-X-bpsS D p-w Δmbn kzoi-cn- -s -Sp- Xv Fsd BÀmZw ]I-cp- p. n 2017 Unkw-_ 15

16 Ihe hnhmzw, Hm Ω hnebncpø tum. s_ ntamƒ amxyp \hw_dnse \ ßfpw kmwk-vimcni PohnX- Øns I ßfpw Hm ΩIfpw Hm Ωs SpØepIfpw CSs]Sp hnimeamb Hcp Xpd mwv ]Xnhpt]mse tej\ßfpss temiw Xpd Xv.. {]apj {]kn oicwßfpw XmcXtay\ ]n m w \n p hcpw t`zßtfxpan msx aebmføns Ip n Bb ]p\øn Ip - p- bpss \ncymwsø XpS v At±lØns Hm ΩIfn apgpinbn p v.. amxr`qan, kaimeni aebmfw F o {]kn oicw߃ C m-cyøn cq]iev]\bn t]mepw a cn p -Xmbn txm n. amxr`qan k dnb apx k o lpssk hscbp hsc Ip n- Hm ΩIƒ- mbn hn\ykn p- Fw.-Sn. Ibpw snbvxp. IqSmsX ]p\ønens ]gb A`n-apJw, cn\ifnse Nne `mk߃ Ch-sb mambn amxr`qanbpss 24 mw e w ]p\øn ]Xns hntijww ]q Ønbm n.. aebmfw hmcnibmhs Sn.]n.cmPoh apx Fw.Fw._jo hscbp hsc ]p\ønen\mbn AWn\ncØn. Pam sim ßmSn, hmwnt\xym XpSßnbhcpsS Ipdn piƒ hyxykvxambn.. F nepw Cu Bh Øn Hm ΩIfpw hmb\ifpw FgpØp-Imcs k hy nxzsøbmtwm ASbmfs Sp- ØnbXv F tnmzyw Db Øp pap v. hnhmzßfpss tasºmsn ]pc hnjmzßsf h msx Xmtemen p- Xmbpw txm n. Ch nsbnemwv \hw_ 5 IemIuapZn- kp\n ]n. Cf-bnSw bn F.sI.A pƒ l ow FgpXnb A\p`hw F.-F-kv.-am-[-h thdn XmIp Xv.. AcmPIhmZØns Bƒcq]ambn FgpØnepw PohnXØnepw aebmfn timdnbnsp ]p\ønens PohnXw 30 hbkp apx 55 hbkp hsc Nn bmbxpw IrXyX \nd Xpambn-cp p F t±lw km ys SpØp p. Cu Im \q m mwv AcmPI cn\ifm At±lw kº am nbsx pw At±lw hnebncpøp p.- XpS p Ccp- ]Xntesd h j߃ At±lw txm n-bxpt]mse Pohn p. kzbsamcp tumœdmb ]p\ønen\v Xs tcmksas pw \ mbn Adnbmambncp p.f n pw At±lw Xncn phchv B{Kln ns pw Imev]\nI- \mb ]p\øn kzbw IÆS p InS psim v acn pw aps acwsø a\km kzoicn bmbncps pw ]dbp p. `qanbn \n pw kzbw _lnjvicn v acwsa km z\w txsnb At±lØns C mi n p ap n Imew t]mepw {]Wan p \n p F \nco Ww B k hy nxzsø sxmsp Hm Ωbmbn A\p`hs p. "`qanbn F Xnt\ mƒ kz Øn As - n `mh\bn Pohn hy nbm- Wp ]p\øn Ip - p...' F t±lw ASnhcbn-Sp p. "A`nap- J- mcpss ssewkni-s m-xnsb ]p\øn cxn \pwiƒ \ncøn t\cn p' F F{_lmw amxyphns \nco Whpw hyxy-kvxx ]pe- Øn. (tej\w: cxnbpw \pwbpw) Fw.Sn.bpw F. {]`mic\psams `mjmt]mjn-wnbn ]p\øn- F.-{]-`m-I-c ens\ kvacn p p. jo_. Fw. Ipcys "sshzyimkv-{xmjym\ßfpss kmwk-vimcni 16 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw

17 Xew' F t\mh ]T\w Cu e Øns `mkambxv DNnXambn. Cßs\ \hw_dnse H mw hmcw ]pdøndßnb B\pImenI-ßsf mw Ip n p ka Wambn. CtX `mjmt]mjnwnbn h hn.kn.lmcnkv A\pkvacWw am {`wiøm tejnibpss hnzym n PohnXØnse HtcSns\ pdn p Hm Ωbmbn Npcpßn. lmcnkv amjns ss[jwni {]`mhhpw k mfli PohnXhpw Cw ojv kmlnxy \ncq]wønse Nne t]cp- Ifnte pw kmt XnI ]Zßfnte pw HXp pibpw snbvxp. i XmcmhenbpsS cn\ apx UnPn bpkw hscbp `mjm {]bmww `mjmt]mjnwn \hw_- dn hniie\ hnt[b-am n.- C.sI.t{]wIpam i -Xmcmhen p apºp \nl p sf pdn pw Cu e Øn FgpXnbncn p p. \oes\gpxnb ImgvNbpsS Bg߃ F kn\nam\p`hw, Atam kn\nasb pdn p Xv, B e Øns hmb\sb sshhn[yap Xm n. Fw. jmp Jm FgpXnb "tkmhy p hnzym`ymkw kr n B ]pxnb a\pjy FhnsS' F tej\w (aebmfw hmcni \hw_ 6) {]k amb Nne tnmzy߃ D bn p p. hnzym`ymk ] XnIfpsS ho WsØ A`nkwt_m[\ snøp p. hn. hnp-bipam IYbnen møxv F tej\øn kmdm tpmk- ^ns cmambw IYmJym\ßsf hnebncp-øp p. kv{xo ti{μnxhpw {]IrXn ti{μnxhpambn CXnlmk- ]mcmbww \SØnbXns {]iv\awvuew hnizoicn- pibpw snøp p. cmtijv\myns awn Iuƒ Nn{XßfpsS BkzmZ\hpw IS v laozv tn awkeqcn FØptºmƒ kaimenixbpss DXvIWvT hm pifmbn ]ndhn sim p p."iayqwnkw Hm^v I ho\nb kv' F tej\w IayqWnÃm-ibßfnepw {]tbmkßfnepw IS p IqSnb aqeytimjwsø i amb `mjbn AhXcn n p p. BtKmfXeØn Xs Iayq- WnkØns am ßsf DXvIWvTtbmSpw \ncq]w Zr ntbmspw IqSn hnebncpøp Xn\v am[ya߃ Xømdmbn. \hw_ 5 IemIu-apZnbn Fw.sI.`{ZIpamdns cn\ {]`m-h Ω Pn. Djm-Ip-amcn "ho pw amthm' F Xes n ssn\okv Iayq- WnÃp ]m nbn kao]imeøv DSseSpØ ]pxnb {[phoicwsø hniie\w snøp p. jnpn ]nmv amthm t\snb hn[ap kºq Æm[n]Xyw t\spibmsw pw jn Pn ]nmv txm v F {]tbmkw B B[n]- Xy-Øns kqn\bmsw pw At±lw ]dbp p. txm v F Xv amthmtbmsp tn Øp am{xta {]tbmkn- n p p. a p t\xm fpss Nn Isf mw Xnbdntbm Xnkntkm Btb ]cnkwn n p q.. F pw AXn\m amthm Ign m i \mb t\xmhmbn ]nmv amdnbncn p- psh pw \nco n p p.. IayqWnkØns ticf]mtßfn si. _me- N{μ Im\sØ CcpØwh t\xmhmbn AhXcn- n p p (IcptØmsS Im\w). amxr`qanbn h alm`mcxøns am I-vknÃp hmb\bmwv as mcp {][m\ tej\w. almjym\øns tzim -c߃ F kp\n ]n.cfbnsw \SØnb hmb\ ]cky-øns\mø {]Xo- -\ In-bn. {]IS\]{XnIbn \n ndßn h kwhcw`qxw F ]n.fkv. dwjmzns tej\hpw kaimenixtbmsp hyxykvx \nco Wambn.. hbem Ahm Up {]Jym]\- Øn\p tijami-bm an {]kn- oicwßfpw Ahm Uv t\mhens dnhyq Dƒs SpØn. {]km[i, kpbv si.-hn. FgpØv, X, k kp[, im w- XpSßnbhsb mw C mcyøn `n ambn. {]k cmps Zo L]T\w 'cm{ ob AkvXnXzØn\mbp bp ߃' kpk n ]T\ßfn {]txyi]cma ia ln p p. am[yaøn h si.f.ktwjns hnπhøns icniƒ F tej\hpw IayqWn-ktØmSp kao]\sshhn[yøn-\pzmlcwambn. am[yaw c p e ßfmbn \hxnbn-seønb tum.fw eoemhxnbp-ambp A`napJw \evinbxv \ncq]w kmlnxyøns hgnisf Hm Ωs SpØn. AtXmsSm w tkmjy aounbbn hnhmz-øn\pw XncnsImfpØn. Ncn{XtØmSpw cm{ obtømspw tn p \n - p tej\ßfn CμncmKm nbmbncp p apjy ]cma - ißfn h hy nxzw. Cμncm P ixm_vznbpss kmlncyøn B Hm ΩIƒ {]txyiw {]k ambn. Aim niƒ s]bvxndßnb-t mƒ F apcfnbpss tej\w (kaimeni aebmfw) 1984 HtŒm_ 31 apxep Znhk߃ F F. Fkv. am[hs Hm Ω (amxr`qan) F nh {it bambn. ImenI {]iv\ßfn Kucn et jpw Bhnjv-ImckzmX{ yhpw hnjbo`hn cn\ifn am[yaønse IhnXm et jns Hm Ω {it bambn. tpmwn Fw.F. s Fw.-sI.-l-cn-Ip-am Zo]nIbpsS aq pw lnμpxz bpss e vaw thjhpw. (aebmfw hmcni) ]ZvamhXn kn\nabpss hnhmz ] møeøn {it bambn. thjøns amaq _lnjvicwamwv Pn. Djm-IpamcnbpsS "s]æpsp nse t]m v, B IÆnse I ajn' F tej\øns hnjbw. thjw F pw kmaqlni PohnX N IfpsS apjyhnjbamwt m!. kmlnxy kw_ nbmb tej\ßfn thwp. hn.tziøns "kwc WmflIamb {]Wbw kwlmcmfliamb tzzjw' F ZkvXbhvk-vIn ]T\w kao]- \Øns kpxmcyxbm aqeyhømbn. hn.sn.ipamcs IhnXsb pdn v kpbv.si.hn. FgpXnb 2017 Unkw-_ 17

18 {KŸm-h-tem-I\w ae-bmf Ihn-X-bnse hnπ-h-`m-hp-ixzw tum.-hn.-]n.-]n. apkvx^ hnπ-h-i-hn-x-bpss ] Øv inem-i-tn-\-amb ZrV- X-tbmsS \ne-bp-d- n p t]mcm-snb ]ptcm-k-a-\-hm-zn-bmwv si.-]n.-pn. ImgvN-bp-sS-bpw aqey-\n W-b-Øn-s bpw coxn cq]-s -Sp-Øp- -Xn Ime ÿe-߃ p \n Æmb-I-]- p- v. si.-]n.pn bpssbpw At±-l-Øns Ihn- X-bp-sSbpw alna AS-bm-f-s -Sp-Øp- -Xn B cn-\- bpss ÿe-im-e-߃ {][m-\hpw {]k- -hp-am-wv. ticf-øn-s kmaq-lni ]cn-h Ø-\-Øn IΩyq-WnÃv sxmgn-em-fn-h K cmjv{so-b-øn-\v, P\-ß-fpsS kwlmh-t_m[ (Collective consciousness) Øn CS-s]-S i n-bmbn {]h Øn- m Ign-bp- -Xp-sIm- mwv si.- a fpw \qdpw Ie t]mse F tej\w BgØne ]c nemwv \nesim p sx p txm n. ^n njv t\mhemb ssa Iym v bptkm mhnbsb ]cnnbs Sp- Øp Xn BZ iv HmWm ns "thcdp s pt]mbhcpss A`bPohnX߃' hnpbn n p v. tum. Fkv.{io\nhmk FgpXnb 'Ncn{X \ntj[w kn.hn.bpss Ncn{XmJymbnIfn ' F tej\w ]cºcmkx kn.hn. ]mcmbwßfn \n p amdn \S pw AhbpsS XncpØpambn {]k n t\sn (\hw_ 13 aebmfw). tum. F.]n. hnpb-irjvw Bjm tat\ms\- pdns gpxnb "]I m w Bjm tat\ms cn\m temiw' F tej\hpw {]txyi ]cma ia ln p p. \nxyssnx-\ybxn-bpss Cw ojv IhnXm kamlmc-ßsf pdn v Fw.sI. lcnipamdns ]T\amWv "A cymanbmb A]mcX'. bxnbpss A cymanbmb {]Wb k ev]hpw kwkoxhpw ]cnnbs SpØp Xn teji\v Gsd hnpbn- m\mtbm F p txm n. si.hn. Xn pdn-»nbpss A zm\imfisa IhnXm ]pkvxisø pdn v {]`mh ΩbpsS ]T\w "]mcºcyøns Du w, B[p\nIXbpsS IÆn' IhnXm ]0\Ønse IrXyamb \ne]msns shfns Sembn. tzisagpsø \nebn kn.dlnans ]ndintes mgpip Ipgnbm\Iƒ hyxykvx hmb\m\p`hw ]n.-pn.-bp-ssbpw Ihn-Xbv v kaq-l-øn km[yx D mbn-cn- p- -Xv. hnπ-h-i-hn-xbpw hnπ-th-x-c-i-hn-xbpw Hcp-t]mse IhnX/kmlnXyw F c m-[n-im-c-øns khn-tij kml-n-cy-ß-fm cq]-s -Sp- -Xm-Wv. F nepw hnπ-th- Xc Ihn-X-tbmfw alxzw hnπ-h-i-hn-x-bv p v F v ip -I-em-hmZn kω-xn p F p-h-cn-. cmjv{so-b-i-hn- Xbv v AXn-t -Xmb aln-a-bp- v. ]t Ihn-bpsS am[yaw cmjv{so-b-a-, Ihn-X-bmWv F "ip -\ymbw' \njv]- Db Øp- p. Ihn-X-bpsS am[y-a-i-co-c-øn\v CXc-hn-j-b-ß-sf-t mse i -ambn cmjv{so-b-im-cy- \evin. ÿncw ]w niƒ AhbpsS kz`mhøn- \nwßpw hn[w \nesim p F m amkkn\pifnepw. h\nxm {]kn oicw߃ ÿncw N qsn ]pdøndßnsb nepw alnfmn{μni hiykpμcn hmka, ssltd nse XWp n shfp m ImeØv F o tej\ßfn sshhn[yw Dd n p. HgpInbI ]pg F t]cn si.kpntam \SØnb ex (]cnÿnxn {]h ØI) A\pkvacWhpw tpmbv hmgbn m\kmkc ]cwkx F t]cn FgpXnb s{]m^. Xpdhq hnizw`c A\pkvacWhpw lrzbkv]r mbn.' At±lw Adnhns kap{zønse GIm ]cythji\mbncp p, F mwv tpmbv hmgbn Dd n p ]dbp Xv. Fw.{io\mYs ticf]mwn\ob]0\w `mjmimkv{x tej\ßfn {it bambn. aebmf `mjbpss BcqV \n ΩnXn F tej\w. tum. chni kn.]n.\mbcpss ]qhme m C mxmip Xv F ]pkvx- IØns\gpXnb ]T\w lmk kmlnxy ]mcºcysø pdn p Hm Ω ]pxp embn.. kaimeni hnjbßfpw cm{ obhpw ÿncw ]w nifpambn At\I tej\߃ ]cma in- s SmsX D v. kpohamb hmb\mkaqlønse CSs]Sens ASbmf߃ F \nebn AhbpsS {]k n ad p n. n 18 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw

19 {]Xym-i-bpsS In\m-hp-Iƒ si.-]n.pn. {]km: ticf kmlnxy A m-zan ßfpw {]Xo-I-h-ev -cn- m-\mipw F v ip -I-em-hmZn ImWp- n-. P\-ß-fpsS Poh {]iv\-ßsf A -c- -ßfn-te v/_nw_-øn-te v ti{μo-i-cn- p- -XmWv cmjv{sob Ihn-X. kmaq-lni ]cn-h Ø-\-Øn-\p-th- nbp ]S-tbm ßfn \nkz-h KsØ Bfl-ho-cytØmsSbpW Øm-\p am[yaw F \ne-bn-emwv hnπ-h-i-hnx kzoi-cn- -s -Sp- -Xv. cmjv{sob Imcy-ßsf kuμ-cy-h-xv -cn v AXns hgn-bn-eqss Ihn-Xsb {]m]n- p- p. kmaq-ln-i-po-hnx Ne-\-ß-sf-bpw, hnπ-h-øns kzm[o-\-søbpw Xnc-kv -cn- p hmb-\bv v cmjv{sob-i-hn-x-bn henb KpW-ta Is -Øm Ign p F p-h-cn-. t_m[-øn bmym-ÿn-xn-i-xz-øns ]Sp- Xn-cn-bp-ambn \n p ^yqu kvt\m_p-iƒ v sxmgn-em-fn-h K kuμ-cy-im-kv{x-øns (Proletariat aesthetics) ho Ww Dƒs m- m-\m-in-. ]s Ah-cpsS D n IS- n-cn- p {]Xn-tem-a-{]-Xy-b-im-kv{XsØ sxfn- p-im- p A n-bmwv hnπ-h-i-hnx AYhm sxmgnem-fn-h K kmln-xyw. AØ-c-Øn {]ÿm-\-_- nbmb Imhy-hy- n-xz-amwv si.-]n.pn.bpts-xv. si.-]n.pn bpss Imhy hy n-xzsø At±-l-Øns Ime-L- -Ønse IΩyq-Wn-Ãv _lp-p-\-ap-t - -ß-fn \n pw th s]-sp-øn- m-wm-\m-hn-. B {]ÿm-\- Øns {]Nm-cWw Xs -bm-bn-cp p si.-]n.pn Ihn-XbpsS apjy e yw. Xs ImesØ am\-hni P\-Iob {]ÿm-\-øn \n pw th s]-sp-øm-\m-hmø _ w si.-]n.-pn.-bpss cn-\-iƒ p- v. B sxmgn-emfn h K cmjv{so-b-øn-s bpw AXns Z i-\-øn-s bpw {]Nmc-IXzw si.-]n.-pn. Ihn-XbpsS khn-ti-j-x-bm-wv. {]Nm-c-Ihn F Xv ip -I-em-hm-Zn-Isf kw_- n- n-s-tømfw Xcw-Xm-W- Imhy ]Z-hn-bm-Wv. Bi-b-{]-Nmc-W-Zu-Xy-ap IhnX A[-a-am-sW kn m w bym -Øn A[oi {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-Øns LS-\- bn \n p-bn s m- p- -Xm-Wv. ip -I-em-hn-im-c-Z- m ]qhn- p-]q-pn- p ` n-{]-ÿm\ kmlnxyw e y-an- Xv Bi-b-{]-Nm-c-W-am-bn-cp- -t m. ` n-{]-ÿm-\-im-esø krjvsn-iƒ kaq-l-k-z- p-i-fnepw IpSpw-_-k-Z- p-ifnepw hmbn- -s - Xv AXn\v {]Nm-c-W-aq-ey-ap- m-b-xp sim p Xs -bm-wv. A sø hyh-ÿ-bpss ({]mmv apx-em-fn-øw) \nb-a-i Ω hnt[-b-xz-øns Bh-iy- I-X-bmWv {]N-cn- n- -s - Xv F p-am-{xw. AXn\v ani DZm-l-c-W-am-Wv Fgp-Ø- Ihn-X. ax-{]-nm-c-w-øns Nn w F \ne-bn IqSn-bmWv (A-Xp-am-{X-amWv F ) Fgp-Ø \v kaq-l-øn- Bghpw hym]vxn-bpam kzm[o\w krjvsn- m km[n- -Xv. CXp ImWmsX, ]ptcm-ka\ kmln-xy-{]-ÿm-\-øn-s\-xnsc {]Nm-cW Imhy-tZmjw D -bn- p- Xv ip -I-em-ku-μ-cy-hm-Z- Øns ]cn-an-x-sb-bmwv shfn-s -Sp-Øp- -Xv. Fgp-Ø- s {]N-c-Wm-fl-IX kzoim-cy-am-hp- -h v si.-]n.- Pn.-bpsS {]N-c-Wm-fl-IX Akzo-Im-cy-am-hp- -Xn-\p Imc-Ww, ip -ku-μ-cy-`m-hp-i-xz-øns Zu _-ey-amwv. sxmgn-em-fn-h K-cm-jv{So-bw, AXns kmln-xyw, AXns kuμ-cy-imkv{xw F n-h-bpss {]Nm-cWw G hpw henb Af-hn Ihn-X-bn-eqsS \n Δ-ln- n- p- -h-cn {]Y-a-K-W-\ob-\mWv si.-]n.-pn. a\p-jy-\mwv At±-l-Øns Ihn-Xsb \n-b-{ n- p aqeyw. si.- ]n.-pn-.bpss {]Nm-c-IXz at\m-`m-hw, At±-l-Øns cn- \-I-fnse D -S- -amwv; AXnse cq]hpw ioe-hp-a-. CXp-X-s -bmwv {]iv\-tl-xp-hpw, ip -ku-μ-cy-`m-hp-i- XzsØ cq]-s -Sp-Ønb aqey-ßsf si.-]n.pn. \ntj-[n- p p F -Xn-\m-emWv si.-]n.-pn.-i-hnx Ah v Akzo-Im-cy-ambnØocp- -Xv. Xs IrXn-Iƒ v Ihn-Xm- KpWw t]msc hna i-\-øn\v si.-]n.pn \ Inb adp- ]Sn CXmWv. ""Fs IhnX \n߃ v CjvS-s -t - n. AX Fs kw_- n- n-s-tømfw {][m-\w. kz w h K-Xm ]-cy-߃ pth n t]mcm-sp- - A zm-\n- p _lp-p-\-߃ v CjvS-s -Sp- ps m F mwv Rm t\m p- -Xv. Ah Xv CjvS-s -Sp- p-s v Rm \n߃ p Xs ImWn- p-x-cmw.'' (\-thm- m- \hpw ae-bm-f-km-ln-xyhpw F IrXn-bn C.Fw.Fkv. D -cn- Xv. Nn ]ªntj-gvkv, t]pv 37) ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn t{]men-t -dn-b kmln-xy-sa kcwn cq]w ]q Xp apx AXns A xkø Dƒs m kmln-xy-im-c- m-cn AZzo-Xn-b-\mWv si.- ]n.-pn. Ie Ie-bv p-th n F ^yqu t^m a-enãv kn m w Xnc-kvI-cn- p-ibpw Ie hnπ-h-øn-\p-th n F t{]men-t -dn-b kn m w Iehdbn- msx kzoicn p \S- m- p-ibpw snbvx {]Xn- m-_- -\mb sxmgnem-fn-h K-I-hn-bmWv At±-lw. \nkz-h K-Øn-s bpw AXns hnπ-h-]m n-bp-ssbpw kmaq-ly kmº-øn-i cmjv{sob ho -Ww-sIm v DtØ-Pn-X-amWv hnhn[ hnjb-ßsf ]pc-kvi-cn v hnhn-[-k-μ `-ß-fn At±-lsagpXnbn- p GXm-s m Ihn-X-I-fpw. si.-]n.-pn. Ihn-X-I-fn ]expw C y P\-X-bpsS km{ampy hncp- -amb tziob hntam-n\ ka-c-sø- pdn- m-wv. ]s, B ka-c-ønepw sxmgn-em-fn-h K- Øns ssnx\yw \nd ] n-s\- p-dn- mwv At±lw Du n-b-xv. kzx-{ -`m-cx \qx-\-n-cnxw/kz w tnmc-bnse-gp-xp- -htc/ a ±nx P\-XXn X ka-c-øn / c ]XmI ]d- n- -htc (ap-t m- -W-bp-hn, 1942) XpS-ßnb {]kn- -amb hcn-i-fn si.-]n.pn bpss hnimcw {]Xy- -am-wv. ""Cu hcn-i-fn F p Ihn-X-bm-Wp- -sx p tnmzn- p- -h-tcmsv AXpw-]mSn ka-c-cw-køp apt -dnb e - -W- mb Bfp-I-fpsS hnim-c-ßsfam-\n- pi'' 2017 Unkw-_ 19

20 (Fs Ihn-X) F Ihn-bpsS adp-]sn Xs -bmwv D cn- m-\p- -Xv. sxmgnemfn-iƒ apx-em-fnø Nqj-W-Øns\-Xn-cmbn \S-Øp h K-k-a-csØ si.-]n.pn. k hmfl\m klm-bn- p, DtØ-Pn- n- p. AXn-\p-th n Ihn- X-I-sf-gp-Xn. sabvzn\w {]am-wn v At±-l-sa-gp-Xnb hcn- Iƒ t\m pi: A{I-anbmw apx-em-fn-bn- p-am c h j-sø-tbm Øp hnd-bv p-hm CsØm-gn-em-fn-Iƒt m hcp-s mcm hnπ-h-øn-s m-cp- -߃ Iq p-hm tazp-c-{]-`m-h-tøm-s-w-shmcp sabvzn-\-ta, Pbn Pbn \o (1938/39) CXp-t]mse HIvtSm-_ hnπ-h-zn-\w, se\n Zn\w, Iøq c -km- n-zn\w F n-ßs\ hnπ-h-{]-ÿm-\- Øns Ncn-{X-Ønse Ahn-kva-c-Wo-b-amb ]e kμ `ß-sf- p-dn pw si.-]n.-pn. Ihn-X-I-sf-gp-Xn. F n-\pth n? ""A[zm-\n- p h K-ß-fpsS {]ÿm\w At\- I-a-Sßv i n-s -Sp- -Xn\v'' (Fs Ihn-X); sxmgn-emfn h K-Øns ka-c-ßsf klm-bn- m\pw hf Øm-\pwth- n. AXp-sIm v ae-bm-f-i-hn-x-bnse hnπ-h-`m-hp- IXzw At\z-jn- p- -h v si.-]n.-pn. bpss Ihn-X-Iƒ Xnc-kv -cn- m Ign-bn-. Xs ImesØ Pohn-X-Øn-te p Nqgv n-dßn hni- I-e\w \S-Øp-tºmƒ si.-]n.-pn-bpss \nco- -W- Øn s]sp c p ka-ky-iƒ Zmcn-{Zyhpw ASn-a-Øhpw BWv. ] n-wn, Zmcn{Zyw F o hm p-ifpw Ah Ipdn- p Bib ]cn-k-c-ßfpw si.-]n.-pn. Ihn-X-bn \nc- \n-c-bmbn ImWmw. tum. Fw. eoem-hxn Fgp-Xnb Ah- Xm-cn-I-bn c p Uk-t\mfw Ihn-X-I-fn \n p Cu hm p-iƒ ap{zn-x-ß-fmb hcn-iƒ D -cn- n- p v (t].14-18)/ H t\m -Øn, Ihn-X-bpsS kuμ-cy-aqeyw C m- Xm- p Bh Ø\w F tzmj-am-wn-sx v Nne v txm mw. F m ""AXXp Ihn-Xm-]-cn-k-c-Øn Ah `mh-`-{z-ambn h Øn- p- p-sh pw Bflm -hp-amsw v'' eoem-hxn Nq n- m- p- p.'' si.-]n. PnbpsS Ihn- XI-fn ] n-wnbpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw Bh Øn p hcp- Xv Ah A -cw-ksø {Kkn- p Hgn-bm-_m[ (obession) BI-bmemW.v B am\-kn-i-amb Hgn-bm-_m[ Ihn a\:]q Δw D m- p- -h-sb mw ka-im-eni Pohn-X- Ønse ItTm-c-h-ÿ-Iƒ A -cw-k-øn-te v Ahsb IpØn-sh p (injection) Ib- n-b-xn-\m-emwv.'' (t]pv. 19) CXp-t]mse, ASn-a-Ø-sa Bi-bhpw si.-]n.-pn.- bpss cn-\-i-fn Bh Ø-\-kz-`m-h-tØmsS ImWmw. Ihn Cu kmlkw Adn- p-sim v kzbw hcn- - XmWv. DÆm \mgn-b-cntbm DSp- m ]ps-htbm InS- m-\n-stam C mø P\-tIm-Sn-I-fpsS \m n InS- ptºmƒ tkmhn-b v \m n ]nd- m simxn \mwn apxem-b-h-cmwv (\m-wn-bpss Nn ) ASn-a-Øn-ep-g `mc-x- Øn ]ms-s -ts h-cmbn Ihn I Xv. ""Z -tkm-]ptc hmswm-c- hmwk/kpμ-cnbmw Ihn- Xm-h-[q-Snsb/ thebv p txmgn-bmbv/ a n-te- n-ßnd n \n ØpI'-I-bm-bn-cp p Cu Ihn (th-ebpw Ihn- X-bpw). Zmcn-{Zy-Øn\pw ASn-a-Ø-Øn-\p-sa-Xn-cmb Aa jw GsX- nepw Na m-c-øn s]mxn- p-hbv p- n si.-]n.pn. hywkyhpw [z\nbpw a pw-sim v 20 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw Bgw Iq mø Ihn-X-I-sfms XmW-X-c-Øn-ep- -h-bmsw p Icp-Xp \ncq-]-i- m v Ip n- pg IrjvW-]n adp-]sn \ In-bn- p- v. ""Xs Ih-\-i n a\p-jy-cn A[nIw t] pw {]tbm-p-\-s -SmØ ]mfin-xy-øns ]nn-fi-`m-fi-ambn hnprw-`n- -W-sa p si.-]n.-pn. B{Kln- p- n-s p am{xw'' ( Ah-Xm-cnI, \h-bpkw (1946) Xs kam-lm-cw, t]pv 372). si.-]n.-pn. F Ihn-bpsS `mh-\bpw `mh-ßfpw At±-l-Øns Ihn-X-I-fn kv^pcn- p hnim-chpw bmym y-øn-e-[n-jvtn-x-am-wv. Ah hymjym-\-øn\p ImØp-\n-ev msx hmb-\- m-cs a\- n-te p IS phcp- p. kz -a-\p-`-h-߃ Ihn-bn snep-ønb i nbpw t{]c-w-bp-amwv Ah-bpsS {]tnm-z-\-ti-{μw Ime-Øv, Xriq-cn alm-ihn Pn. i -c- p-dp- ns IqsS-bp L -Øn-emWv si.-]n.-pn. Ihn-X-sb-gpØv Bcw-`n- p- -Xv. AXv sdmam niv coxn-bn-em-bn-cp p. s]m nb ame (t]. 49), B cwkw (t].50), Ime-eoe (t].53), IrXm X (t]. 273) XpS-ßn-bh B coxn Aeb-Sn- p cn-\-i-fm-wv. A sø Ihn-bn Km n ` nbpw (Xp-dp- n-\-i-øp-\n- v, t]. 45) ImWmw: `mc-x-`q-hn-s\-t mƒa-bn s m- n- XmcpsS hm p-i-fm-wn-sxt m?... AΩ-lm Km n-pn-bm-w-cpƒsn-bvxxo ktωm-l-\-ßfmw kzzm-iy-߃ cmjv{so-b kmaqly cwk-ß-fn tkmjy-enãv IΩyq- Wn-Ãm-i-b-ß-fpsS hchpw hniz-km-ln-xy-ønse XZ-\pkr-X-amb IrXn-Ifpw si.-]n. Pn.bpsS Nn m-k-xn-bn ]cn-h Ø-\-Øn\p Imc-W-am-bn. ]n o-sp-h Ihn-X-Ifn kzc-am w {]I-S-am-bn. Xs AXp-h-sc-bp Imhy- Po-hn-X-Øns A -iq-\y-xbpw s]m -Ø-chpw Ihn v a\- n-em-hp- p. CtX-Ip-dn v Ihn Xs Ip -]{Xw Xøm-dm- n-bn- p- v. Pohn-X-Øn simsnb bmym y-߃ t]m hnfn apg- n-s m p \n th `qhn \n -I-t txm In\m-hp-ambv `mh\m temi-tadn hmwp `hm am p-tnm-zn temi-tøm-sn p \o ams -gpxq hcn Nne-Xn-t mtg (I-hn p In nb Ip -]-{Xw, t] 85-86) a\p-jys tamn-\-sa ktμiw Ihn-Nn- -bn `qne-\-ap- m- n. sns m-sn-bpss Iogn AWn-tN a\pjy-{]-hm-lsø I -txmss Ihn ]pxpa Xy-\mbn amdn. A p-sxm- m-h K-Øn kz]v\-ambv aa kz]v\w/ tihew kz]v\w ImWpw Ihn-bm-bn-cp-t ms\/bmhn-tam- N-\-Øns ]mxn-bn-se-øn p/ Bbn-c-a-S-ßm-bn- m-i- n (A-`n-hm-Zyw)/ lrzbw \nd- p \n Ω-e-kvt\-l-Øm ]n. IrjvW-]n ]d samgn-bmwv Cu Ihn-bpsS ]n o-sp Ihn-X-I-fn Ae-bv p- Xv: ""hcni Ith, sxmgn-em-fn-b-ßsb ImWmw'' (kt X-Øn, 1954, t].115). sxmgn-em-fn-h K-Øns AP-øX si.-]n.-pn.-bpss Pohn-X-Ønepw Ihn-X-bnepw Aen- p-tn hnizm-k- {]-am-w-am-wv. ""Cu Ihn v cmjv{so-b-ap- v, hy -amb cmjv{sob ho -W-ap- v. Cu ho Ww Cu Ihn-X-IfpsS Poh-\m-Wv.'' (j apj B -em- v, si.-]n.-pn.

21 cmam-b-whpw alm-`m-c-xhpw temtim-ø-c-im-hy-߃ tum.fw.pn Fkv. \mcm-b-w Ncn-{X-a-dn-bm-Ø-h-cmWv cmam-b-w-tøbpw alm-`m-c-x-tøbpw a pw Ncn-{X-Ir-Xn-I-fmbn IW- m- p- -Xv; Ah temtim-øc Imhyß-fmWv F v tum.-fw. Pn. Fkv \mcm-b-w A`n-{]m-b-s - p. lnμp-axw Hcn- epw Hcp kwl-snx ax-ambn \ne-\n- n- n-. {InkvXp-a-X-tam, C mwaxtam t]mse GsX- n-ep-samcp IrXy-amb Bi-b-Øns t]cn-e-, Hcp kwkvim-c-sa \ne-bn am{x-amwv lnμp-axw F -dn-b-s - -Xv. tzio-b-xbpw tzi-kvt\-lhpw c mbn-øs ImW-Ww. {]IrXym D m-ip- -XmWv tzi-kvt\-lw. F m Nne Ncn-{X-Im-e-L- -Øn, khn-tij kμ `-ß-fn cq]w sim p XmWv tzio-b-x. {_n o-jp-im C y Itødn `cn- m Bcw-`n- -t m-gmwv C y tzio-bx cq]w sim p- -Xv. Imc-Ww, tzio-b-xbv v Ft mgpw Hcp i{xp A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. hntz-im-[n-]- Xy-tØm-Sp FXn n \n- mwv C y tzio-b-x-bp- m-ip- -Xv. C y bym -Øn D]-tZ-io-b-X-I-fpsS Hcp s^u-td-j-\m-wv. AXv \nc- -c-amb Ne-\-߃ v hnt[-b-am-wv, AXv C\nbpw hn`- Pn- -s -Sm-hp- -tx-bp- q. bmym y t_m[-tøm-ss-bp {]h Ø-\-ß-fn-eq-sS-bmWv AXv XS-bm {ian-t - -Xv Fw.-Pn. Fkv. ]d- p. Ihn-X i nbpw {]m[m-\y-hpw, t].395) si.-]n.pn bv v Ihn-X-tb- mƒ hepxv Pohn-X-am-bncp- p. kz w Pohn-X-a-, a\p-jy-cm-in-bpss PohnXw F v s{]m^. Fw.-sI. km\p Xs ]T-\-Øn Nq n- m-wn- n- p- v (I-hn-X-tb- mƒ hepxv Pohn-Xw, t]. 375)/ Ih-b-i- n-t\- mƒ {][m\w hnπ-h-am-sw t_m[w At±-l-Øn IØn-\n- n-cp- p. NqjW \n ap- hpw ka-xz-kp-μ-c-hp-amb Hcp temi-sø-ip-dn v {]Xn-]m-Zn- p kmln-xy-c-n-\-iƒ Cu Ihnsb BI jn- n-cp p. a\p-jy-cm-in-bpss tim`-\-amb `mhn- p-th- n-sbmcp Iem-{]-ÿm\w F -XmWv si.-]n. Pn bpss \ne-]m-sv. AXp-sIm- mwv ab-t mhvkvbp-ssbpw ]mtªm s\cqzbp-ssbpw Bcm-[-I-\mbn At±lw amdn-b-xv. Ccp-h-cpsSbpw IrXn-Iƒ si.-]n.-pn. hnh Ø\w snbvxn- p- v. Bi-b-{]-[m-\hpw kpxm-cy-hp-amb Ihn-Xm-coXn si.- ]n.pn kzoi-cn- Xv Ch-cn \n m-i-ww. hniz-km-ln-xy- Øn ab-t m-hvkvinbpw s\cqzbpw ]d- p-h- Xv Xs -bmwv Xs kzx-kn- -amb ssien-bn si.-]n.- Pn. ae-bm-f-øn Fgp-Xn-b-Xv. AØ-c-Øn si.-]n.-pn. cnn \q n-sb-gp-]-xn-e-[niw Ihn-X-I-fp-sS-bpw, At±lw hnh Ø\w snbvx cn-\- I-fp-sSbpw kam-lm-c-amwv {]Xym-i-bpsS In\m-hp-Iƒ! si.-]n.pnbpss kºq W-sa v hnti-jn- n- m-hp Cu Ihn-Xm-k-am-lmcw Ime-Øn-s bpw Ncn-{X-Øn-s bpw lrz-b-km- y-am-wv. aq p ] o-cm-t mfw Imew At±lw \S-Ønb kmln-xo-k-]-cybpss ^ew IqSnbmWv Cu kam-lm-cw. Cu Ihn-X-I-fnse Iemin ]sø hne-bn-cp-øp- -h ]e cn-\-i-fnepw Nne t]mcm-bva-iƒ Is -Øn-tb- pw. Cu Ihn-Xm-\n-c-bn Ipgn- m- pt»cn {Kman-Ibpw tic-f-km-lnxy A m-z-anbpw kwbp- -ambn kwl-sn- n C.- si. Znhm-I-c t]m n P -i-xm tic-f-km-lnxy A m-z-anbpw Ipgn- m- p-t»cn {Kman-Ibpw kwbp- -ambn kwl-sn- n {]`mjw ]c-º-c-bn tum. Fw.-Pn.-F-kv. \mcm-b- W {]`m-jww \S-Øp- p _vzn {]Xn-amk {]`m-jw ]c-º-c-bn "C y tzio-b-x-bpss {]iv\-߃' F hnj-b-øn {]`m-jww \S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. s{]m^.-kn. I Ω-N-{μ A[y- X hln- p. tum.-sn.- hn. kt m-jv, Sn.sI PmX-th-Z, A`n-emjv Xpºq, Fw. F. \mcm-b-w, hn.-_n. hn\o-jv, ss_pp aw- -d, Fw.-H. am n, sslz amtc- m-sv, tpm k hn. ]mb-ω, {Sok B -Wn, Sn.- F. {]Im-iv, si.-hn. A\n Ip-am, bp.fkv AP-b-Ip-am, Fw.-sI. taml, ]n.-sn. kzcm-pv, ]n.-sn. h F n-h kwhm-z- Øn ]s -SpØv kwkm-cn- p. ]n.-si. In kzmk-xhpw Fw.-kn. kμo]v \μnbpw ]d- p. "kuμ-cy-aqeyw' ImWm-Ø-h-cp- v. Ihn-Xbv v \nb-xamb cn-\m-co-xn-sbm pw Bcpw I n- p-x- n- n-. F m cn-\m-\n-b-a-ßfpw Ime-{]-hm-l-Øns Hgp-In-b- I- n- p- v. F m AwKo-IrX Imhy {]am-wn-i-xbpw \nin-x-amb a\-t mss apdn-s -dn-bp \ncm-k-øns Z i\w si.-]n.pn Ihn-X-I-fn-ep- v. a\p-jys cmjv{sob kmaq-ly-po-hn-x-hp-ambn {]Xn-{]-h Øn- p k Kmfl-I-sk kn-_n-en- nbp-ts-xmb Imhy-k-{º-Zm-b-amWv si.-]n.-pn.-bp-ts-xv.-sxm-gn-em-fn-h cmjv{so-b-tøm-sp {]Xn-_- -X-bn AN- -e-\mb cmjv{so-b-{]-nm-c-i-hnbpss cn-\-i-fpss kam-lm-c-am-wn-xv. tx p-an-\p- nb ]Z- {]-tbmkw t]mepw Cu Ihn-X-I-fn ImWn-. Hcp Xcw ]cp- kzm`mhw hcn-i-fn ap n-\n-ev p- p. AXn\v Ihn v kz w \ymbo-i-c-w-ap- v. ""Xm {]Xn-\n-[m\w snøp P\-hn-`m-K-ß-fpsS {]Ir-Xym-ep ]cp- kz`m-h-am-w-xv. '' (t].381) hnπh Ihn-Xbv v Cusbmcp ssien-am-{xta A\p-tbm-Py-amhq Fs m pw ]d-bp- n. ae-bmf hnπ-h-i-hn-x-bpss ]cn-jvi-cn- -s -SmØ aqe-cq-]-am-bn-cp p si.-]n. Pn bpss Ihn-X. t{]ment -dnb kmln-xy-øn-t -Xmb Imhy-k-cWn ae-bm-f-øn\v kw`m-h\ snbvx A{K-K-Wy-cn Hcm-fmWv si.-]n.-pn. ""Fs Ihn-X-Iƒ apgp-h kam-l-cn- -s -Sp-I-bm-sW- n AXv Cu kc-wnsb IqSp-X hnim-e-am-bn- m- Wn- p-sa- -\n- p-d- p- v'' (t].29). si.-]n.-pn.-bpss Cu B{K-l-amWv At±-l-Øns \qdmw ]nd- m-fn k^-eam-bn-cn- p- -Xv. ae-bm-f-i-hn-x-bnse hnπ-h-`m-hp-ixzw At\z-jn- p- -h v, si.-]n.-pn. IrXn-I-fpsS ]p\ hmb-\-iƒ km[y-am- p- -Xn\v klm-bn- p- -XmWv ticf- km-ln-xy-a- m-zan {]kn- o-i-cn "{]Xym-i-bpsS In\m-hp-Iƒ' (H- mw-]-xn- v, sabv 2017) 2017 Unkw-_ 21

22 ]pxnb Fgp-Øp-Iƒ _ -ß-fnse ASn-sbm-gp- p-iƒ si.fkv. sh nsmnew {it -b-\mb bph Cw ojv Fgp-Øp-Im-c-\mWv AJn i Ω. The Best American Short Stories, O Hentry Prize Stories epw At±-l-Øns IY-Iƒ CSw t\sn-bn- p- v. An Obediant Father F t\mh-en\v slanßv th ^ut -j /s] Ahm Upw, c m-asø t\mh-emb ^manen sse^n\v t^mfntbm ss{]kpw C \m-j-w Uªn Ahm Upw e`n- n- p- v. At±-l-Øns G hpw ]pxnb ]pkvx-i-amb A Life of Adventure and Delight 8 IY-I-fp- v. Ata-cn- -bn Xma-k-am- nb C y hwi-p IYm-]m-{X-ß-fmbn hcp an IY-Ifnepw _ -ßfpw, kwkvim-c-߃ XΩn-ep sshcp- y-ßfpw X m\pw sim m\pw hømø BNm-tcm-]-Nm-c-ßfpw hnj-b-amhp- p- v. A n-a-ambn GXmWv hnp-bn- p- Xv? ]c-ºc ]c-º-c- I-fmbn ioen- p-t]m BNm-c-ß-fm-tWm- AtXm FØn-s cmpy- Øns kwkvim-ctam? AXn-a-t\m-l-c-ambn AJn i Ω Cu hnjbw ]pkvx-i-øn ssiimcyw snøp- p- v. timkvtam-t]m-fn- F BZy-I-Y-bn Ata-cn- -bn Pohn- p C y hwi-p-cpss _ -ß-fn kw`-hn- p hn -ep- Isf ImWn- p-x-cp p IYm-Ir-Øv. tkm]m-es Pohn-X-Øn \n v s]msp- s\ `mcy A\o-Xbpw aiƒ \oxphpw A{]-Xy- -cm-hp- p. Abmsf hn p-t]m-ip-i-bmwv Ah. aiƒ Imap-I-t\m-sSmØv P Ω-\n-bn-te pw `mcy Bflo-b-X-bn A`bw txsn C y-bn-te- pw. tami-a- mø Hcp \ tpmen-bn \n v t\csø Xs dn -b sa v hmßnb hy n-bmwv tkm]m. tpmen sntø-. [mcmfw Imip- v. ho n Bcp-an-. kulr-z-ß-fp-an-. amfnepw hmb-\-im-e-bnepw a pw Abmƒ Xncn- p-i-fn- p- p. CSbvs ms t {X-Øn-epw. X\n v Xma-kn- p Ab hmkn IqSn-bmb an n v jmhp-ambn Abmƒ ASp- -Øn-em-Ip- p. AhnsSbpw kzc-t D m-hp- n-. kwi-b-ß-fmwv Imc-Ww. B a- \- ns kzm -X-bpsS hymjym-\-ambn IY hni-kn- p- p. `mc- Xob kwkvim-c-øns \nb-{ -W-ßfpw hntzi kwkvim-c-øn ssew-kn-i-x v e`n- p kzmx-{ y-hp-w Bbm-fn Htc kabw kω ±w snep-øp- p. Xs {Kma-Ønse \ -{X-߃ \nd sxfn BIm-ihpw Xß-fn-te v Xs hen v \n p sxcp-hnse hosp-ifpw Dd-ßp apj-tøm-sp-iq-snb hosp-ifpw a p- m-hp-ifpw Abmƒ Hm p- p. Fs - m Ata-cn- -bnse hosp-iƒ v a p- m-hp-i-fn- -t m! BIm-i-tØ v t\m ns m v InS- m Abmƒ B{K-ln- p-i-bm-wv. as mcp kwkvim-csø ]q Æ-ambn kzoi-cn- m Ign-bmØ C y a\- p-i-fpss Nn{XamWv IY. kv{xo a\- p-isf hymjym-\n- p tej-\-߃ hmbn v AXp-{]-Imcw kv{xosb kzm[o-\n- m {ian- p ]pcp-j-hwisø IYm-IrØv Ifn-bm- p- p- v. \o Ipf-Øn sh v ] nb Hcp A]-ISw ImcWw shpn- -_nƒ ]cp-h-øn-em-bn-t mb Hcp Ip nbpssbpw Ahs AΩ-bpsSbpw klm-z-c-s bpw IY-bmWv Surrounded by Sleep {]m - \bv v ^e-ap- m-ip- p. Ata-cn- kwkvim-c-øn hf-cp C y Ip n-iƒ Fßn-s\- {]m n- p- p. sszh-ß-sf, kq am-t\mspw _m vam-t\mspw BWv Ah Xmc-X-ay-s -Sp-Øp- - Xv. Rm F{X {]kn- -\mipw? tnmzyw sszh-tøm-sv. `mhn {]h- Nn- m F\n- m-hn- F v sszhw. F p-sim v? Nne-t mƒ Rm amdn Nn n-t mw AXv Xm ƒ v _p n-ap- t, ]d- Xv am n- -d-bpi Fs ms? sszhw Nncn- p-sim v ]d-bp- p: \o {]kn n t\spw. [mcm-fw. ]n osv AXv \n\-s mcp {]iv\-am-ip- Ibpw snøpw. hcm-\p Pohn-XsØ `mh-\-bn ImWm-s\m pw \n\ v Ign-bn-. GXv A]-I-S-sØbpw P\-߃ F{X-thKw ad- p-sa pw IYm-IrØv ImWn- p-x-cp- p- v. Zmº-Xy-_- -ßfnse Im]-Sy-sØ-bmWv If you sing like that for me F IY-bn ]-d-bp- -Xv. IY-bpsS ] m-øew U lnbm-wv. CS-Øcw IpSpw-_-ß-fnse `mcy-am Fß-s\-bmWv ` Ømhns\ kln- pw-sim v ac-ww-hsc Ign-bp- -sx v IYm-IrØv ck- I-c-ambn hnh-cn- p- p- v. IY-bpsS Ah-km-\-Øn cm{xn-bpss GIm- -X-bn, sxm -SpØv InS- p-d-ßp ` Øm-hns\ t\m n `mcy A\oX Nn n- p- p. \ XWp- p- v. jo p-sim v ]pxbv m {ian- p. hep w t]mcm-bn-cp- p. ]m mxy ]uckvxy kwkvim-c-ßsf hne-bn-cp-øp-i-bmwv The Well F IY-bn. Hcp K `-On-{ZsØ hfsc sk n-sa - embn - Hcp ac-w-ambn sime-]m-x-i-ambn ImWp C y IpSpw-_hpw, AXns\ shdpw Hcp km[m-cw kw`-h-ambn ImWp Ata-cn- bph-xn-bp-amwv IYm-]m-{X-߃. Xs Ata-cn- hwi-p-bmb Imap-Insb K `-h-xn-bm- n-b-xn-ep Ip -t_m[w ]h F C y bphmhv Xncp-Øp- Xv Ahsf hnhmlw snøm Xocp-am-\n- p- -Xn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. F m bphxn s_ivkn K `-On{Zw \S-Øp- p. K `-tømss kzoi-cn- m ]hs IpSpw_w Xøm-dm-bn-cp- p. bph-xn v Dd- n-. K `-Øn\v ImcWw ]h Xs -bmtwm F v. Ahƒ ]e-cp-ssbpw IqsS tu n-ßn\v t]mbn- p- v. ai-s\-sim v BNm-c-{]-Im-c-ap ac- Wm-\- -c-{in-b-iƒ amxm-]n-xm- ƒ Ata-cn- -bn-ep cma-t - {X-Øn sh v snøn- p- p- v. F m-bn-cp p Ip n-bpss t]sc v ]qpmcn tnmzn- p-tºmƒ ]h A w hnsp- p. IY Ah-km-\n- p- Xv ais snin- Øv AΩ \ mbns m v s]m n- p- -txm-ss-bm-wv. \ mbn. F\n v Int - -Xp-X-s -bm-wv. F v ai Biz-kn- p-ibpw snøp- p. C v Ata-cn- -bnse hmb-\- m hf-sc-tbsd CjvS-s -Sp Fgp-Øp-Im-cn Hcm-fmWv AJ-n i Ω. _ -ß-fpsS Bflm amb hni-i-e-\-ß-fm-wv Cu kam-lm-c-ønse IY-Iƒ. A Life of Adventure and Delight, Akhil Sharma. Hamish Hamilton, U.S.A. Page : 190. Price: 599/- 22 -km-lnxyn{i-hmfw

23 kmln-xy-n-{i-hmfw -kmw-kvim-cni hm Ø-Iƒ ae-bm-f-øn ]Tn- mepw imkv{xhnjbßfn apt dmw Fw. apip-μ ae-bm-f-øn ]Tn- m imkv{xhn-j-b-ß-fn apt -dm Ign-bns [mcw Xncp-Ø-W-sa v Fw. apip-μ ]d- p. CXn\v Cw ojv ]Tn- -W-sa- mwv s]mxp-sh-bp [mc-w. AXv am -Ww. ae-bmf sfiy-thzn kwÿm\ ktω-f-\- Øns s]mxp ktω-f\w ]ø- q Km n-]m n DZvLm-S\w snøp- I-bm-bn-cp p At±lw. P m\pw djy-bp-sa mw apt -dn-b-xv amxr-`m-jbn ]T\w \S-Øn-bm-Wv. Xangv\m- n Xan-gn _ncpzw t\snbh v k m tpmen-i-fn \n nx ixam\w kwh-cww G s -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. CXp-t]mse amxr-`m-jsb t{]m m-ln- n- m-\p \S-]Sn F mw ti{μ-ß-fnepw hc-ww. am[ya-k-aq-lw-t]mepw amxr-`m-j-bmb aebm-f-øn\v tic-f-øn A l-amb ]cn-k-w\ \ Ip- n-s pw apipμ ]d- p. ]n ]hn-{x A[y- -\m-bn. kp\n ]n. Cf-bnSw apjy-{]-`mjww \S-Øn. ]n. t{]a-n-{μ kzmk- Xhpw Fw. B atljv \μnbpw ]d- p. Fgp-Øp-Im kph W {]Xn-]- -am-bn-cn- Ww si.-]n. cma-\pæn I n-cm-jv{so-b-øns aqsp-xmß-e Fgp-Øp-Im-cs ZuXy-sa v si. ]n. cma-\p-æn. Fgp-Øp-Im-cs cmjv{sobw F hnj-b-øn kz v kwl-sn- n ]n. tkmhn-μ- n kvarxn-{]-`m-jww \n h-ln- p- I-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. Fgp-Øp- Im kph W {]Xn-]- -am-bn-cn- - Ww. A]-c-\p-th- n-bp tcmz-\-ambn-cn- Ww Ahs cmjv-{so-bsa pw At±lw Iq n-t Øp. AXpsIm- p-xs Cc-Iƒs m w \n p-i-sb- -XmWv Fgp-Øp-Imcs ZuXyw. ]oun- n- -s -Sp \yq\-]- -߃ pw ]ou-\-ta - p kv{xoiƒ pw Cc-I-fm- -s - Sp kaq-l-߃ pw A\p-Iq-eambn \n -W-sa pw At±lw ]d- p. kz v ap sshkv snb - am hn.-si. jd-^p-±o A[y- X hln- p. XpS v enkn-bpss t_mdn- _- -dnse ]ip F IYm-k-am-lmc-sØ- p-dn v s]mxp-n \S- p. am[-h ]pd-t -cn, s{]m^. Fw. lcn- Zm-kv, s{]m^. ]nf {]Im-iv, Znhy Fw. apcfn F n-h ]s -Sp-Øp. Sn.Un cma-ir-jvw\v BZcw hb-em Ahm Uv t\snb t\mhenãv Sn.-Un. cma-ir-jvws\ Ip w- Ipfw ]ucm-h-en-bpss t\xr-xz- Øn BZ-cn- p. ap a{ n Fw. F t n DZvLm-S\w snbvxp. A]-am- \-I-c-amb `ocpxzw \msns apj-ap-{zbm-ip Ime-L- -Øn AXns\ tnmzywsnøm Xøm-dmb Fgp-Øp- Im-c-\mWv Sn.-Un-sb v t n A`n- {]m-b-s - p. \K-c-k` snb t]- gvk kox cho-{μ A[y- X hln- p. Ahm Un-\ l-amb t\mh kpk n F B mƒ tzh-\m-b-in-bpss hyxykvx am\-ßsf-ip-dn v tum. Fw.-hn. \mcm-b-w, ]n.-f tkm]o-ir-jvw, I ho- \ hn.-si. {iocm-a F n-h kwkm-cn- p. _m_p Fw. ]men-t»- cn, \K-c-k` sshkvsn-b am ]n.- Fw. kptc-jv, Ãm Unßv IΩn n A[y- - m-cmb jmpn Ben-, anj sk_m-ãy, kpa iin-[-c F n-hcpw ]s -Sp-Øp. ]ucm-h-enbpss D]-lmcw Fw.-F. t n Sn.- Un. cma-ir-jvw\v kωm-\n- p. hnhn[ kwl-s\, kmwkvim-cni {]h Ø-Icpw Sn.-Un.sb BZ-cn- p. ]pkvx-i-{]im-i\w aq p h\n-x-iƒ Fgp-Xnb ]pkv- X-I-ß-fpsS {]Im-i\w tim -bøv Z i\ A m-cmjv{s ]pkvx-i-taf \K-dn \S- p. tum. sxtck Bet -cn-bpss "Ip pæn amjns Imhy {]] w' F ]T\w si.-_n. {]k- -Ip-amdpw {iotzhn sh qcns "\mep-si v' F t\mh ticf kmlnxy A m-zan P\-d Iu kn ap AwKw ssi\-icn jmpnbpw B tacn tp - ns "KXn' F IhnXm kam-lmcw tum.- _m_p sndn-bm\pw {]Im-i\w snbvxp. tum. sk hn tkhy, aocm IrjvW,s{]m^. an\n adnbw k -dnb F n-h bym-{iaw tim n- Iƒ kzoi-cn- p. tum.-kn.sp tdmbnbpss A y- -X-bn \S NSßn tum. t]mƒ awen, s{]m^. tpmfn si. amxyp, t n- - G Ø-bn F n-h {]kw-kn- p. hb-em Ahm Uv t\snb t\mh-enãv Sn.-Un. cma-ir-jvws\ Ip w-ipfw ]ucm-h-enbpss t\xr-xz-øn BZ-cn- p NS-ßn Fw.-F. t n D]-lmcw \ Ip- p Unkw-_ 23

24 kmln-xy-n-{i-hmfw Ahm Up-Iƒ _lp-a-xn-iƒ krvp-b ]pc-kvimcw ]n. h -ebv v X]ky Iem-km-ln-Xy-th-Zn-bpsS krvp-b ]pc-kvim-c-øn\v ]n. h -esb Xnc-s -Sp-Øp. 50,000 cq]bpw {]i-kvxn-]-{xhpw AS-ßp- - XmWv ]pc-kvim-cw. F. Aø- ]pc-kvimcw Ipco- pg {ioip-am-dn\v Ab\w F. Aø- IhnXm ]pc-kvimcøn\v Ipco- pg {ioip-am A l-\m-bn. D F Ihn-Xm-k-amlm-c-amWv cq]-bpss ]pc-kvimc-øn\v A l-am-b-xv. CS-t»cn ]pc-kvimcw Cu h jsø CS-t»cn ]pckvimcw \mep \ms-i-ir-øp- ƒ v. ]fl \mdm-øns hnjm-z-im-fiw, acww C. N{μ-ti-J-c \mb {KŸ-Im-c\pw apxn kn.-]n.- sf. t\xmhpw ap a-{ n-bp-amb C. N{μ-ti-J-c \mb (89) \hw- _ 29\v Xncp-h-\- -]p-cøv A -cn- p C y tkmjy-enãv ]m n-bnepw C y Iayq- WnÃv ]m n-bnepw AwK-am-bn. kn.]n.sf. kwÿm-\-iu kn tziob I t{smƒ IΩn-j AwKw, kwÿm\ I t{smƒ IΩnj snb am F o \ne-i-fn {]h Øn- p. kn.-]n.-sf. apj-]-{xamb P\-bp-K-Øns ap amt\-pnmv FUn mwv. "ticf hni-k\ amxri: {]Xn-k- nbpw ]cn-lm-c-am km-lnxyn{i-hmfw Pnj A`n-\-b-bpsS Gen Gen, eam k_v m-\n, dnbm-kns ASp-]p-enbm- w, F. im -Ip-am-dns \mk, \ns t]sc- mwv? F o IrXn-Iƒ mwv ]pc-kvimcw. ]pc-kvim-c- Øp-I-bmb 25,000 cq] tpxm- ƒ p Xpey-ambn ] p-hbv pw ae-bmf `mj ]mt-ime ]pc-kvim-c-߃ ]ø- q ae-bmf `mj ]mt-im-ebpss 2017se N p-ta-t\m ]pckvim-c-øn\v si. F. taml-\- h Ω-sbbpw krvp-b IhnX ]pc-kvim-c-øn\v Fkv. cta-i \mb-scbpw bph-{]-xn` ]pc-kvim-c- Øn\v Bcy tkm]n-sbbpw sxc-s - Sp-Øp cq]bpw Zmtam-Z-c sht md cq]i ]\ snbvx inev]-hp-am-wv ]pc-kvim-cw. ßfpw', "lnμp-axw lnμpx-xzw', "NnX-dnb Hm Ω-Iƒ', "ad mø Hm a-iƒ F o ]pkvx-i-߃ cnn- n- p v. "lnμp-axw lnμpxzw' F ]pkvx-i-øn\v ticf kmlnxy A m-z-an-bpss F tum-hvsa v ]pc-kvimcw e`n- p. B. i -c-\m-cmbw Xºn ]pc-kvimcw, kzm-\- μ Ahm Uv XpS-ßnb AwKo-Imc-ßfpw At±-l-Øn\v e`n p. jum-\-\ B\n- Øv Nn{X-Im-c\pw inev]nbpw ]me- m-s kwkvir- Xn-bpsS {]Nm-c-I- \p-am-bn-cp jum-\\ B\n- Øv (Ip-t - 77) \hw-_ 26\v Nn q-cn A -cn- p. ]me- msv {ioam \ºq-Xncn ]pc-kvimcw C.-sI. jmln-\ v Cu h jsø Un. {ioam \ºq- Xncn kmlnxy ]pc-kvimcw C.-sI. jmln-\-bpss "]pxp-a-g- qcp Npw_-\-߃ F IrXn- v. B nãv \ºq-Xncn cq]-i ]\ snbvx inev]hpw {]ikvxn ]{Xhpw cq]bpw AS-ßp- -XmWv Ahm Uv. sshtem- n n ]pc-kvimcw kptajv IrjvW\v sshtem- n n kvamci kan-xnbpss Ihn-Xm-]p-c-kvIm-c-Øn\v F.- F-kv. kptajv IrjvW A l- \mbn cq]bpw inev]hpw {]ikvxn-]-{x-hp-amwv ]pc-kvim-cw. Nn{X-Iem ]cn-j-øns ÿm]- ImwKw, ticf t^mivtem A m- Zan ap `c-w-k-an-xn-bwkw, efn-x- Iem A m-zan `cwkan-xn-bwkw, ticf kwko-x-\m-si A m- ZanbwKw F n-ßs\ {]h Øn- p. \mtsmsn \ms-i-\rø kwl- Øns sk{i- -dn-bmwv. apwss_ {_n ojv C Ãn- yq v Hm^v simtagvkn \n v Ita-gvky B Svkn Untπm-a-t\-Snb Ct±lw Irjn Pohn- X-am Kambn Ah-km-\-Imew hsc sim p-\-s- p. hb-dn-ßnepw Untπma t\sn-bn-cp- p. a{zmkv timtfpv Hm^v B Svkn \n v ss^ B Svknepw s]bn nßnepw C -t{k- Uv Untπm-abpw t\sn. XØ-aw-Kew ti{μo-i-cn v snº-i-t»cn hniz-hp-ambn tn v "kplrøv' F amkni {]kn- o- I-cn- n-cp- p.

25 hnth-im-\-μ-kv] i-w hnth-im-\μ Nn -Iƒ C y- msc kzmx-{ y-øn\v A l-cm n kzman \μm-fl-pm-\μ B bn-c-øm- p-iƒ \o ASnaØØns Dd- -Øn \n pw C y P\-Xsb DW Ønb alm-\mb \thm- m- \-in-ev]n-bmwv hnth-im-\-μ-s\ v kzman \μm-fl-pm-\μ ]d- p. ticf kmlnxy A m-zan hnth-im-\-μ-kv] i-øns `mkambn kwl-sn- n kzman hnth-im-\-μ\pw C y \thm- m-\hpw F kmwkvimcn-i-k-tω-f\w DZvLm-S\w snøp-i-bm-bncp p At±-lw. sshtz-in-i-hm-gvn-bn \n pw kzmx{ yw t\sm\pw, kzmx-{ y-øn\v km[m-c-w-p\-xsb A l-cm- m-\p-ap _u n-i-{]-h Ø-\-amWv hnth-im-\-μ \n Δ-ln- -Xv. tcmkw, ] n-wn, A X F o ISpØ bmym y-ß-fn \n v C ysb tamnn- n- m thzm Z i-\-ß-sf {]tbm-p- \-s -Sp-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp p At±-lw. henb am -߃ v thzn-bmb C ysb kz w kmwkvim-cn-i-ss]-xr-i- Øn A`n-am-\n- m ]Tn- n- Xv hnth-im-\-μ-\m-wv. e`n p kzmx-{ ysø kwc- n- m km[m-c-w-p- \-ß-sf k -am- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p At±-lw. ]pxnbtemiw \n Ωn m al-ømb thzm- -Nn- - Isf ]p\-cp- o-hn- n- p. Km npn, kp`m-jvn-{μ-t_m-kv, Ac-_n-tμm, SmtKm XpS-ßnb tzim-`n-am-\n-i-fpss sxmsp-]pg hmk n Ne- n-{x- -\m- SI \Snbpw \rø A[ym-]n-I-bp-am-bncp sxmsp-]pg hmk n (65) \hw- _ 28\v sxmsp-]pg- hmg- p-føv A -cn- p. \ms-i- Øn-eq-sSbpw \rø-øn-eq-ssbpw Ne- n-{x-tem-i-sø-ønb hmk n \m\q- -º-tXmfw kn\n-a-i-fn A`n- \-bn- p ]pd-øp-h "Fs \oem-imiw' Bbn-cp p BZy kn- \na ]pd-øn-d-ßnb "CXp ticf kmlnxy A m-zan "hnth-im-\-μ-kv] i'-øns `mk-ambn kwl-sn- n kzman hnth-im-\-μ\pw C y \thm- m-\hpw F kmwkvim-cn-i-k-tω-f\w kzman-\-μm-fl-pm-\μ DZvLm-S\w snøp- p. tum. si.pn. ]utem-kv, A m-zan {]kn-u v sshim-j, AwKw Sn.-Un. cma-ir-jvw F n-h kao-]w. krjvsn v ]nd-in hnth-im-\-μ-nn- -Iƒ snepønb kzm[o-\-am-wp- -Xv. temi-p-\-xsb {]tnm-zn- n hnth- Im-\-μ-k-tμ-i-߃ v Imem-Xo-X-amb {]k- n-bps pw At±lw ]d- p. ticf kmlnxy A m-zan {]kn-u v sshim-j A[y- -X-h-ln- p. tum.-si.- Pn.-]u-temkv apjy-{]-`m-jww \S-Øn. A m-zan AwKw Sn.-Un.-cm-a-Ir-jvW kzmk-xhpw ]pjv]-p I\m-cØv \μnbpw ]d- p. XpS v ticf Iem-a-fiew Ah-Xcn- n hnhn[ Iem-]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ Ac-tß-dn. Xm Sm t]meokv' Bbn-cp p Ahkm\ Nn{Xw. ticf kwkox \msi A m-zan ]pc-kvimcw e`n- n- p- v. them-bp-[ axp- c dn. kv qƒ sluvam-ãdpw kmln-xy-im-c-\pamb them-bp-[ axp- c (69) \hw- _ 22\v ]d- qcn A -cn- p. ]p - msw, Bi, am m- p-a-e, ]mcn F n t\mh-ep- Iƒ FgpXn. Aae F t]cn IYm-]p-kvXIw cnn- p. A nt {Xw F Xnc- Ybpw Adp-\qtdmfw Km\-ßfpw Fgp-Xn-bn- p- v. Im p-amsw A\n \ºq-Xncn {]apj Xm{ n- I am{ ni BNmcy\pw kmln-xy- Im-c\p-amb ht cn Im p-amsw A\n \ºq-Xncn (50) Unkw-_ 6 \v Fd-Wm-Ip-fØv A -cn- p. kmwkvim-cn-i s]mxp-{]- h Ø\ cwk-ß-fnse \nd-km- n-[yam-bn-cp- p. am{ nihn-zy-bn Kl- \-amb ]T\w \S-Øn-bn- p- v Unkw-_ 25

26 B O O K R E V I E W lrz-b-h-xn-bmb Hcp s] Ip n Fw. apip-μ lrz-b-h-xn-bmb Hcp s] Ip- n, Nmb, txm hn, hn`-p-\w, KpW-]m-Tw, Dd w XpSßn ]Øp-I-Y-I-fpsS kam-lmcw. IY-bpsS cn-\m-k-t -X-ß-fn-tebv v th - -t]mse {]th-in-bv p- -Xn\p aptº Fgp-Xn-b-h-bm-sW- nepw X\nbv v G hpw {]nbs IY-I-fm-Wh F v Fgp-Øp-Im-c km y-s Sp- Øp- p. {]km: lcnxw _pivkv, timgn-t m-sv, hne , t]pv: 114 Xncp-thm- -c-s]-cp-a kpip-am ]pxnb Xe-ap-dbv v Adn-bm\pw ]gb-x-e-ap-dbv v Ab-hn-d- m\pw Xeÿm\ \K-cn-sb- p-dn- p Nne hnh-c߃. H w kμ t`m-nn-x-amb Xqen-Im-Nn- {X-ß-fpw. Hcp Xncp-thm- -c-_mj' Cu ]pkvx-isø DS-\ofw kpo-h-am- n-sim pw hmb-\- mcn Nncn-]-c-Øn-s m pw CXn k -cn-bv p- Xp ImWmw {]km: {]`mxv _piv lukv, hne: , t]pv: 160 Aßs\ Hcp Zn\w \ko-dp-±o jm ]cn: ]n.-f. thwp-tkm-]m efn-x-kp-`-khpw kxyk- -hp-amb `mj-bn, hy n-]-chpw kn\n-am-kw-_- -hp-amb Hm Ω-Iƒ AS-bm-f-s -Sp- Øp ]pkvx-iw. IpSpw-_mw-K-ß-sf- pdn pw, kviqƒ timtfpv Pohn-X-sØ- p-dn pw am{x-a-. F{_mlnw A m-kn, iymw _\-K, Kncojv I Wm- Sv, i_m\m Bkvan XpS-ßnb AXn-Im-b-sc- p-dn p lrz-b-kv] in-bmb hnh-c-w-߃ CXn ImWmw. {]km: Id v _pivkv. Xr»q hne 280cq. t]pv 340 hn] ktμ-i-߃ Cug-hcpw a p cn-\-ifpw kn. -B. ]c-ta-iz-c \oxn-sb- p-dn- p Xo{h-amb DXvI- WvT-Iƒ ]e-cq-]-am n-bv p ]pkvx- Iw. Cug-h, ax-]-cn-h Ø\w XpS-ßnb Ihn-X-Ifpw hnhn[ hnj-b-ß-sf- p-dn- p ]tømfw Ipdn- p-i-fp-amwv CXn Dƒs m- p- -Xv. [z\n-km-{μ-amb L\-i-_vZ-Øn {]Xn-[z-\n-I-fp- m- p cn-\m-ssi-en-sim v {it -b-amb ]pkvx-iw. {]km: Id v _pivkv. Xr»q hne 100cq. t]pv km-lnxyn{i-hmfw kmln-xy-n-{i-hmfw ]pkvx-i -]-cn-nbw A\m- -anãv s^z-cnsim A -lm-kn hnh: cmp XpΔmc \thm- m-\-ime C -en-bpss tamln- nbv p BJym\w Dƒs m- p t\mh. kv{xo ssewkn-i-x-bpss cl-ky߃ A\m-h-cWw snøm {ian {]ikvx `nj-kz-c, am ntbm simfw-t_m-bpss Pohn-X- Øn-eqsS A m-e-øp-am-{x-a-, C pw \ne-\n p ap hn-[n-isf Cu IrXn tnmzyw snøp- p. {]km: Id v _pivkv. Xr»q hne 200cq. t]pv 223 Zo]-inJ tum. hb-em hmkp-tz-h ]n {InkvXp-hns XymK-hpw, {iocm-a-irjvw-]-c-a-lw-k-p-cpss -c-n-\-ifpw s]mxp- P-\-ß-fn-te-bvs -Øn-bv m-\p Hcp-]m-[nsb a n cnn-bv -s \msiw. AtXmsSm w AXv \ms-i-sø- p-dn- p Hcp \msiw IqSn A h-ln-bv p-ibpw Hcp sa m-xo-b- - dns kz`m-h-øn-tebv v hf-cp-ibpw snøp p. {]km: amfp-_ {]kn- o-i-cww hne : 55 cq. t]pv :62 {iotz-hnbpw Rm\pw spbnwkpw bp.si.-ip-am-c IpSpw-_-Po-hn-X-Ønse sim p-sim- - \p-`-h-߃ kc-k-ambn Ah-X-cn- n- p {iotz-hnbpw Rm\pw spbnwkpw, Iemiw F o c p elp-t\m-h-ep-i-fpss kamlmcw {]km: \oemw-_-cn, timgn-t msv t]pv :82 hne :75 cq. hm tkm-kn\v Fw.-sI. lcn-ip-am temi-{]-ikvx Nn{X-Im-c-\mb hm tkm-kns kwl j-`-cn-x-amb PohnXw {]ta-b-am-hp t\mh. hm tkm-kns s]bn nwkv D]-tbm-Kn v km_p ]pxp- -d-º hc apj-nn-{xw. {]km: kqcy-_pivkv ]ªn-jnwKv lukv s\ q Fd-Wm-Ipfw t] 96 hne 105

27 AØn- md {io[-c NºmSv Hcn-bv epw t\ tc-j-bn-eqss apt dmø a\p-jy-po-hn-x-øns k o Æ-X- Iƒ AS-bm-f-s -Sp-Øp t\mh. sacp- n-bmepw sacp-ßmø Ima-\-I-fp-am-b-ebp a\p-jys k m-c-߃, Pohn- XsØ kz]v\-`-cn-x-am p A p-x-߃. Ch-sbms lrzy-amb `mj-bn Ah-X-cn- n-bv p- p- v Cu ]pkvx- I-Øn {]km: Id v _pivkv, Xr»q hne 250cq. t]pv 312 Xoh n Xkvan jnlm_v {]Xn-tcm-[-ß-fn-eqsS ]nsn- p-\nev m\pw Pohn-XsØ kz w Isøm- p-ifn-eqss AS-bm-f-s -Sp-Øm\pw {ian- p 39 Ihn-X-Iƒ. ayqkv tacn tpm Pn-s bpw ^m. tum. kp\n tpmkn-s -bpw ap pc-ifpw DÆn-Ir-jvW Iot -cn-bpss ]n p-cbpw Ihn- X-I-fpsS D -d-i-fn-tebv v shfn w hoip- p. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 64. hne cq ampniv _p v imen-\n. Sn.-Fkv Beo-kv, B\n F o Ip n-ifpw In p F Ddpºpw Hcp- p IYm-tem- Iw. 7 mw m v hnzym n-\n-bmwv IYm- Imcn F Xv hmb-\-bnse IuXpIw h n- n- p- p. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 64. hne cq cmt[-bw cma-n-{μ kqcy-km-b-{xn alm-`m-c-xsø A\p-kva-cn- n- p IYm-k- n-i-tfmss thwp-tkm-]-s bpw kpz i-\-s bpw IY-]-d-bp t\mh. Ac-\q- m p ap ]n-esø tic-fob Pohn- X-amWv {]Xn-^-en- n- p- -sx- nepw C pw ]mcm-b-w-kpjw \ Ip- -XmWv BJym-\-ssi-en. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t] hne cq BNm-c-߃ v Indp- p-]n-sn- p-tºmƒ apcfn klym{zn kzbw Ah-c-h-sc-Xs hnhmlw snbvx-h, ]mºns\ IeymWw Ign kpμcn, H w Dd-ßnb BSns\ hnhmlw snbvx-h, ]pcp-j-\m-hm Ddp-ºn Iq n IønSp h XpSßn hnnn-{x-ß-sf- nepw bmym- y-ß-fmb 105 hnnn-{x-amb BNm-c-ß-sf- p-dn- p Ipdn- p-iƒ. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t] hne cq ssu\-tkm-dn-b kptcjv Iogn w tihe cmjv{sobøn\- p-d-ap Dƒ m-gvn-ifpw ]mcn-ÿn-xn-i-amb Bi- -Ifpw ] p-hbv- p ]o Zn t{k v, Aley A]m vsa vkv, Kcp-U ]d-h, ssu\-tkm-dn-b, Htc ]pg XpSßn 18 IY- I-fpsS kam-lm-cw. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 79. hne cq s]m ssi-i-hta KwK. B \jvs-s _meysø hm p-i-fn-eqss Xncn p ]nsn- m-\p {ia-amwv s]m ssi-i-h-ta, Adnhv \ni-bnse tcm[-\-ta, AÆm-d- -Æ XpSßn 37 Ihn-X-Iƒ {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 63. hne cq hnd-ip-acw KncojvIpam {ioeiw achpw agbpw {]Ir-Xn-bpsS ] - psa mw {]ta-b-am-hp sndp-i-hn-x-iƒ. Ihn lrz-b-øns hnlz-e-x-iƒ Xpd p Im p tkm]o-ir-jvws Ah-Xm-cn-Ibpw. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 94. hne cq N{I-Kn-cn-bnse hoc- m crvpnxv tpm Pv Ip n-isf A p-x-tem-itø v B\- bn- p hn{`-am-fl-i-amb _me-t\m-h. kn n- ]- n- p-d-øns Ah-Xm-cnI {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 48. hne cq alm-\m-b Imƒam Ivkv si.-fw. N{μ-i Ω A zm-\n- p- -h-s bpw Zpcn-X-a-\p-`hn- p- -h-s bpw Nq n-x-s bpw hntam- N-\-Øn-\p- th- n-bp t]mcm- -Øn\v kzbw ka n Imƒam Ivkns kw`h-_-lp-e-amb Pohn-X-IY BJym\w snøp {]muv{kÿw. \memw-]-xn v. shfnbw `m - hs Ah-Xm-cn-I. {]km: {]`mxv _pivlukv, Xncp-h-\- -]pcw. t] hne cq Unkw-_ 27

28 Iº-s v Fw. Pbdmw ]p nß shsn-s p Zpc- -a-s w ka-ime kw`-h-߃ {]ta-b-am-hp Bdp-I-Y-Iƒ. PohnXm-\p-`-h-ß-fpsS Xo vw-h W-߃ Cu IY-I-fn {]Xn- ^-en- p- p-s v Ah-Xm-cn-I-bn s{]m^. (tum) C. k Zm Ip n ]d-bp- p. {]km: {]`mxv _p vlukv, Xncp-h-\- -]pcw. t] hne cq.90. Xnc-kvI-cn- -s sszh-߃ Fw.sI. N{μ-ti-J-c Xnc-kvI-cn- -s sszh-߃, Ih - m-c, A -\m-co-iz-c XpSßn ]Xn-s\m p IY-Iƒ. IpSpw -ßfpw axhpw cmjv{so-bhpw kulr-zhpw kmtlm-z-cy-hp-sa mw Cu IY-I-fn {]ta-b-am-hp- p- v. {]km: temtkmkv _pivkv, hnf-bq, ]me- msv, t]. 108, hne cq GIm-In-tØm- w kn. kptc-{μ H s Sens Xo{h-s\m-ºcw ] p-shbv p GIm-In-bpƒ ss ap Xp Ihn- X-Iƒ, A\p-`-h߃, hnim-c-߃, Zriy߃ XpSßn {]IrXnZØ-amb F mw ChnsS Imhy-hn-j-b-amhp p. lrzy-amb Bhn-jvI-c-Ww. {]km: {Kmaw _pivkv, sim w-, t]. 47. hne cq.50. Aam-hm-kn-bnse ]q ƒ {]`m-i-c hbe `K-h-Xn-]p-c-sa {Kmahpw Np p-ap h\-`qanbpw IYm-`q-an-I-bm-hp t\mh. ] nifpw Im p-ap-b-ep-ifpw Im m-\-i-fp-sa mw {Kmao-W-tcm-sSm w kl-h ØnXzw ]pe Øp hyxykvxamb BJym\w. {]km: {]`mxv _p vlukv, Xncp-h-\- -]pcw. t] hne cq.100. Xmbve v bm{x-iƒ, ImgvN-Iƒ F.Iyp. salvzn. Xmbve nse Xnc p ]nsn sxcp-hp- I-fn-eq-sS-bp Pohn-X-Øns IpsØmgp- v. Ahn-SsØ cpnn-t`-z-߃, a\p-jykvt\-l-øns k Δ-eu-In-Im-\p-`-h߃ F n-h-bpss Bhn-jv m-c-øn-eqss hyxy-kvxamb Hcp bm{xm-hn-h-c-ww. sim hpw tic-fhpw C ybpw BJym-\-Øns Hcp tdm]vthsim v Xmbve p-ambn _ n-x-am-ip- p. {]km: ]q Æ ]ªn-t -j kv, timgn-t m-sv hne : 95 cq. t]pv : km-lnxyn{i-hmfw Aÿn-]RvPcw kzm-in-h ]qh-øq C ysb \Sp- nb kp\man Zpc- -Øns ] m-ø-e-øn CXƒ hncn-bp-, \nc-h[n \ms-iob aplq Øß-fpsS, Hcp JWvU-Im-hyw. km{º-zmbni Imhy-c-N\m k{º-zm-b-øns F m khn-ti-j-x-ifpw Cu IYm-Imhyw Dƒs m- -p- p. {]km: {]`mxv _p vlukv, Xncp-h-\- -]pcw. t]. 56. hne cq.60. A\m-Ys hgn-b-º-e-߃ kn. kptc-{μ a\p F km[m-c-w- m-cs kwl j-`-cn-x-amb Pohn-X-IY ]d-bp t\mh. Bfl-I-Y-bpsS cn\mcoxn-bn Fgp-Xnb Cu IrXn ani ]mcm-b-wkpjw \ Ip- p. {]km: {Kmaw _p vkv, sim w. t] hne cq.150. Ahn-Nm-cn-Xw Sn. \μ-ip-am-c I Ø kzm\p-`-h-øns Xo vw-xbpw sshim-cn-i-xbpw Dƒs m- p ]Xn-t\gv A\p-`-h-I-Y-Iƒ. efn-xhpw lrzy-hp-amb `mjm-co-xn. {]km: kvt\l-`qan ]ªn-t -j kv, CS-Ø-e, Bep-h. t]. 95. hne cq.120. c - -Æo Imbw-Ipfw kzman-\m-yv AXn-Po-h-\-Øn-\p-th- n-bp Xo{h-b- -Øn-\n-S-bn A[n-Im-cn-h -Øns {Iqc-Xbv pw NqjW-Øn\pw Cc-bmbn PohnXw tlman- -s -Sp- -h mbn ka n- p t\mh. {]km: kz w {]km-[-\w, t] hne cq.250. Ip n-iƒ p-amhmw ]mn-iw imcni Sn.-F-kv ]Ømw- m v hnzym n-\n-bmb tejni ]mn-i-hn-z-kv[-\mb apø- -\pambn \S-Øp kw`m-j-w-øns cq]- Øn cpnn-i-c-amb kky-`- -W-cp-Nn- q- p-i-fpss ]mn-i-c-lkyw hmb-\- m-cp-ambn ] p-hbv p p. {]km: sbkv{]kv _pivkv, s]cp-ºm-hq. t]. 48. hne cq.50.

29 kocn-b \Sn sim p-t{xky ]n.- si. XymK-cm-P kz -ambn cn-\bpw {]km-[-\hpw \n h-ln v hmb-\- m v kup-\y-ambn hnx-cww snøp Hcp kml-kn-is 14 maxp t\mh. Imdn-\p- n h v ]ou\ hnt[-b-bmb Hcp s] Ip- nbpss IY ]d-bp-, ka-im-e-kw-`-h-ßsf A\p-kva-cn- n- p t\mh. {]km: kz w {]km-[\w : t]: 200 hne cq] tic-fm-t]m-eokv Ncn-{Xhpw h Ø-am-\hpw si. cmp C pw km[m-c-w- m sx p -`-btøm-ss-bmwv t]meo-kp-imsc t\m n- m-wp- -Xv. Cu \ne-]msv icn-b-s pw kmln-xyw, kwkvim-cw, {KŸ-imem {]ÿm\w XpSßn F m afi-e-ß-fnepw {Inbm-fl-I-]- m-fnøw hln- m t]meo-kp-im p Ign-bp-sa pw hy -am- p ]Xn-s\ p {]_- -ß-fpsS kam-lm-cw. {]km: amfp-_ Xncp-h-\- -]pcw t]pv 159 hne.135 am p-hn N -ßsf Sn.-sI.-Un. apg- n-e-ßmsv Ipam-c-\m-ims Zpc-hÿ F Jfi-Im-hy-Øns t\mh cq]m- cw {]km: lcnxw _pivkv, timgn-t msv, t]pv 130 hne.110 ss]ytkm-dkpw Bcy-`-S\pw a p KWn-X-im-kv{X- cpw kppb ]n. Xmbm v ss]ytkm-d-kv, Bcy-`-S, {_ -Kp- ]vx, bq n-uv, `mkvi-cm-nm-cy, Fkv. cmam-\p-p XpS-ßnb KWn-X-im-kv{X- cpss Pohn-Xhpw tkh-\hpw ]cn-n-b-s - Sp-Øp _me-km-ln-xy-ir-xn. {]km: lcnxw _pivkv, timgn-t msv, t]pv 74 hne. 70 ] nt`mp\w B _me-ir-jvw \thm- m\ Ime-L- -Øn tic-f- Øn \ne-hn-en-cp AbnØw XpSßnb Zpcm-Nm-c-߃s -Xnsc hoin-b-sn simsp- m- m-bn-cp p hmkv`-sm-\-μ-kp-cp-tzhs hm pw {]hr-øn-bpw. B Ime-L- sø Ne-\-߃ H n-sb-spø t\mh. IS-Ø-\m- p-\mcm-b-ws Ah-Xm-cnI {]km: kz w {]km-[\w. t]pv 120 hne 150 Hcp Ipc-ßp-I-Ybpw kmk-c-kp-μ-cnbpw si. ]n. kp[oc Kpcp ]d IY, Poh-\-Ie XpSßn Ggp kmaqly IY-Ifpw shæ-xn IÆ XpSßn \mep ]pcmw IY-Ifpw Ip n-iƒ n-w-ßp `mj-bn Ah-X-cn- n- p- p. _mea-\- p-i-fn-tebv v \ -bp-ssbpw {]Xym-i-bp-sSbpw a\pjy-xz-øn-s bpw ktμiw ]I-cm Cu IY-Iƒ ]cym- ]vx-am-wv. {]km: lcnxw, timgn-t msv t]pv 82 hne 75 ]Xn-{h-X-I-fmb cm n-am kpaw-ke hrμ, Za-b- n, iip- f XpSßn ]Xnaq p ]pcm-w-\m-bn-i-am-cpss IY ]p\-cm- Jym\w snøp _me-km-ln-xy-ir-xn. {]km: lcnxw, timgn-t msv. t] 114 hne 100 a\- n-em-hmø sx v Ac-hn-μ \nxy-po-hn-xm-\p-`-h-߃ ]e-t mgpw IY-Isf mƒ hnnn-{x-am-bn-cn- pw. {]Xn- P-\-`n- -amb a\pjy Pohn-X-sØ kv]jvso- I-cn- p ]Xn-\mep IY-Iƒ. {]km: F v & kn _pivkv, Xriq. t] 128 hne 110 ]pcp-j-{kmaw tum. ]n.-si. `mky-e van ]pcp-j-{kmaw apx dq_ hsc 16 IY-Iƒ. i -amb ktμ-i-߃ \ Ip kv{xo] cn-\-i-fmwv IY-Isf- mw. {]km: Nn ]ªn-tj-gvkv, Xncp-h-\- -]pcw 35 t] 64 hne 60 alm-`m-cxw tum. F. si. iio-{μ alm-`m-c-x-iy efnx ae-bm-f-øn ]p\-cm-jym\w snbvxn-cn- p- p. alm-`mcx alm-km-k-cøntebv v \s mcp {]thi-i-am-wo-ir-xn. {]km: kabw ]ªn-t -j kv, IÆq. t]pv :176 hne :160 cq Unkw-_ 29

30 kvacwob Zn\-߃ 2018 P\p-hcn 1. \h-h- -c-zn\w {InkvXp-h jm-cw`w \mjw _pivãmƒ Hcp kzimcy ÿm]-\-ambn XpSßn 1945 tic-f-an{xw (tzhvpn `oavpn) XpSßn 1831 Pn. i -c- n Nc-a-Zn\w ]n.-sp. B Wn P- -Zn\w 1925 tpmkv Nnd-Ω P- -Zn\w a Øp ]fl-\m-` P -Zn\w 1878 tum. Fkv.-sI. \mb Nc-a-Zn\w KoXm-ln-c-Wy Nc-a-Zn\w kn. A - mbn P -Zn\w 1862 si.-fw. amxyp P -Zn\w sim w ]ªnIv sse{_dn XpSßn 1979 hn. `mkvi-c \m-b P -Zn\w k Zm si.-fw. ]Wn- P -Zn\w ]p\-eq _me P -Zn\w 1929 Iq\ Ipcn-ip-kXyw 1653 F.-]n. apl-ωzv Nc-a-Zn\w Nmhd Ipcym-t mkv Gen-bmkv Nc-a-Zn\w ]ptø-gøv `mkvi-c-ta-t\m P -Zn\w eoem Zmtam-Z-c-ta-t\m P -Zn\w 1923 Sn.-sI. cma-ir-jvw P -Zn\w \ -\m P -Zn\w 1926 Iem-a-fiew sslz-cen Nc-a-Zn\w aqøn-cn-tßm v `h-{xm-x \ºq-Xn-cn- msv Nc-a-Zn\w F.-F. I msv Nc-a-Zn\w Fw.-kn. tpmk^v P -Zn\w \h-bpkw hmcni XpSßn 1950 ]fin v chn-i- P -Zn\w H. N p-ta-t\m P -Zn\w 1847 hn. IrjvW Xºn P -Zn\w 1890 hn. DÆn-Ir-jvW \mb P -Zn\w 1893 hnwkn (hn.-fw. _me-n-{μ ) Nc-a-Zn\w Hf -aæ (kp{_- -Wy \ºq-Xncn) P -Zn\w 1923 ]n.-hn. IrjvW \m-b P -Zn\w 1911 si.-]n.-pn. \ºq-Xncn Nc-a-Zn\w ]pxp- n cml-h P -Zn\w 1910 tum. si.-fw. {]`m-i-c-hm-cy Nc-a-Zn\w Ip d hnfw-_cw 1809 ae-bmfn satωm-dn-b ka n p 1891 ]mem si. -Fw. amxyp P -Zn\w tziob bph-p-\-zn\w kzman hnth-im-\-μ P -Zn\w 1863 AºmSn C m-hω P -Zn\w 1898 tum. si. tkmz-h Ω P -Zn\w 1902 Un.-kn. Ing-t -apdn P -Zn\w 1914 sf.-si.si tat\m Nc-a-Zn\w kn. ANyp-X-ta-t\m P -Zn\w 1913 sh awn al (I-Zw-_ \ºq-Xn-cn) Nc-a-Zn\w Nnd-bv Sn. _me-ir-jvw \mb Nc-a-Zn\w amwn am[-h-nm-iym Nc-a-Zn\w Fw.-B. _me-ir-jvw-hm-cn-b Nc-a-Zn\w si.-kn. ]o P -Zn\w 1922 Xr q-wn-øpd kwkvirx timtfpv XpSßn si.-]n.-f.-kn. XpSßn 1951 ]n.-f-kv. A\- -\m-cm-b-w-imkv{xn Nc-a-Zn\w si.-]n.-_n.- ]msyw P -Zn\w 1928 A pæn \ºym Fw.-kn. Nc-a-Zn\w Xp kvamciw (Xn-cq ) XpSßn km-lnxyn{i-hmfw Fw.-hn.-tZ-h P -Zn\w Ip n- p-døp tii-h \mb Nc-a-Zn\w t{]w\-ko Nc-a-Zn\w kn.-pn. im -Ip-am P -Zn\w ]fin v tkm]m-e \mb Nc-a-Zn\w Ipam-c-\m-im Nc-a-Zn\w hn.si am[-h Ip n P -Zn\w amxr-`qan BgvN- -Xn v XpSßn 1938 B nãv ]n.-sp. sndn-bm Nc-a-Zn\w Sn.-F. cmp-e van Nc-a-Zn\w Fw.-F- v. imkv{xn-iƒ (alm-tzh lcn-lc imkv{xn-iƒ) P -Zn\w kztz-im-`n-am\n ]{Xw (h w aue-hn) XpSßn 1905 ImØp- n ANyp-X-ta-t\m P -Zn\w 1851 sk_m-ãy Ip p-ip p `mk-h-x Nc-a-Zn\w si. _me-ir-jvw- p-dp v P -Zn\w 1927 timgn-t m-s Nc-a-Zn\w 2007 C. _mem-\-μ Nc-a-Zn\w ssh w apl-ωzv _jo P -Zn\w 1910 P\-bpKw hmcni XpSßn 1949 ANyp-X- p-dp v kn. P -Zn\w 1911 Pn. Ac-hnμ P -Zn\w arwm-fn\n kmcm-`mbv Nc-a-Zn\w 2016 Un. {ioam \ºq-Xncn Nc-aZn\w Ip n- p- Xºp-cm Nc-a-Zn\w {]`mxv _p v lukv XpSßn 1952 tacntpm IqØm- p-ipfw P -Zn\w 1905 B.-Fw. a\-bv -emøv P -Zn\w Fw. tkmhn-μ Nc-a-Zn\w Pn. hnth-im-\-μ Nc-a-Zn\w t\xmpn Pb n ] fw tic-f-h Ω P -Zn\w ]n. ]fl-cm-p Nc-a-Zn\w IS-hq N{μ- ]n Nc-a-Zn\w `c-wn- mhv inh-ip-am Nc-a-Zn\w 2007 tum. kpip-am Ago-t msv Nc-a-Zn\w B. \mcm-b-w- -Wn- P -Zn\w 1889 txm -bv m v C m-hω P -Zn\w 1865 tum. ] ]p Nc-a-Zn\w hn.-si.-f. (h-st Iq me \mcm-b-w \m-b ) Nc-a-Zn\w dn -ªnIv Zn\w Un.-kn. Ing-t -apdn (sum-an-\niv Nmt m) Nc-a-Zn\w sim n {]Pm-a-fiew XpSßn 1941 ae-bmf at\m-ca Zn\- -{X-ambn 1928 iqc-\msv Ip ]n P -Zn\w 1911 timhpæn s\sp-ßmsn Nc-a-Zn\w B.-sI. e va-w Nc-a-Zn\w s{]m^. Imfn-bØv Zmtam-Z-c Nc-a-Zn\w Xnt m-sn-b (Ip- \ \mb ) Nc-a-Zn\w apxp-ipfw ]m Δ-Xn-b-Ω P -Zn\w 1904 kn. D-Æn-cmP Nc-a-Zn\w ]ptcm-k-a\ kmln-xy-kw-l-s\ cq]o-i-cn p (sjm Wq ) 1944 `c-xvtkm]n Nc-a-Zn\w 2008 Kucn et jv P -Zn\w c -km n Zn\w Km n-pn-bpss c -km- nxzw 1948 kn.-f-kv. tkm]m-e- -Wn- Nc-a-Zn\w ]pem- m v cho-{μ P -Zn\w 1932 hn.-sn. \μ-ip-am P -Zn\w 1925 ssi\n- c ]fl-\m-`-]n Nc-a-Zn\w F.-hn. cma-kzman Aø Nc-a-Zn\w ]n.-hn. Xºn Nc-a-Zn\w

31 kn.sp.bpss tej\߃ kn.sp.txmakv kamlcww : si.fw.npωm, tpmkv Icnº\ ss[jwnixbpw k KmflIXbpw CWßnt _u ni {]Xn`bpsS tej\kamlmcw hne : sxcs SpØ {]_ ߃ C Fw Fkv \ºpXncn msv [njwmimenbpw a\pjykvt\lnbpamb cm{ ob t\xmhns kmlnxy Nn Iƒ hne : tim n-iƒ v : ticf kmln-xy-a- m-zan, Xriq Unkw-_ 31